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Political Science

by: Megan Bartz

Political Science POLS 1050

Megan Bartz

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Social Science, political science
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This 4 page Bundle was uploaded by Megan Bartz on Tuesday January 19, 2016. The Bundle belongs to POLS 1050 at East Carolina University taught by JOHN WILLIAMS in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 53 views.


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Date Created: 01/19/16
1. Cultures a. Culture is a complex network of learned behavior for managing personal choices  in a larger social context. b. Influences: Beliefs, religions, economies, relationships, geography, language c. Sources and Expressions: See “culture chapters” notes. II. Expressions of culture – the organization of peoples 1. Custom 2. Governments 3. Religion 4. Philosophy 5. Ideology 1. Custom – a. Establishing norms that are carried forward over time b. Networks of norms and values – no one thing constitutes culture c. A battle for societies is whether a value or action permitted in one society can be allowed to exist in another d. Cultural relativism vs absolute truth– who is safe? e. traditions vs etiquette 2. Government – finding the balance between legitimacy and authority a. Authority – a monopoly on the use of force b. Legitimacy – a recognized justification or entitlement to use that force c. Authoritarian vs democratic/republican d. Culturally bound – easier to do our stuff in some places than others e. Clash of civilizations – Adjami – is the battle between or within? 3. Religion a. Organized implementation of beliefs i. Advantages – don’t start at square 1 for discussion, organizing principles ii. Disadvantages – competition, what works for some may restrain others iii. Even atheism has religious aspects - Prothero b. Sacramental, evangelical, mystical c. Is religion culture? No, it is one of many aspects – same religion will be seen differently through various cultures. Some religions pervade all aspects of society, others do not. d. Down side – religion an becomes excuse for questionable actions. i. Would atheism fix things? No, it is a secular religion and performs the same function. ii. Agnosticism leaves the nature of the transcendent open, accepting possibilities while not rejecting anything. e. Christianity i. All believe that their relationship with the divine will help them recover from failure, to avoid it in the future, and to be willing to assist others in that effort. The variation lies with who can interpret faith: individual, preacher, priest, pope. ii. Forms: Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Protestant iii. Catholic and Eastern Orthodox 1. are grounded in all three components, with a key difference being that Catholics structure their church hierarchy with the Pope at the top. 2. Both are apostolic (tradition of priests going back to Jesus and his Apostles), evangelical, sacramental (they engage in rituals – marriage, baptism, communion, etc.), and mystical, seeking to understand the nature of creation as an expression of divine will. EO includes Russian Orthodox (Putin). iv. Protestants 1. Main line protestants: Baptists, Methodists, Presbyterians 2. Smaller denominations: Unitarians, Adventists, Pentecostals, Mennonites, Congregationalists, Chr. Scientists, and a host of others 3. Non-apostolic – preachers, rather than priests, often self-selected; dogma vs passion style. 4. Sacraments are symbolic rather than essential v. 85% of US is Christian or has a Christian background. Christianity once dominated all decision making, but that has been reduced over the last fifty years through a series of Supreme Court decisions. Other religions include Hinduism, Judaism, Islam (traditional and Nation of Islam), Buddhism (a philosophy rather than a true religion), Santaria, and a host of others. vi. Atheists make up only a tiny but vocal part of society (3- 5%), while the number of agnostics is increasing. Many Jews are non-practicing creating the notion of ethnic rather than religious Jews. f. Islam i. A faith following from Abrahmanic traditions, that is, elements come from Judaism and Christianity. ii. Core tenets appear in the Koran, which contains three phases of revelations, where the Prophet Mohammed presents the divine will to explain personal grace, challenges to outsiders, and the organization of the faithful. iii. All versions of Islam abide by the Koran, and the five pillars of the faith, such as daily prayer, pilgrimage to Mecca, etc. (Ritualistic, sacramentalistic; Sufis – mysticism) iv. Major versions of Islam: Sunni, Shiite, Sufi. Variations are who gets to interpret the faith, and what are people called upon to do. v. Iran is Shiite as is part of Iraq and of Lebanon. Most people are Sunni, and the Saudis play a central role among them. Sunni and Shiia don’t like each other very much. vi. Like Christianity, evangelism is a key responsibility for the faithful. vii. Terrorist groups like Al Qaeda and ISIS spring from wahabbism, a movement popular in Saudi Arabia, which seeks to restore the purity of the faith. Wahabbists differ as to how to achieve the restoration, and who is the barrier to the achievement. viii. Largest Muslim populations are in Indonesia, India, and Pakistan. g. Judaism i. Ancient ii. Divided into Orthodox, Conservative, Reformed, and non- practicing or ethnic Jews. Kibbutzim in Israel (socialist, atheist, ethnic Jews). Also Sephardic (eastern) vs Ashkenatzim (north European). iii. Orthodox maintain the traditions of the past, Conservatives less so. iv. US Jews split on support for Israel. v. Kabbala – mysticism; lots of ritual h. Hinduism i. Very ancient – 5-6000 years. ii. Many subsets, 10,000 names for god – really 10,000 aspects to be named. iii. Lots of ritual and mysticism. At one time it was evangelical, esp. in SE Asia. i. Buddhism i. Came from India, c. 2500 years ago. Did ok in India, but caught on big in East Asia. ii. A philosophy rather than a religion as such. iii. The middle way. Respect for the chain of life. 4. Philosophy – naturalism, rationalism, empiricism, etc – Liberalism, a. Seeking knowledge of ultimate reality, or of the general causes of elements of nature b. It is understanding how to live – trying to understand and deal with reality 5. Ideology – socialism, Nazism, fascism – radicalism – Ujamaa, liberation theology a. Multiple meanings b. The study of ideas – where do they come from? c. A program or set of policies to produce a specific outcome – usually involving the substantive transformation of reality d. Note that most ideologies are specifically anti-tradition 6. Are sex or race cultures? – Dolezal says yes, others say no, they are biological. If it is relative, and people can choose their race, does it have meaning?


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