Notes and Quizzes for Entire Semester
Notes and Quizzes for Entire Semester MC 3360
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verified elite notetaker
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Haley J Schuhl
verified elite notetaker
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This 27 page Bundle was uploaded by Kaley Hanson on Tuesday January 19, 2016. The Bundle belongs to MC 3360 at Texas State University taught by Ngondo in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 125 views. For similar materials see PR Research in Journalism and Mass Communications at Texas State University.
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Date Created: 01/19/16
CH. 2: Elements of Research 4 basic elements: 1. Concepts and constructs helps us organize information so we understand 2. Measurement 3. Variables: independent and dependent 4. Scales Concepts: Definition: A term that expresses an abstract idea… Combines a particular concept, object, or people into more general categories Constructs: Def: Are concepts with 3 distinct characteristics A combination of concepts Connot be observed directly Designed with a particular research purpose and relates only to this context o Ex: “advertising involving” Variables: Def: The empirical counterpart of a construct or concept Variables are measured o Ex: age Helps us explain things Independent and dependent variables o Independent – cause o Dependent – effect o Dependent depends on the independent 1. Problem definition: Def: The primary objective of a problem definition stage is to develop the research question. -Hypothesis has a direction (increase or decrease) 2. Recognize the problem opportunity Identify the opportunity/challenge/situation: o External environment o Integrated marketing effectiveness o New opportunities Find out rom management why the information is being sought o Discuss: What the information will be used for What decisions might be made based on the findeings o Important: Client must prioritize question(s) Rephrase the question several times and in slightly different forms Discuss the differences Understand the decision-making environment: o Situation analysis: study the decision-making environment within which the market research will take place o Exploratory Used to identify important variable(s) to be studied Used as preliminary research, not definitive research Takes several forms Pilot study Survey Secondary analysis Hypothesis: Def: A relationship between two or more variables The “null” hypothesis (hypothesis no differences) To determine the statistical significance, the researcher must set a probability level, or a significant level, against which the null hypothesis is tested The significant statistical test tells the researcher that an observed result is probably not the result if chance or error Descriptive studies: Answer the questions – who, what, when, where, how Causal studies: Examine where one variable causes or determines the value of another variable o Dependent variable: A symbol, or concept, expected t be explained or influenced by the independent variable o Independent variable: A symbol, or concept CH. 3 • When staying anonymous, cannot be linked backed to the person • When staying confidential, you can be linked back to the person • Autonomy: respect the rights, values, and decisions of other people • Nonmaleficence: it is wrong to intentionally inflict harm upon others • Beneficence: positive obligation to remove existing harms and to confer benefits on others • Justice: people who are equal in relevant respects should be treated equally • Rights of participants: avoiding coercion assuring anonymity assuring confidentiality voluntary participation • Do not involve people in research without their knowledge or consent • Do not coerce people to participate • Do not withhold from the participants the true nature of the research • Do not actively lie to the participant about the nature of research • Do not lead the participant to commit acts that diminish his or her selfrespect • Do not violate the right to self determination • Do not expose the participants to physical or mental stress • Do not invade the privacy of the participants • Do not withhold benefits from participants in control groups • Do not fail to treat research participants fairly an to show them considerations and respect • Voluntary Participation: Is not a pressing ethical issue in mail and telephone surveys Why? Respondents are free to hang up the phone or to throw away the questionnaire • The researcher should disclose the purpose of the research and foreseeable consequences if they decide to decline or withdrawal • Need to disclose your contact info and/or your sponsor's contact info • Informed consent should be in writing • Don't fabricate any observations (replace with averages, don't fill in my personal opinions) • Passive analysis: when the researcher needs to analyze and quote online material Do not name the group Paraphrase long quotes Disguise some information, such as institutional or organizational names • Active analysis: gather online information through online surveys, focus groups, or types of experiment Informed consent form The researcher should provide the following: How to contact the researcher How to obtain the informed consent Full disclosure of any risk to confidentiality A debriefing page How participants to obtain the result of the study • A. Informed consent • B. Debriefing CH. 4: Sampling • Census: everyone in a population is counted or asked questions • Sampling: obtaining a group of people rom a population in such a way as to be representative of that population • COMMON ERROS FOUND IN SAMPLING: • Universe • Population: section of the universe you're interested in • Sampling frame: actual list of individuals or items • Sample • Coverage error • Sampling error: error related to selecting a sample from a population • Measurement error: nonsampling error not measuring what you set out to measure • Non probability samples: • Not everyone in the population has an equal chance of being chosen • Sampling for a specific purpose only those who fit certain criteria • Types • Convenience ("person on the street") • Purposive (specific) • Quota (making sure you don't exclude anyone, but not allowing for everyone to be possibly in the sample) • Snowball • Volunteer (often paid or provided a special service) Probability sampling: random samples • Everyone in the sample has an equal chance of being chosen and responding • Allows researcher to infer beyond the ample of the population by knowledge of • Population parameters (characteristics) • Estimating accuracy • Estimating error of measurement • Normal curve • Provides a way of establishing how much confidence we can place in accuracy ad measurement • Larger the sample, the more "normal" the normal curve is • All samples have their ow "normalcy" • Provides a "confidence level" for sampling and for response error • Sample size • Determines how much error we are willing to allow • Error is the maximum error that will be found in the sample, the abslute error • Random sampling: for infinite population magic number is 384 • Online calculation surveysystem.com/sscalc.htm • Simple random selection: chosen people are put back and next draw taken • Systematic random selection: chosen people are removed and next draw taken • Choosing via some systematic characteristic • Uses a calculated Skip Interval Population Size/Sample Size • Uses a randomly selected start number • Weighted random selection: chosen people represent a % of the population drawn at random from that population • Cluster sampling • Used when you need to get a scertain percentage of respondents from particular categories • Similar to weighted sampling • You randomly select within clusters to get your total N • For instance: newspapers are weekly, daily, and weekday only. To get a valid sample you would want to sample within each cluster. CH. 6: Content Analysis • How is content analysis applied? Describing Communication Content Testing Hypotheses of Message Characteristics Comparing Media Content to the "real world" Assessing the Image of a Particular Group in Society Establishing a Starting Point for the studies Media Effects • Content analysis: systematic, objective and quantitative analysis of the content of communication Systematic consistent rules applicable Objective personal biases should be avoided Quantitative ensures accurate representation of phenomenon • Content analysis steps: 1. Formulate a research question or hypothesis 2. Define the population 3. Select a sample 4. Define the unit of analysis what you're analyzing (what you're looking at) 5. Construct the categories of interest 6. Train the coders 7. Assess reliability 8. Analyze the data • Code date Applying coding scheme and generate data Coding scheme/codebook provides rules for assigning to categories Individuals must be trained to use codebook > Problems can result from: Poor definition of the categories Unclear instruction given to the coders • Intercoder reliability Two or more coders • Intracoder reliability One coder • Reliability: getting the same results over and over again • Face validity: through literature review • Content validity • Construct validity CH. 7: Survey Research • A descriptive survey: Attempts to describe or document current condition or attitudesto explain what exists at that moment Descriptive: identify/describe attitudes or behaviors (in a given population) • An analytical survey: Attempts to describe and explain why situation existtwo or more variables are examined >The results allow researchers to examine the interrelationships among variables and to develop explanatory inferences. >Does X relate to Y? • Professor evaluations • Public opinion surveys • Audience response analysis • Product/service satisfaction • Anytime you systematically ask people about their attitudes, emotions, beliefs, knowledge, intentions, or behaviors. • Mail surveys: Advantages: cost is cheap, length, no interviewer influence/bias, can have visual content, anonymity Disadvantages: must be selfexplanatorycan't clarify questions, low response rate, long data collection window, look up answers, who answers questions?Not a good method if you need quick responses Process: >Select sample >Create questionnaire >Write cover letter >Create the package >Distribute the survey >Monitor rates >Followups >Analyze Increasing response rates: >Advance mailings >Followup mailings >Incentives >Personal touches Real stamps Real signatures • Telephone surveys: Advantages: quick data collection data, moderate cost, ability to clarify questions, moderate response rate (once you get someone to answer) Disadvantages: moderate interviewer bias, short questionnaire, no visual depictions, push polls, cell phones Process: >Select a sample >Construct the questionnaire >Prepare interviewer instruction manual >Train interviewer >Collect data >Make callbacks >Verify results >Analyze data • Online surveys: Advantages: cheapest, quickest, no geographical limitations, no interview bias, moderate response rate, can have audiovisual content Disadvantages: hard to get a representative sample, must be selfexplanatory, length, lookup answers Process: >Select a sample >Construct the questionnaire >Write cover letter >Program survey >Collect data >Followup? >Analyze data • Facetoface surveys: Advantages: clarification possible, can have audiovisual content, highest response rate, length, rapport with respondent Disadvantages: interviewer bias, expensive, longer collection window, answers to sensitive questions Process: >Select a sample >Construct the questionnaire >Prepare interviewer instruction manual >Train interviewer >Collect data >Make callbacks >Verify results >Analyze data • Types of survey questions Openended >Participants generate responses Closeended (pgs. 198200) >Participants' response limited to provided choices >Multiplechoice >Rating scales, Likert and Likerttype >Semantic differential scales >Rank ordering >Check all that apply >Forcedchoice CH. 10-12 Descriptive Statistics Descriptive statistics summarize (i.e. describe) the pattern of scores Frequency – number of times a given response is reported Central tendency – the point in the distribution where the data are centered o How are the data similar Dispersion – how spread out the data are o How are the data different Frequency Distributions A graphical representation of a single question Central Tendency Mean o Average Median o The middle response Mode o The response that occurs most often Range o Difference between the largest and smallest observations Deviation o The difference between an observation/measurement and the mean for that variable The normal curve o The most notable probability distribution in stats o Mean, median and mode are all the same value o 95% of the population values fall within 2 standard deviations from the mean Role of chance Largest concern with quantitative data analysis is that we are finding results based only on chance Null hypothesis We must start with the assumption that no relationship exists and find evidence to the contrary Research in Advertising Advertising agencies are generally divided into four departments o Market research o Creative development o Media selection o Account services Advertising research areas o Copy testing Consist of studies that examine the advertisement or commercial itself. Three dimensions: Cognitive (knowing) o Attention, exposure, awareness, recogition, comprehension, recall Conative (doing) o Intention to buy, purchase behavior Affective (feeling or emotions) o Attitude change, like-dislike, involvement o Media research o Campaign assessment The five M’s of advertising o Mission o Money o Message o Media o Measurement International advertising objectivities o Purchase o Purchase intention o Attitude o Belief/knowledge o Awareness Developing the advertising campaign o Message generation and evaluation o Creative development and execution o Legal and social issues Seven advertising forms worldwide o Announcement Execution: pure display, product message, corporate presentation, documentary o Association Execution: lifestyle, metaphor, metonymy, celebrity transfer o Lesson Execution: presenter, testimonial/endorsement, demonstration, comparison, “how to” o Drama Execution: slice of life, problem-solution, vignettes, theatre o Entertainment Execution: humor, play or act around the product o Imagination Execution: cartoons, film, prosperities in action, other realistic acts o Special effects Execution: product in action, animation, film, video technique, artistic stimuli Print Ads o Detailed product information o Ability to communicate user imagery o Flexibility o Ability to segment Media research o Media research helps determine which advertising vehicles are most efficient and what type of media schedule will have the greatest impact Reach – the total number of households exposed to a message in a particular medium at least once over a certain period (4 wks) Frequency – refers to the number of exposures to the same message that each house hold receives Gross rating pointing are useful for deciding between two media alternatives GRP = reach x average frequency The Importance of Digital Media Analytics Monitor and track trends and developments as they occur Measure and assess that planned actions are occurring as expected Evaluate PR actions during all segments of a PR campaign “Digital analytics is the analysis of qualitative and quantitative data from your website and the competition, to drive a continual improvement f the online experience that your customers, and potential customers have, which translates into your desired outcomes (online and offline).” –Avinash Kaushik Here are some examples of questions that Web analytics can help answer: o Is our corporate Twitter account driving traffic to the right Web pages? o Are our press releases or social media releases being cited by journalists and bloggers, and if so, do thy drive traffic to our corporate site? o Is Key Message A more effective at driving sales than Key Message B? o Should we invest more resources in social or traditional media? o Where do we find the audiences most likely to respond to our campaigns? Conversion rate = is the percentage of visitors to a website that accomplish and objective. If 100 people visit your website, and 7 of them fill out your lead form, your conversion rate is 7%. How metrics can help PR o Identify and maximize high-quality traffic from referring sites o Refine target demographics and identify new publics o Track growth in the community of users o Learn more about what customers want in order to sharpen future PR campaigns o Attribute conversions to specific PR campaigns o Determine the effects of out outcomes. In PR, this may be determining which media outlets or wire services drive more traffic or more conversions (you did define your conversion metrics, right?) It allows PR pros to make data-driven decisions and improve content to deliver on the topics audiences are most interested in. How to get a deeper insight into the consumers’ needs using social date: o Using email-matching and other techniques, locate your actual customers on social media o Harvest all the available public data: positive or negative mentions of your brand (sentiment), profile information, the devices they use, how active they are, reviews they’ve written and more. o Create unified social profiles of your customer segments: the things they like, the topics they talk about, their interests, and any needs that your brand can meet. o Distribute the findings to all appropriate departments within your company, updating regularly. Strategic Planning Determine o Where we are o Where we want to be o How we’ll get there Step 1. Research o Situation analysis Statement about the challenges or opportunities to be overcome or addressed Must have buy-in from the organization and key players SWOT analysis: internal (strengths and weaknesses) and external (opportunities and threats) look at an organization’s environment and reputation o Qualitative and quantitative research Phone surveys Focus groups Web surveys o Audience analysis Identify and analyze your key audiences Prioritize Determine outreach methods and channels Step 2. Strategy o Measurable goals and objectives Must be clear, specific and measurable Identifies hoped-for impacts on each audience Step 3. Tactics Step 4. Evaluation/research o Based on the measurable goals and objectives o Track measurements throughout (ex: media hits, social media interaction, advertising analytics, etc.)
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