Comm 3020 Semester Notes
Comm 3020 Semester Notes Comm 3020
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verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Communication
This 17 page Bundle was uploaded by Jordan Kelly on Monday January 18, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Comm 3020 at Southern Utah University taught by Kevin Stein in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Communication Research in Communication at Southern Utah University.
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Date Created: 01/18/16
01/05/2015 ▯ Myths about research Research is boring You need a lab coat and protective eyewear All the important knowledge questions have already been asked and answered. Communication research is less important than other disciplines Nobody outside of academia cares about what we do ▯ *(made $14 in 8 years on royalties) ▯ ▯ Truths about research Research can be challenging Research is a skill used in all fields Writing is an important part of the research process All research methods are useful depending on the research question you’re asking Collaborating creates a sort of synergy (The increased effectiveness that results when two or more people or businesses work together.) ▯ ▯ Communication focuses on messages ▯ ▯ Argument for why our field is needed. ▯ I’m a specialist in constructing and analyzing messages effectively. ▯ ▯ What makes it difficult ▯ Communications is hard because there are too many focus areas ▯ Too many different types of methods ▯ ▯ APA ▯ The author information comes before the passage Stein (2008) argues that “……………” (p.12) o Paraphrase (no quotes)= no page number ▯ The author information comes after the passage Some authors suggest that “…………..” (Stein, 2008, p. 12) o Paraphrase (no quotes)= no page number Research Questions and Hypotheses ▯ Purpose of Research Questions Limit the focus of your study Determine what method to be used o Survey, focus group, interviews, observation, etc. Topic Narrower Focus Research Question ▯ ▯ Hypotheses – gives a declarative answer to a potential research question or problem Working – provides several tentative explanations for what a relationship might be between variables Null – when we assume there is no relationship between the variables Hypotheses don’t PROVE theories. They often just provide one more case in which a relationship exists. ▯ ▯ When do we use hypotheses vs research questions? ▯ ▯ Requirements of a hypothesis Must state a relationship between variables Must be consistent with what is known in the literature Must be testable Must be grammatically clear ▯ ▯ Non-directional hypothesis- we predict a relationship between variables, but we don’t know which variable is influencing the other (independent vs dependent variables) ▯ ▯ Connection between Theory and Research Inductive vs. deductive theory o Inductive- go from specific concept to general concept. o Deductive- go from general concept to specific concept. Theory- statements about the relationships among abstract concepts or variables (not the layperson’s definition of theory). Examples of communication theories o Cultivation Theory – watching too much violent tv has an effect. o Social Exchange Theory – relationships between cost benefit analysis and our own relationships o Dialectical Theory – Leslie Baxter, in every relationship there are contradictions/tension: the desire for change vs desire for stability. Openness vs closeness. Purposes of Theory: o Description: describe the concepts o Explanation: explains how and why something works o Prediction: (these two tie together ‘prediction & control’ if we know why something happens we can control it) o Control: ▯ ▯ Rhetoric: faculty of observing in any given case the available means of persuasion. Harts characteristics (6) o Purposes: Critic remains part of the rhetorical event, but also keeps objective distance. Criticism trades scope for the power of insights. We look for larger story in smaller example rather than trying to generalize. (Breadth vs. Depth) Criticism forces us outside of ourselves and allows us to examine other kinds of contexts. Sonja Foss’s Characteristics (3) o Humans are the primary symbol using beings. o Symbols are the primary medium for disseminating rhetoric. o The purpose of the rhetoric is to communicate. Stein says Foss is wrong on a few things o She argues that rhetorical criticism does not contribute to theory o Stein argues that rhetorical criticism Expands theory to new contexts Builds new theory with the use of grounded theory ▯ Why we should become good at analyzing messages Prevents you from being a victim of misunderstanding Understanding what is expected in different situations We can’t judge things effectively unless we learn to analyze messages in a systematic fashion. ▯ ▯ ▯ Exam question: is all communication designed to persuade? No. all rhetoric is communication but not all communication is rhetorical. ▯ ▯ A qualitative research method that is designed for the systematic investigation and explanation of symbolic acts as artifacts for the purpose of understanding rhetorical processes. ▯ ▯ Generic Criticism Genre, what is it? o Form, type, or kind o A distinct, distinguishable category of speech or literature. Edwin Black’s Generic Criticism o There is a limited number of situations in which a rhetor can find himself o There is a limited number of ways in which a rhetor can and will respond rhetorically to any given situational type o The recurrence of a given situational type through history will provide a critic with information on rhetorical responses available in that situation Lloyd Bitzer’s o Rhetorical discourse comes into existence as a response to a situation, in the same sense that an answer comes into existence in response to a question Rhetorical “exigencies” (the situation constrains the rhetorical response). “Organizing Principle” o The critic inspects commonalities within the discourse regarding two key components of communication: the message itself and the situation that engendered the message o The critic then investigates how these components coalesce around some overall function (or goal). What is the difference between content and form? o Content consists of arguments, themes, strategies o Form refers to structure (What is said v.s. how it’s said) Why do we do generic criticism? o It utilizes a human inclination to classify things o All criticism is generic in some way o It isolates and interprets exceptions in generic practice o It provides a history of communication “rules.” o It serves as an index to social and cultural reality. ▯ ▯ Why study public apology? Apologia- strategies for persuasive defense o Mortification- I’m sorry I caused this – take responsibility o Bolstering- trying to praise themselves in areas not related to the offense – I’m a good person, I have a good profession etc. o Corrective action- try to fix the damage that you caused Compensation- giving money to fix it o Denial- claiming that you never did it o Attacking the accuser- saying that the people accusing you have gone too far o Defeasibility- putting the blame on some external cause – “I got caught up in the excitement” “my alarm clock didn’t go off” o Shifting Blame- putting the blame on some external cause (another person) o Accident- we didn’t mean for this to happen o Provocation- feel as though you were pushed into it o Good intentions- I meant to do well o Differentiation- taking our defense and move it to a different context to make it better – I didn’t steal your car, I borrowed it o Transcendence- person places the harmful act in a more positive context o Minimization- person argues the act isn’t as bad as it might first appear ▯ ▯ 5 parts of research paper Intro/ rationale Literature Review Methods Analysis o Descriptive Discussion o Evaluative ▯ Introduction to Qualitative Research ▯ ▯ Philosophical assumptions behind research Ontology- nature or reality (reality external v.s. socially constructed) o Ontological questions: What is existence? What does it mean to be human? What is the essence of things? What are we trying to become? o Free will v.s. determinism (agency v.s. behavior is pre- determined) Epistemology- how we come to know reality o Epistemological questions: What is knowledge? How is knowledge acquired? What do people actually “know?” Where does knowledge come from? o (Objective knowledge that can be discovered v.s. human subjectivity/intersubjectivity) Axiology- role of values in research (no values v.s. advocating a postion) o Philosophy of how much of our own personal beliefs we are bringing to the table that will affect the study Methodology- how one conceptualizes the research process (inductive or deductive and how they approach the research) Types of qualitative research: Participant observation You observe and they know you are a researcher. Interviewing Ethnography Study a culture first hand without them knowing you’re a researcher. Focus groups Grounded theory Build a theory from scratch Historical research Phenomenology ▯ Praxis- what does the research uncover (i.e. uncover, understand, predict, liberate, generalize) ▯ ▯ Differences between quantitative and qualitative Role of the qualitative researcher is often exploratory, whereas quantitative is used to generate hypotheses that can be tested. Distant relationship with participant v.s. close relationship with participant o Qualitative: asks questions researcher is an insider o Quantitative: will sit back and observe researcher is an outsider Quantitative research is used to confirm theory, whereas qualitative research deals with emergent/grounded theory. Quantitative research has a structured approach (control variables) and qualitative is unstructured (environment is dynamic) Quantitative research is nomothetic (general law-like findings) while qualitative researchers’ findings are situated in specific locales and time frames. Nature of data is hard and reliable in quantitative and rich and deep in qualitative. ▯ ▯ Terminology differences in quantitative and qualitative: Predictability vs understanding Generalizability vs transferability Validity vs verification o Qualitative verifies by rooting conclusions (use examples) in the text, member checking, and triangulation. Replication vs unique insight Bracketing (only used in qualitative) o Acknowledging that you have biases ▯ ▯ Discussion questions: May be on the midterm How do we determine what method is most appropriate? o Depends on the research question Why is qualitative research considered a “soft” science? o Because it isn’t objective Which is better, qualitative or quantitative? o Depends What role does the voice of the researcher play in quantitative and qualitative research? o Quant= disinterested / no voice o Qual= shared / equal voice o Rhet / critical= privileged or informed voice ▯ ▯ ▯ The Institutional Review Board (IRB) ▯ ▯ IRB is a committee established to review and approve research involving human subjects. The purpose of the IRB is to ensure that all human subject research be conducted in accordance with all federal, institutional, and ethical guidelines. Under the office for Human Research Protections Holocaust played a role in IRB Formation o Nazis experimented on 1,500 sets of imprisoned twins o Injected chemicals into their eyes to see if they could change the color o Would sew them together to create conjoined twins o Tested hypothermia by putting Jews in a tank of ice water for up to 3 hours ▯ Tuskegee Study Stanley Milgram’s Experiment o Examined how people reacted toward an authority figure giving questionable instructions o Teachers asked to give electric shocks to students for incorrect responses (15 volts to 450 volts) Stanford Prison Experiment o People take on roles of guards and prisoners (becomes more realistic) ▯ Dr. Roberts Bartholomew ▯ ▯ Ethical Questions Regarding Human Subjects Research What right does a researcher have to expose participants to a certain level of stress? Does the search for knowledge justify some “costs” to the participants? Who should decide which practices are ethical and which are not? ▯ ▯ Purpose of the IRB Protect the welfare of human subjects, particularly high risk groups Ensure consent/voluntary Protect privacy of participants Risk to participants is reasonable in relation to anticipated benefits ▯ ▯ Normal IRB Exemptions Educational settings-students who don’t plan to disseminate Subjects are elected officials-they have no rights to privacy Those not in a high risk group ▯ ▯ What are the high risk groups? Pregnant women, prison inmates, and children ▯ Ethnography, Participant Observation, and Fieldwork ▯ Ethnography- studying people in their natural environment o Participants do not know you are a researcher o Long period of time with participants o Non-intrusive methods o Substitutes for impracticality of survey research o Used as a tool for generating research questions when we don’t know much about a culture o Used as a tool for building theory o Unpredictable and unstructured When is it appropriate to use ethnography? o When you want a certain level of depth. ▯ ▯ Emic vs Etic Approach Emic stresses the participants’ understanding of their culture Etic stresses the observers’ understanding of the culture ▯ ▯ Levels of Involvement The level of involvement can impact the kind of data received and the objectivity o Be involved, but not too involved. Full Participant Subjective, sympathetic, involved, deceptive Participant as observer Objective, unsympathetic, detached, candid ▯ ▯ Hells Angels ▯ ▯ Dorothy Martin and the Seekers (crazy alien lady predicted end of world and formed a cult known as “The Seekers”) Leon Festinger did ethnography (when prophecy fails) Steps in conducting and Ethnography Select your research stance. What are your goals? Selecting a setting or a case Integrate yourself into the setting Start broad by taking notes on all potentially meaningful behaviors, then focus on behaviors that seem important Exercise caution in how you gather data and with what tools ▯ ▯ Limitations of Ethnography Time consuming and expensive Not objective, no measurement tools Researcher gets too close and develops biases Researchers are tempted to draw fascinating conclusions from sketchy evidence Requires a great deal of talent to pull it off (social skills, ethical awareness) ▯ ▯ ▯ When you get to close in an ethnography its called going native. ▯ ▯ ▯ Focus Group- groups of people selected by some method (usually want a range of people) that discuss some topic of concern to the researcher. ▯ ▯ Moderating a focus group Moderator o Facilitates the group. Can be researcher or someone recruited by the researcher. ▯ ▯ Where do we use focus groups? Marketing research Organizations Politics Film Music Public relations When do we use focus groups? When we need a preliminary tool for gathering data When the type of data we are calling for requires a bit more depth than a survey, but not quite as much as an in-depth interview (it’s tricky) ▯ ▯ How do we conduct a focus group? Gather a small group of people (5-15 people) always recruit more than you need. Might have to bribe them Have a rough set of questions (like an interview guide). Scout out a location ▯ ▯ How do we conduct a focus group? Find a way to record it (video or audio) or take VERY specific notes. Perhaps use a stimulus (ad, movie, or product) to get the conversation going. Analyze via thematic analysis, listing the most common themes and illustrating them with examples Develop a proposal for how the data might be used in a practical or applied sense. ▯ ▯ ▯ Nike vs Adidas soccer commercials ▯ ▯ Grounded Theory (also known as emergent theory)-the theory is grounded in the text and emerges from the text (theory built from text) Let the text dictate what we are going to find thematically ▯ When do we use grounded theory? If there is already a good theory in place that can be used, use that theory. If not, then make a grounded theory. ▯ ▯ Steps: Open Coding o Constant Comparison o Mark everything that might be a theme o Theoretical Saturation- we gather enough texts where we keep going until we don’t see any new themes emerge. Axial Coding o Mutually exclusive (no overlap) o Exhaustive (fairly representative of what you found in your text. Selective Coding ▯ ▯
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