New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Notes and Quizzes for Entire Semester

by: Kaley Hanson

Notes and Quizzes for Entire Semester MC 3360

Marketplace > Texas State University > Journalism and Mass Communications > MC 3360 > Notes and Quizzes for Entire Semester
Kaley Hanson
Texas State
GPA 3.92

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Here are all the notes and answers to the quizzes for the ENTIRE semester.
PR Research
Ngondo, pr research, research methods
75 ?




Popular in PR Research

Popular in Journalism and Mass Communications

This 27 page Bundle was uploaded by Kaley Hanson on Tuesday January 19, 2016. The Bundle belongs to MC 3360 at Texas State University taught by Ngondo in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 125 views. For similar materials see PR Research in Journalism and Mass Communications at Texas State University.

Similar to MC 3360 at Texas State

Popular in Journalism and Mass Communications


Reviews for Notes and Quizzes for Entire Semester


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 01/19/16
CH. 2: Elements of Research 4 basic elements: 1. Concepts and constructs  helps us organize information so we understand 2. Measurement 3. Variables: independent and dependent 4. Scales Concepts: Definition: A term that expresses an abstract idea…  Combines a particular concept, object, or people into more general categories Constructs: Def: Are concepts with 3 distinct characteristics  A combination of concepts  Connot be observed directly  Designed with a particular research purpose and relates only to this context o Ex: “advertising involving” Variables: Def: The empirical counterpart of a construct or concept  Variables are measured o Ex: age  Helps us explain things  Independent and dependent variables o Independent – cause o Dependent – effect o Dependent depends on the independent 1. Problem definition: Def: The primary objective of a problem definition stage is to develop the research question. -Hypothesis has a direction (increase or decrease) 2. Recognize the problem opportunity  Identify the opportunity/challenge/situation: o External environment o Integrated marketing effectiveness o New opportunities  Find out rom management why the information is being sought o Discuss:  What the information will be used for  What decisions might be made based on the findeings o Important:  Client must prioritize question(s)  Rephrase the question several times and in slightly different forms  Discuss the differences  Understand the decision-making environment: o Situation analysis: study the decision-making environment within which the market research will take place o Exploratory  Used to identify important variable(s) to be studied  Used as preliminary research, not definitive research  Takes several forms  Pilot study  Survey  Secondary analysis Hypothesis: Def: A relationship between two or more variables  The “null” hypothesis (hypothesis no differences)  To determine the statistical significance, the researcher must set a probability level, or a significant level, against which the null hypothesis is tested  The significant statistical test tells the researcher that an observed result is probably not the result if chance or error Descriptive studies:  Answer the questions – who, what, when, where, how Causal studies:  Examine where one variable causes or determines the value of another variable o Dependent variable: A symbol, or concept, expected t be explained or influenced by the independent variable o Independent variable: A symbol, or concept CH. 3 • When staying anonymous, cannot be linked backed to the person • When staying confidential, you can be linked back to the person • Autonomy: respect the rights, values, and decisions of other people • Nonmaleficence: it is wrong to intentionally inflict harm upon others • Beneficence: positive obligation to remove existing harms and to confer benefits on  others • Justice: people who are equal in relevant respects should be treated equally • Rights of participants: ­avoiding coercion ­assuring anonymity ­assuring confidentiality ­voluntary participation • Do not involve people in research without their knowledge or consent • Do not coerce people to participate • Do not withhold from the participants the true nature of the research • Do not actively lie to the participant about the nature of research • Do not lead the participant to commit acts that diminish his or her self­respect • Do not violate the right to self determination • Do not expose the participants to physical or mental stress • Do not invade the privacy of the participants • Do not withhold benefits from participants in control groups • Do not fail to treat research participants fairly an to show them considerations and  respect  • Voluntary Participation:  ­Is not a pressing ethical issue in mail and telephone surveys ­Why? Respondents are free to hang up the phone or to throw away the  questionnaire • The researcher should disclose the purpose of the research and foreseeable  consequences if they decide to decline or withdrawal  • Need to disclose your contact info and/or your sponsor's contact info • Informed consent should be in writing • Don't fabricate any observations (replace with averages, don't fill in my personal  opinions) • Passive analysis: when the researcher needs to analyze and quote online material ­Do not name the group ­Paraphrase long quotes Disguise some information, such as institutional or organizational names • Active analysis: gather online information through online surveys, focus groups, or  types of experiment ­Informed consent form ­The researcher should provide the following: ­How to contact the researcher ­How to obtain the informed consent ­Full disclosure of any risk to confidentiality ­A debriefing page ­How participants to obtain the result of the study • A. Informed consent • B. Debriefing CH. 4: Sampling • Census: everyone in a population is counted or asked questions • Sampling: obtaining a group of people rom a population in such a way as to be  representative of that population • COMMON ERROS FOUND IN SAMPLING: • Universe • Population: section of the universe you're interested in • Sampling frame: actual list of individuals or items • Sample • Coverage error • Sampling error: error related to selecting a sample from a population • Measurement error: non­sampling error ­ not measuring what you set out to  measure • Non probability samples:  • Not everyone in the population has an equal chance of being chosen • Sampling for a specific purpose ­ only those who fit certain criteria • Types • ­Convenience ("person on the street") • ­Purposive (specific) • ­Quota (making sure you don't exclude anyone, but not allowing for  everyone to be possibly in the sample) • ­Snowball • ­Volunteer (often paid or provided a special service)      Probability sampling: random samples • Everyone in the sample has an equal chance of being chosen and responding • Allows researcher to infer beyond the ample of the population by knowledge of • ­Population parameters (characteristics) • ­Estimating accuracy • ­Estimating error of measurement • Normal curve • ­Provides a way of establishing how much confidence we can place in  accuracy ad measurement  • ­Larger the sample, the more "normal" the normal curve is • ­All samples have their ow "normalcy" • ­Provides a "confidence level" for sampling and for response error • Sample size • ­Determines how much error we are willing to allow • ­Error is the maximum error that will be found in the sample, the abslute  error • Random sampling: for infinite population magic number is 384  • Online calculation ­ • Simple random selection: chosen people are put back and next draw taken • Systematic random selection: chosen people are removed and next draw taken • Choosing via some systematic characteristic • Uses a calculated Skip Interval ­ Population Size/Sample Size • Uses a randomly selected start number • Weighted random selection: chosen people represent a % of the population drawn at  random from that population   • Cluster sampling • Used when you need to get a scertain percentage of respondents from particular  categories • Similar to weighted sampling • ­You randomly select within clusters to get your total N • ­For instance: newspapers are weekly, daily, and weekday only. To get a  valid sample you would want to sample within each cluster. CH. 6: Content Analysis • How is content analysis applied? ­Describing Communication Content ­Testing Hypotheses of Message Characteristics ­Comparing Media Content to the "real world" ­Assessing the Image of a Particular Group in Society ­Establishing a Starting Point for the studies Media Effects • Content analysis: systematic, objective and quantitative analysis of the content of  communication ­Systematic ­­ consistent rules applicable ­Objective ­­ personal biases should be avoided ­Quantitative ­­ ensures accurate representation of phenomenon • Content analysis steps: 1. Formulate a research question or hypothesis 2. Define the population 3. Select a sample 4. Define the unit of analysis ­­ what you're analyzing (what you're looking at) 5. Construct the categories of interest 6. Train the coders 7. Assess reliability 8. Analyze the data • Code date ­Applying coding scheme and generate data ­Coding scheme/codebook ­­ provides rules for assigning to categories ­Individuals must be trained to use codebook ­­> Problems can result from: ­Poor definition of the categories ­Unclear instruction given to the coders •  Intercoder reliability ­Two or more coders • Intracoder reliability ­One coder • Reliability: getting the same results over and over again • Face validity: through literature review • Content validity • Construct validity CH. 7: Survey Research • A descriptive survey: ­Attempts to describe or document current condition or attitudes­to explain what  exists at that moment ­Descriptive: identify/describe attitudes or behaviors (in a given population) • An analytical survey: ­Attempts to describe and explain why situation exist­­two or more variables are  examined ­­>The results allow researchers to examine the interrelationships among  variables and to develop explanatory inferences. ­­>Does X relate to Y? • Professor evaluations • Public opinion surveys • Audience response analysis • Product/service satisfaction • Anytime you systematically ask people about their attitudes, emotions, beliefs,  knowledge, intentions, or behaviors.  • Mail surveys: ­Advantages: cost is cheap, length, no interviewer influence/bias, can have visual content, anonymity ­Disadvantages: must be self­explanatory­­can't clarify questions, low response  rate, long data collection window, look up answers, who answers questions?­­Not a  good method if you need quick responses ­Process: ­­>Select sample ­­>Create questionnaire ­­>Write cover letter ­­>Create the package ­­>Distribute the survey ­­>Monitor rates ­­>Follow­ups ­­>Analyze  ­Increasing response rates: ­­>Advance mailings ­­>Follow­up mailings ­­>Incentives ­­>Personal touches ­Real stamps  ­Real signatures • Telephone surveys: ­Advantages: quick data collection data, moderate cost, ability to clarify  questions, moderate response rate (once you get someone to answer) ­Disadvantages: moderate interviewer bias, short questionnaire, no visual  depictions, push polls, cell phones ­Process: ­­>Select a sample ­­>Construct the questionnaire ­­>Prepare interviewer instruction manual ­­>Train interviewer ­­>Collect data ­­>Make callbacks ­­>Verify results ­­>Analyze data • Online surveys: ­Advantages: cheapest, quickest, no geographical limitations, no interview bias,  moderate response rate, can have audio­visual content ­Disadvantages: hard to get a representative sample, must be self­explanatory,  length, look­up answers ­Process: ­­>Select a sample ­­>Construct the questionnaire ­­>Write cover letter ­­>Program survey ­­>Collect data ­­>Follow­up? ­­>Analyze data • Face­to­face surveys: ­Advantages: clarification possible, can have audio­visual content, highest  response rate, length, rapport with respondent ­Disadvantages: interviewer bias, expensive, longer collection window, answers  to sensitive questions Process: ­­>Select a sample ­­>Construct the questionnaire ­­>Prepare interviewer instruction manual ­­>Train interviewer ­­>Collect data ­­>Make callbacks ­­>Verify results ­­>Analyze data • Types of survey questions ­Open­ended ­­>Participants generate responses ­Close­ended (pgs. 198­200) ­­>Participants' response limited to provided choices ­­>Multiple­choice ­­>Rating scales, Likert and Likert­type ­­>Semantic differential scales ­­>Rank ordering ­­>Check all that apply ­­>Forced­choice CH. 10-12 Descriptive Statistics  Descriptive statistics summarize (i.e. describe) the pattern of scores  Frequency – number of times a given response is reported  Central tendency – the point in the distribution where the data are centered o How are the data similar  Dispersion – how spread out the data are o How are the data different Frequency Distributions  A graphical representation of a single question Central Tendency  Mean o Average  Median o The middle response  Mode o The response that occurs most often  Range o Difference between the largest and smallest observations  Deviation o The difference between an observation/measurement and the mean for that variable  The normal curve o The most notable probability distribution in stats o Mean, median and mode are all the same value o 95% of the population values fall within 2 standard deviations from the mean Role of chance  Largest concern with quantitative data analysis is that we are finding results based only on chance  Null hypothesis  We must start with the assumption that no relationship exists and find evidence to the contrary Research in Advertising  Advertising agencies are generally divided into four departments o Market research o Creative development o Media selection o Account services  Advertising research areas o Copy testing  Consist of studies that examine the advertisement or commercial itself.  Three dimensions:  Cognitive (knowing) o Attention, exposure, awareness, recogition, comprehension, recall  Conative (doing) o Intention to buy, purchase behavior  Affective (feeling or emotions) o Attitude change, like-dislike, involvement o Media research o Campaign assessment  The five M’s of advertising o Mission o Money o Message o Media o Measurement  International advertising objectivities o Purchase o Purchase intention o Attitude o Belief/knowledge o Awareness  Developing the advertising campaign o Message generation and evaluation o Creative development and execution o Legal and social issues  Seven advertising forms worldwide o Announcement  Execution: pure display, product message, corporate presentation, documentary o Association  Execution: lifestyle, metaphor, metonymy, celebrity transfer o Lesson  Execution: presenter, testimonial/endorsement, demonstration, comparison, “how to” o Drama  Execution: slice of life, problem-solution, vignettes, theatre o Entertainment  Execution: humor, play or act around the product o Imagination  Execution: cartoons, film, prosperities in action, other realistic acts o Special effects  Execution: product in action, animation, film, video technique, artistic stimuli  Print Ads o Detailed product information o Ability to communicate user imagery o Flexibility o Ability to segment  Media research o Media research helps determine which advertising vehicles are most efficient and what type of media schedule will have the greatest impact  Reach – the total number of households exposed to a message in a particular medium at least once over a certain period (4 wks)  Frequency – refers to the number of exposures to the same message that each house hold receives  Gross rating pointing are useful for deciding between two media alternatives  GRP = reach x average frequency The Importance of Digital Media Analytics  Monitor and track trends and developments as they occur  Measure and assess that planned actions are occurring as expected  Evaluate PR actions during all segments of a PR campaign  “Digital analytics is the analysis of qualitative and quantitative data from your website and the competition, to drive a continual improvement f the online experience that your customers, and potential customers have, which translates into your desired outcomes (online and offline).” –Avinash Kaushik  Here are some examples of questions that Web analytics can help answer: o Is our corporate Twitter account driving traffic to the right Web pages? o Are our press releases or social media releases being cited by journalists and bloggers, and if so, do thy drive traffic to our corporate site? o Is Key Message A more effective at driving sales than Key Message B? o Should we invest more resources in social or traditional media? o Where do we find the audiences most likely to respond to our campaigns?  Conversion rate = is the percentage of visitors to a website that accomplish and objective. If 100 people visit your website, and 7 of them fill out your lead form, your conversion rate is 7%.  How metrics can help PR o Identify and maximize high-quality traffic from referring sites o Refine target demographics and identify new publics o Track growth in the community of users o Learn more about what customers want in order to sharpen future PR campaigns o Attribute conversions to specific PR campaigns o Determine the effects of out outcomes. In PR, this may be determining which media outlets or wire services drive more traffic or more conversions (you did define your conversion metrics, right?)  It allows PR pros to make data-driven decisions and improve content to deliver on the topics audiences are most interested in.  How to get a deeper insight into the consumers’ needs using social date: o Using email-matching and other techniques, locate your actual customers on social media o Harvest all the available public data: positive or negative mentions of your brand (sentiment), profile information, the devices they use, how active they are, reviews they’ve written and more. o Create unified social profiles of your customer segments: the things they like, the topics they talk about, their interests, and any needs that your brand can meet. o Distribute the findings to all appropriate departments within your company, updating regularly. Strategic Planning  Determine o Where we are o Where we want to be o How we’ll get there  Step 1. Research o Situation analysis  Statement about the challenges or opportunities to be overcome or addressed  Must have buy-in from the organization and key players  SWOT analysis: internal (strengths and weaknesses) and external (opportunities and threats) look at an organization’s environment and reputation o Qualitative and quantitative research  Phone surveys  Focus groups  Web surveys o Audience analysis  Identify and analyze your key audiences  Prioritize  Determine outreach methods and channels  Step 2. Strategy o Measurable goals and objectives  Must be clear, specific and measurable  Identifies hoped-for impacts on each audience  Step 3. Tactics  Step 4. Evaluation/research o Based on the measurable goals and objectives o Track measurements throughout (ex: media hits, social media interaction, advertising analytics, etc.)


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

75 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Janice Dongeun University of Washington

"I used the money I made selling my notes & study guides to pay for spring break in Olympia, Washington...which was Sweet!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.