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AMH2097, Semester Notes

by: Jackie L

AMH2097, Semester Notes AMH2097

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These notes cover in class lectures from the semester
Nationality, Race, and Ethnicity in the United States
Dr. Robbins
amh2097, history, Dr. Robbins
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Date Created: 01/18/16
Southern Italians in America-2 ndWave Push/Pull  Why did they leave? o Unification Overpopulation, natural disasters, disease, taxes (tithe)  The people that believe they are the strongest and the best (Northern), the South get the bad end  The government cannot support its people –Northern Italy does not have this problem but Southern Italy does (about 18080 things are bad but for 1920 it will get worse)  Southern Italy is primarily a farming community… Mount Ves. Is going to erupt and when this happens it will spread ash all over Southern Italy which kills the crops and halts 3-4 growing cycles (no jobs)  Napels and Sicily will have floods that will affect merchant work  Major problems with disease (U.S. views this as a negative thing and wants to kick them out/not accept them)  Unification costs money, to create a brand new government it will cost a lot of money…Northern Italy has some surplus income, which is not the case for Southern Italy.  Tithe is a church tax that southern Italians are not a fan of…the Pope will demand a specific amount of money that they do not have nor do they even want to give to the church  Why did they come to the US? o Jobs-Industrial Revolution (a lot of unskilled workers)  Do they have money? o NO- as far as our groups are concerned we are now back to immigrants not being what we want  They get over here by borrowing money, pay for tickets, may not have enough food on board  The only thing about transportation that is good during the second wave is that its faster, cheaper, and less food needed Immigration  Return Migration o Ritornati- “sojourners”-“birds of passage”: people that go back and forth and back and forth- Southern Italian’s plan was not to do this but to come over to America make millions in 5 years and then return to their home land o When they go back to Southern Italy they will return to America o 1880-70% ritornati: making money in 5 years and then going back to Italy-they do not want to assimilate but the problem is that they do not make enough money in these 5 years so they have to make up their mind to return o BUT- 1920-10% of our Southern Italians return- they now just plan on coming and plan on staying o What has changed in America and Italy?  WWI- America has made Immigration act (1921), which affected our Ritornati because they cannot go back (they will have to actually stay in America)  A lot of devastation is happening in Italy so when these individuals come to America they realize its much better environment to live in o Do they plan on assimilating? - NO  Their Journey o Trans-Atlantic Crossing (10 days) o Ellis Island (NY)-every single boat docks here and then these immigrants have to be processed (IQ tests, measure the skulls, experiments, literacy tests o It is not an all or nothing come to America-every single person can be deported…the most important thing to Southern Italian is family o If these individuals already live in these ndrt towns, they don’t have to travel to the port towns (2 stage on the list is not the case for Southern Italians anymore)  Much cheaper journey for them because they only have to pay for passage to the US o Huge ocean liners-Titanic  Steerage class-on the bottom; cheap ticket for a reason o Change to Chain Migration  Once you get to 1920, individuals decide not to return home, these Southern Italians want to bring over their family (Chain Migration w/ the Irish was sending $ over to send more people over-which is completely different than Italian style)  Definitely family based Southern Italians in America  Numbers: 5 million (bad)  Location: continuation of Campanilismo o Ethnic Enclaves: “Little Italys”-NYC, Boston, Chicago, etc… when they do spread out they will form the same Ethnic Enclaves o “A City of Villages”-own dialect, food, Saint (they do not trust everyone-trust no one-…only trust people that you know)  WASPs are going to see one big Little Italy  But if you live inside of this there are streets you do not walk down because there are people (bad people) there o Also Piccola Palermo, New Orleans and California Work and Family:1880-1900  If you are a Ritornati and have no intentions of moving here you are not going to get training to speak English…just need someone to help you find a job  Padrone System-Padroni: group of men whose job it is to find jobs for Southern Italians and are Southern Italians themselves/ to fit in you are in fact going to have to learn English and basically going to be representatives to all Southern Italians that come in afterwards o Will meet you on the dock, will literally be singing because Italians speak different dialects and cant read  Sing local songs that individuals from one particular village will know o The Padroni wants a certain percentage of your salary o Most people are excellent guys but every now and then there will be some extortion going on  Mutual Aid Societies: they do not trust a lot of people so each group has around 5 individuals with hundreds of different clubs // more than likely have come over from Italy themselves  Tenements: divided by where you are from in Italy; own Saint and dialect; know everyone in your tenement o Bachelor society-similar living conditions like the Irish they are trying to live the most cheapest life they can so they can bring as many family members over o Factories are open 24/7 –working in shifts  Work: o Eventually factory work is not the main job Italians will do… o Municipal Works-digging canals, laying paving and gas lines, building bridges, tunneling New York subway system o 1890, nearly 90% of the laborers in New York’s Department of Public Work were Italian immigrants o Veggie Stands, Mines, Mills Work and Family:1900-1920  Change with Chain Migration? o What we start seeing happen is that Southern Italians start to realize they do not even want to go back to Italy and spend the money to do so to get their family. o How does money get to Southern Italy then?  We find that individuals do go back and those individuals are going to do the same thing like the Priests…hand the money to their friend and make sure that they give it to their families (trust makes it hard)….if you do not give this money to your friend’s family you are dishonoring yourself and your family/vendetta  Further and further along we will eventually have banking systems o End of Padroni: Padroni is not going to be happy about this process and you might have to quit your job that they got for you earlier on  Learn English and be able to find another job to support your family o Bachelor society society of families o Women and Children  Female children will start to come over because they have taken over all of the male children already  Change many things  Do not need Padroni  Mutual aid societies will still be around even though they will not be needed  Moms, kids, grandmas, and grandpas to take care of us now  Strongest most powerful man will lead the family-head of the family here in US  Vendettas will cross Atlantic as well (everything is basically Little Italy and stays exactly how it was)  Southern Italians keep women in their home and not allowed to work in factory  Women still need to make money sweat shops (working inside of your house)  If a man works at a factory, he might ask the manager if there is something his wife can do at home  The man is basically going to be your Padroni and outside world for you  Children are going to be put into factories, but girls will leave around the age of 12-13 years old until they get married  Boys never leave the factory Discrimination against Italians-Progressive Era -All based on the fact that they are violent, inferior, weird religion  Progressives  Schools-Americanization: Southern Italians are allowing their children into the schools so they pass a law that children have to go to school for assimilation (good thing- but Southern Italians see this as an attack)  Catholic Orphanages-Name Changing: Irish, Germans, other Catholics are going to have a problem with Southern Italians… they are going to raise these children as good Irish children by changing their names, making them speak a certain way, eating different food, and basically assimilating them into good, Irish babies  Hygiene, Food (Oatmeal): Southern Italian women do not want WASP women to come into their homes, but these people are going to tell them what to do and not to do in the household…teach these women that they should not be feeding these individuals pasta/bread for breakfast and have Oatmeal instead o Southern Italians fed oatmeal to pigs…when these progressive women came into their homes and told them to eat what pigs eat they couldn’t believe it o We are starting to see acculturation (because they are posing)…pretending to do what the progressives want to see but doing the opposite after they leave The United States Second Wave Immigrated into: America from 1880- 1920 The “Progressives” -Progressive Era (1900-1920) 1. “Scientific” Racism  Example. Craniology (check bumps on peoples skull)  if you wanted to be a doctor and you didn’t have the right skull for that people would say that you do not have the right mental capacity  The Germ Theory: Venereal Diseases (STDs) and “Splurge) -Believe that something that smells is because of the immigrants  IQ Tests: see if he could in fact map out intelligence -Give these IQ tests to people in English and have a scale of “steps in mental development” -Idiot, Low Grade Imbecile, Medium Imbecile, High grade Imbecile, Moron -Requirement to come to America and to get a job (forcing people with science to get low level jobs and not be able to work there way up)  Eugenics: idea is Intelligence is hereditary -Example: holocaust/Hitler and his idea of the perfect race -“Solutions” to the immigration problem -Positive Eugenics: nice white people should reproduce and have a lot of white children so that they can always outnumber the other people (Reproduction) -Negative Eugenics: Stop the inferior people from actually having people and stop them from being able to reproduce (Sterilization against their will)  Buck vs. Bell: Oliver Wendell Holmes-“Three generations of Imbeciles is enough” -Supreme court says its completely legal and they are allowed to do this -The idea that intelligence is hereditary and that after so many times of you continuously reproducing with inferior races we are going to have to stop it in any way we can 2. Nativists to Know Nothing Party to Immigration Laws= political party that is against immigration Scientific Racism in Action: Ellis Island and Immigration Restriction  Before this time immigrants were able to just come in but now we need to study who is coming in, how many are coming in, if they are imbeciles or not  If people are sick, handicapped, imbeciles we have the right to not even let them come into the United States Putting Scientific Racism into Action: Ellis Island  Anyone that wants to come into this Country must come through a station  Operated from 1892-1954/largest processing center  Processed over 12 million immigrants 1. Count how many people are coming in 2. Categorize where they are from 3. Eventually we will form immigration laws because it was almost like a scientific project to make the best immigration laws that America could make Scientific Racism in Action: Immigration Restriction  Immigration Act of 1903 -Targets anarchists -Groups that come in the second wave have a lot of overlapping similarities with stereotypes -No one was upset about this first Act -The government is taking baby steps towards laws  Immigration Act of 1917 -Literacy tests: every immigrant that comes into the United States has to take this literacy test (English=problem cause immigrants don’t all speak English) -Banned men and women from entering who were the 3 D’s -Dependents, delinquents, and Defectives (undesirables) Scientific Racism also seen in: -Literacy tests as part of the Jim Crow South (1890s-1910s) -Chithse Exclusion Act of 1882 -18 Amendment: 1919, Prohibition added to the U.S. Constitution The Quota Acts  Come up with our first large scale immigration act  If she asks about this she is talking about the 1921 and 1924 acts 1. Immigration Act of 1921: -Established a quota for how many individuals of a particular immigrant group could enter the country annually -Quota=3% of group’s population in the US as of the 1910 census -Based on where you are from -Total number=357,000 (that is allowed to come in a year) -Mathematical formula to be vague and allow us to be restrictive if we want to and now look likes assholes -If one more person comes we have the right to send them back to their country so ever immigrant has to have a round trip ticket because we need to be able to get you back out 2. Immigration Act of 1924 -The first thing to change is total numbers=164,000 -Established a harsher annual quota -New Quota=2% of group’s population in the U.S. as of the 1890 Census (removes the second wave completely) -Barred Asian immigrants (targeting immigrants from Japan and India in particular) EXCEPTION: Quotas did not apply to the immigrants from the western hemisphere Mexico, Caribbean, South America, and Canada (applies to both acts) How do groups move up in the Hierarchy? 1. Assimilation 2. voting blocks (power) 3. Children (citizens not immigrants) 4. Other “more undesirable” immigrants Chinese-Americans 1880-1920  Post Exclusion Act: Immigration -1906 Earthquake: subsequent fires with this earthquake and city hall with burn to the group -City hall holds the records of who is born in America -Chinese think to themselves and come up with a plan: Clans start sending over young men to the United States (18 yrs old) and these young man are going to get to the immigration island and they are going to say that they are citizens and show your birth certificate -Paper Sons: claim to be the children of the all male population in the Unites States (thousands of individuals do this) -Women start to do this too  Angel Island, 1910-1940 Chinese Life  Work-now unionized  Family-might start to acculturate  Migration-San Fran, now we are going to have the railroads and move them east  Magnuson Act (Chinese Exclusion Repeal Act of 1943) -105 immigrants -Chinese are not as bad as other people coming in -Going to end the naturalization act saying how they cannot be citizens of the United States German-Americans 1880-1920 Con’t 20 thCentury: WWI-End of the Model?  World War I o Unlike WWII, we just got into WWI- we were not attacked, nothing dramatic o At first we claimed that we are going to be a neutral/isolationist country  Both England and Germans say that they wanted us on their side-we completely stayed out of the war though (but we were selling goods to both sides materials, weapons, etc.)  Stalemate war: neither side can win/equally matched- people are dying by the thousands so England (allied powers) and Germany use what they know about the U.S. to try to get them on their side  Propaganda- yellow journalism: lies, manipulations of the truth in real newspapers (New York Times)  sways U.S. opinion to England’s side o England and Germany send out all these political cartoons o “The Hun”-brutish like ape and violence (England shows the Germans like this) o Germany didn’t know how to tap into the U.S.’s biggest fears o U.S. Starts to look around at an area known as the German Triangle  US Reaction: o “Pumped up Patriotism” (Nativists): let’s so something about immigration and WWI is one of the major reasons we pass these quota acts because they are trying to prove that people we consider the “best” are doing something completely wrong o Violence against German-Americans: burn down newspaper facilities, burn books in streets, draw in quarter German teachers, lynch individuals who we think are doing bad things (publisher of German newspapers, etc.) o Prohibition o Why would this hurt German-Americans? Hurts them because they are the ones that craft it  German-American Response: o Hyper-Assimilation: assimilating quickly/doing what usually takes a very long time and changing within a day (PC example: German American before WWI-same individual after WWI and was quickly Americanized) o German-Americans will tart to speak English, read Newspapers in English, Parochial schools through English, they will cut ties with Germans, change their names (Smith/John is most common), will see names of beer change (BudweiserBud) o President Woodrow Wilson-“Any man who carries a hyphen about with him carries a dagger that he is ready to plunge into the vitals of this Republic whenever he gets ready” (reinforcing violence) o During the Second Wave, Germans are going to have a lot of problems and the most hated group in the United States (star at the top of hierarchy and fall) Second Wave Immigration from Mexico  Mexican immigration starts during second wave, but there were already Mexicans in America that did not emigrate (they were already here from the start) Mexicans in “America”  Spain colonizes Mexico in 1521  1821-Mesxico received Independence from Spain  Mexico territory included up until Washington and Texas was a debatable region Mexican-Americans (?)  1830s-American Expansion (Slavery is in full scale and cotton is the best crop)  The US citizens start to move further west  1845-United States annexation of Texas-Mexicans are going to get very angry about this and it causes a war  Mexican American War (1845-1848) United States wins this war  Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, 1848-take everything north of the Rio Grand River/ gives them Texas as well o Mexicans live in this region became American when US claimed their area o Incorporation-you live in the united states of America o Citizenship-you are all known citizens of the United States (many stayed because their families have been here for centuries) o This is the only time America gives citizenship so freely-easiest thing to incorporate these people in America Mexicans’ Opinion on American Incorporation  “We did not cross the line, the line crossed us” Mexican- Americans are a complex group because some of them can trace their ancestors to America before it was colonized and annexed in 1845 How are they treated?  1848-smack in the middle of the First Wave  Mexicans have the idea that we are going to like them because we took them and gave them citizenship (successful, own land, etc.) 1. Land: Extra-legal organizations (people in US take land from Mexicans, when they go to the court of law that is located in America these individuals will obviously back the Americans  Some Mexicans refuse to leave their land and these people have extra legal organizations make these Mexicans miserable 2. Labor: Miners, Railroads, Migrant Farm Works (Mexicans will be one of the harshest groups in the mid-west in regards to Chinese because they will always take the job for less money)  Before Mexican American WarMexicans 1/3 were farm owners and 1/3 were skilled…by 1900 2/3 unskilled (flipped completely) (Actual) Immigration from Mexico-Second Wave What made them leave-main push factor?  Mexican Revolution (1910-1930): Porfirio Diaz o Different Opinions-people either like him (upper class) hate him (lower class) o Upper Class: goes to the US and asks corporations if they want to open a factory in Mexico for cheap labor push for Industrialization and foreign development o They like this because they tend to partner up with the foreign influence o Lower class loves industrialization but they are ones that end up not getting paid due to their low wages o Peons-Mexican works “person who works for practically nothing and against their will”  PC example- ball and chain attached to the worker who is doing the same work that a cow/horse would do…pulling the upper class o Rurales-Extra Legal Organization: Diaz stars to send his rurales that are basically a secret police that will work outside of the law to basically make sure that Mexicans do not complain about this work, do what they are supposed to do, and that they are pushed down o 90% illiteracy: Diaz will cut a lot of rights for Mexican workers, which was education…Peons are not allowed to go to school and many become illiterate (can’t sign their name on their documentation to come into the United States) o Lower Class will emigrate the Upper class will stay o Numbers: 1.5 million that will come in this second wave alone o Location: SW states (Cali, Arizona, NM, Texas, etc.)  Why do they go to those states? o Mexicans are already there, climate is similar, and it is closer (walking) What made them come to the United States-Pull Factors?  Lower class Mexicans do not have the money to go further it was close  It is also a country that is open to these immigrations why? o Chinese Exclusion Act: less Chinese coming in that usually take the cheap labor so Mexicans can take these jobs o Exemptions from Quota Acts (immigration acts of 1921&1924): the quota acts do not deal with people that are neighbors so, we are going to have an exemption and these individuals are able to come in when no one else is able to come in…we need people to work for cheap so we still need to allow certain individuals into America Stereotypes  Political cartoons will be from the past and current  Second wave will bring new types of ways that stereotypes will be created with WASPs 1. Inferior Race  “Mexican Race”: un-assimilate-able because their physical characteristics  Scientific Racism (unintelligent because they are all illiterate and IQ tests in English that will all end up being imbeciles  Southeast-blacks=Southwest-Mexicans: they will be associated with African Americans…enslavement is still going on  “Brown Scare”-Characterized as Brown-skin pigment=not white, filthy, greasy (Taking over America…still absolutely exists today) *Why do WASPs fear born individuals coming into America losing power because of numbers by immigration and children 2. Violent  We have a very long evolution of violence for Mexicans due to the history  Waking up in America-these people fought back  When Americans were trying to annex Texas-these people fought back and started a war against us  We also have the idea that they are violent from the beginning because they do things different than us (total war: everyone is fighting)  Crime oriented (Gangs: usually people who join together for self preservations/fraternity and maybe because their poverty)…less than 15 of population  1920…many Mexicans did not want to assimilate so we start to have Mexican and Mexican-Americans develop a type of dress that was very different than Americans known as the Pachuco (African Americans and Mexican/Mexican-Americans) o Young individuals who hag out at street corners with their friends…the problem s fear a large group of people (loitering) which then will be arrested if there is any crime happening around them even though they were not involved in any of it o Street gangs o Drug cartel United States Involvement with Cuba: Pre-1960  Fidel Castro was running a nationalistic movement (focus is on the country “Cuba for Cubans”  They want to take back Cuba for themselves and once Fidel Castro takes over Cuba he will then start a new program o Socialism/Communism Revolution (1959-1960) o Reason why our first group of Cubans leave (out of the four) o They are chronological movements and start out upper end of society and end at the bottom lower class o Start out white skin and tan as we go along o We tend to accept Cubans in the beginning and not so much at the end  When Fidel Castro decides to turn Cuba into a Communist country (take out the upper class and rise up the lower class) o The upper class is against this o Economic backing will be put on the lower class o Taking away property from the rich and dividing it between the lower class First Migration 1959-1962  Money: Golden Exiles (waiting for Fidel Castro to die) o Group of people are considered to have a lot of money and are 100% white  Numbers: 200,000 come over and when they are all considered to be upper class we like that  Location: Miami, Florida and Union City, New Jersey (ethnic enclaves are built)  Cuban American Adjustment Act (thank them for “being so awesome”) o Going to give permanent residence to Cubans (person who is allowed to come here, stay here, and work here/they are not yet a citizen but on the track to become one) o Refugee status to Cubans (person who is not counted in immigration law whatsoever, they are exempt-whatever law we have and at this time 1959 we are still under the Quota Act of 1924…as far as the 1924 act it is basically saying that 2% can come in)  Escaping communism  Anyone that was trying to escape a communist regime are people that we like and agree with  Cuban Refugee Program o If you are a golden exile we are going to federally loan you money to start out your life here. These loans are backed by the United States so local banks and state banks are guaranteed the money back by the government o $1.2 billion o When you have a group of upper class that come in we know that they are going to be able to pay this back… education is something that they did not leave behind before they escaped their country and United States knew this Back to Cuba: 1962-1965  Problems with the US and Middle Class…  The middle class are not as rich and educated, but they are starting to see that Fidel Castro’s policies are not fit for them Second Migration: 1965-1974  Money: Middle Class, white  They have to leave without liquidating their assets, but same situation having to leave everything behind get on airplane and come to U.S.  “Freedom Flights”…nicknamed “Freedom Fliers”  Coastguard is involved and going to pick up these individuals  Numbers: 500,000 (middle class tends to be larger than upper class)  Location: Miami, Florida (why? -it is so close and that is where the boats and planes are going)  They get the same refugee and American Adjustment Act but they do not get loans o The Golden Exiles do not ask for help because the Middle Class is going to be helped by them by hiring these individuals and have something the hatred for Fidel Castro in common…United States feels we do not need to help them Back to Cuba: 1968-1980  Fidel Castro causes himself and individuals still in Cuba notice  He becomes a dictator and scared of losing his power and starts to be a little tyrannical o People will be placed in prison if their beliefs are different than Castro o Education/agricultural programs are still going on but problems still going on  By 1980 there is a group of Cubans that want to leave but Fidel Castro is not allowing them to leave and shuts Cuba down and demands them to stay because they are Cuban o April 1980: Peruvian Embassy (sovereign ground within another country) o Individuals starve to death because Fidel shuts down food and water supply  Mariel Boatlifts-all get in boats down to Miami and start to pick these people up Third Migration: April 1980  Marielitos- look like refuges  Money?  Criminals?  Fidel Castro goes on these news stations and announces to press that he will like to thank United States for empting out prisons and the people that just got to United States are murderers, rapists, and criminals (lying) o We believe Castro because they are darker skinned o He did release some prisoners so he is not completely lying but the people in prison are political prisoners are friendly with United States  Scarface is about Marielitos and seems that they are criminals reinforcing the announcement Castro made o Ruin reputation of Cubans o Other immigrants have been waiting for this because they hate Cubans  Numbers: 125,000  Location: Miami  Refugee and permanent residency status  No loans  Many will experience different situation than first two migrations o Most are put into refugee camps that are throughout Miami/ Stayed until they proved they had a job in Miami  The first two migration groups will give them jobs by offering them an agreement that they will give them a job basically a sponsorship  The Golden Exiles and Freedom Fliers want to give them the Cuban-American status and think this is a good thing to do Back to Cuba: 1980-1990 Fall of USSR  Fidel Castro fears that United States will take over Cuba  Fidel is the only Communist country within the hemisphere o He starts to push for policies that are very rotten for certain individuals Fourth Migration  Money  Cuban Balseros-30,000  Basically packing up a little boat/raft with water and food and hoping for the best that is how much they want to leave Fidel and his policies in Cuba  In between 1990-today it has been 30,000 individuals  The Haitians are black and float into the same place go to the same refugee place and now it looks like there are a lot of dark skinned poor Cubans  “Freedom Seekers”  Fidel Castro hates that they are coming over and the United States is welcoming them so freely  1994-US Cuban Immigration Agreement o Fidel Castro and Clinton o 1. Grant 20,000 visas to individuals (apply in your own country) o 2. End Refugee Status (for both Haitians and Cubans) o 3. Non-Welcoming policy w/ Cubans (why?- what other immigrant groups are saying in the United States and they think we have had enough with Cubans) o Wet Feet/Dry Feet Policy  Informal policy that if a Balsero makes it to dry land in America (keys, Miami, etc.) we will allow them to be a refugee and they will come into the United States come into a camp where a sponsored will have them start working  If they are caught in the ocean by coast guard cruisers we send them back to Cuba Cuban-Americans  Ethnic Enclave: Little Havana/ Calle Ocho o Hialeah, Coral Terrace, Miami Lakes, Kendall, etc.…  Associate with German Triangle  Voting Blocks-Republican (why?- primarily for two reasons 1. Party of patriotism 2. Tend to be economically well off)  Happy to be in United State and want to become citizens  Culture: o Religion-catholic (changed in United States today, most are Protestant) o Education-huge scholarship funds  Economics- highest on the educational hierarchy, economic hierarchy, and incredibly high because skin tone is lighter  Today, Cuban-Americans are highly loved in United States and model immigrants/minorities Current Immigration Immigration and Naturalization Process  U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services o Agency divided into two different programs Dep. State/Homeland Security that is in charge of how a non- citizen legally enter the US.  Visa is how you can get into this country by boat, plane, etc. o Two distinct paths  1. Permanent (immigrant):  Lawful permanent resident  One received this visa card “green card”  Eligible to work, may later apply for US citizenship  2. Temporary (non-immigrant):  Far more common/rigorous  Giving you the ability to come in part time/short amount of time  Tourists, temporary agricultural workers, students, diplomats, business  They are not eligible to get citizenship  May not work or work only for a particular place  Required to leave the country when their visas expire  #1 way we have undocumented people is from people staying past expired visa  Examples of Visas o K-1: permanent/immigrant visa “fiancé”; pay for the money if you don’t get the visa you do not get your money back o F-1: most common student visa; non-immigrant/ temporary visa; finish degree come over and work within certain constraints  You are not allowed into the country if… o Convicted of felony o History of drug abuse o Infectious disease o Become a public charge **These characteristics are also grounds for deportation once you have come in** -Immigration and Nationality Act of 1990 Southern Italians Fighting Back-Acculturation  Non-Institutional Catholic Church o Basement Worship-forced here, but as we see generations grow up we will see one catholic church  Movement West and South o Transportation cheaper/quicker (b/c in Second wave) o We are going to have Little Italy’s all over the United States o What are they not supposed to set up?-Enclaves o It is interesting unlike our 1 wave we have people moving south as well spreading out  From Scabs to Organization o Labor unions: collectively make sure that the bosses give them rights and to do that they strike  The first goal was to send money to family at home  Second wave is already after we have other groups in labor unions  If an employer hires all of these people the factory still works and all those who were striking are out of a job  Southern Italians are making their own labor unions as well  Most southern Italians work municipal jobs working for the city  What we are basically showing is that Southern Italians are following what the other groups we have spoken about  Least likely to become citizens o Even though they are here permanently and plan on staying, Southern Italians do not like other people which actuates to them not becoming a citizen because they do not want to become like WASPs o One good thing about becoming a citizen is that they can vote and then create voting blocks o Why can’t southern Italians do that?--> they trust no one including themselves so there is no need to become a citizen because they are never going to form voting blocks and don’t really like each other o What culture you bring over to the US is really how you are going to fit into the US Italian-Americans: Moving up the Hierarchy, finally…  How do you normally see immigrant groups fitting in? o Children born here in the United States, which makes them citizens o They do not have the problems in Southern Italy  Blue Collar Work o A lot of our Southern Italians did not attend school o They need to work themselves up the hierarchy o Skilled, still not highly educated o Plumbers, electricians, etc.…. o Police, firemen, waste management, etc.… o These skills are taught by the family (your father, uncle, cousin)  Why does that fit in with the ideology of The Family  This is someone in fact that you can trust o Paid far higher than factory work o At the time none of these traits needed to have an education, today you have to actually be educated to go into these occupations o What you will start to see is an entire company of firemen or squad of police that are somehow related to one another  If your dad was a cop, you become a cop…. etc.  Southern Italian first generation guys try to assimilate/acculturate a little bit but doing so in their own terms o Do the same thing as the germs, Chinese, Irish, but on their own terms Enemies of the State: World Ward II  Between the second and third wave  There are a huge deal of things that happen between 1920-1965 o Germans: during WWI we do not like them we turn them into violent Huns-inferior race  German-Americans, Italian-American, and Japanese-Americans 20 thCentury-WWII: Germany  Hitler, Nazi Germany o Rise up and be a very popular leader for these Germans and promising a “new Germany” that will take over the world o He is what people focus on as far as this war concerned- celebrity o Who is the leader during WWI?  Kiser Wilhelm  The Germans are not to blame but Hitler is to blame o During WWII, the same thing that happened during WWI should have happened o WWI: targeting everyone with German descent, including German-Americans o WWII: Targeting recently- arrived German immigrants  Convinced that there are secret spies that are being placed in the US for years  The Alien Registration Act of 1940: we make everyone from another country register from the US and keep tabs on them (jobs, communicating with, and walk around with an Alien Enemy Registration Card) o 300,000 German immigrants  Internment-11,000 are all from Germany and just recently came from Germany o Jailed for the duration of the War o Internment camps=jails German Americans Today  58 million today (17%)  Assimilation or Acculturation? o Most of them did in fat hyper-assimilate so that their children will be almost 100% American o Some exceptions to a group that still does speak German st nd as their 1 or 2 language: Pennsylvania, German Triangle, and in other Ethnic Enclaves  Ethnic Enclaves: kept most of the culture o Will be key** Japanese Immigration  In WWII we are fighting against three different groups: Germans, Japanese, and Italians  As far as Japanese Immigration, interestingly enough it is going to mirror Chinese by a lot but they happen to come in during the Second wave instead of the First wave  Between 1886 and 1911, more then 400,000 come over (which is not a lot compared to other groups but staying in same place will make it worse)  Men and women: emigrate in family groups  Mostly to California and Hawaii (not a state when they emigrate over here) o Closest to Japan-Hawaii  Chinese Exclusion Act  Same work and problems/stereotypes as Chinese  Immigration Act of 1921 and 1924 this is going to limit the Japanese immigration significantly o This limits all immigrants and is based on how many people were here already o After 1924 very few immigrants will come in  Issei vs. Nisei o Issei: actually immigrated themselves from Japan  Very set in their ways do not want to assimilate o Nisei: children born here in the United States and are considered to be Japanese-Americans  Unlike all other groups the Nisei want to assimilate and want to fit in and understand what happens to people that do not assimilate Chinese show them what happens (The Chinese Exclusion Act)  What is the problem? They are going to be seen as un-assimilate-able when we look at them we see physical characteristics that prohibit them from assimilating  These individuals are completely different from one another Japanese-Americans During WWII  United States went into the war to fight against Japan not against Hitler  Why are we fighting primarily Japan? -Pearl Harbor o Anti-Japanese feelings in United States  December, 19 we were hit at Pearl harbor so the Executive Order 9066 was passed o President Franklin D. Roosevelt o Deportation and incarceration of Japanese community in United States o The incarceration will be 120,000 Japanese and Japanese- Americans  62% American Citizens  Big deal because they are Americans and the Nisei are trying to assimilate  Keeping them here in a jailed environment so they can’t do us wrong and be spies  What happens to the property they own? WASPs will take over homes, businesses, personal possessions (billions of $ worth of things) o WASPs believe that the Japanese are enemies and what they are doing to them is okay  Koremastu v. United States (December 19, 1944) o He should not have his property taken and he should not be interned o What we will decide is that it is perfectly fine that everything was taken and individuals are interned o We are allowed to do this because its war  Civil Liberties Act of 1988-Ronald Reagan o @20,000 for each surviving detainee, totaling $1.2 billion o Japanese are asking United States to pay back for what they did o In 1992, we up the money and try to get it to the Americans o Japanese in American today still don’t feel compensated for what happened to them in United States at the time World War II: Italians and Italian Americans  1940 Alien Registration Act-695, 000  1.5 million enlisted  Why are there more here? o Italians have come more recently o The Alien Registration Act you have to be born in another country  Southern Italians are going to try to hyper-assimilate just like what the Germans did o They want to try to show that they do not have a huge love for Italy o WWII Italians and Italian-Americans are going to try to fit in a little more o So they enlist in the war by showing their patriotism  Fighting against the Italians/spies/know the culture (huge benefit to Americans)  Southern Italians are going to try to fit in more by sending their kids to school, moving out of Ethnic Enclaves, etc. o The most we will see it in culture o WE START TO ACCEPT THEM MORE Change in Image-1940s and 1950s  Joe DiMaggio o 1941-56 game streak he was a part of o Parents were incarcerated during WWII during the Enemy Act  We are going to love this guy and start to think as far as Sports that they are incredibly gifted  Music o Frank Sinatra, Tony Bennett, Perry Como  Singers of love songs  Women love them  New Stereotype of Italians-Lovers that still happens today  Rosie the Riveter o Women: Symbol going to work during WWII while all the men are off fighting in the Pacific and in Europe o To represent it is a real individuals that will be cartooned working in the factories-southern Italian lady  Chef Boyardee o Puts Italian styled meals packaged so people all over the country can eat o Change things inside of your home o (Progressives went into peoples home and told them what to eat and what to not eat but Chef Boyardee are going into peoples homes and people are eating it huge turn around) Italian American Today  16 million Americans (6%)  Ethnic Enclaves o Little Italy’s in all major cities o Difference between those who live in Ethnic Enclaves to those who do not… o Back to Italy?  Interesting that when they did in fact go back to Italy they found that Italy was not the way they thought it was  Italy to them is Little Italy o Stereotypes?  Media-still to this very day is still focused on Italian- Americans and have not gotten out of the popular culture The Third Wave: 1965 to Present  First Wave it was nativist  Second Wave the world came on from Progressives and Scientific Racism  With our Third Wave: largest wave in the United States o Allowing in almost 1 million individuals a year End of the Quotas…  Lyndon Baines Johnson overhauled Immigration in 1965 o This is not shocking because in 1965 we are in the midst of a civil rights movement that have historically not have rights  Women, homosexuals, AA  Of the groups that is disenfranchises are immigrants so the president pushes some major legislation will push … o The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965  Gets rid of the Quota Acts  Putting everyone on equal footing  Key policy that is still a main immigration policy: Family reunificationif there is a father or mother here in US and their kids are somewhere else we want to unite this Family o Have a limit of 290,000 individuals a year-first come first serve basis  No more than 20,000 per country  You apply ahead of time, this is not Ellis Island and are processed…you apply stay in your country until we tell that you are allowed to come (VISA which is created under this act)  Problem is that there have to be limits from every country  As soon as we reach our final number that is it  But it is promising that 20,000 are all that can come in (large numbers are not allowed)  What is the problem with 20,000 per country? o Population is different in all countries o Who was exempt of Quota Act? Our neighbors Caribbean, Mexican, Central American…in 1965 how many of them can come in?  20,000 of them o Question of Undocumented  It is not just going to be people from Mexico  It will be from all of the Neighbors and individuals that believe that 20,000 is just not enough for their country


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