Popular in Weather and Climate
Popular in Geography
This 6 page Bundle was uploaded by Megan Bartz on Tuesday January 19, 2016. The Bundle belongs to GEOG 1300 at East Carolina University taught by WALTER CURTIS in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see Weather and Climate in Geography at East Carolina University.
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Date Created: 01/19/16
Geography What is the difference between weather and climate? Weather is a pinpoint which is controlled by climate Climate impacts weather Climate peopl e ocea weath land n er biolo gy “Climate is what you expect and weather is what you actually get” Climate Normal: 30 year average Ppm= parts per million What is science? All about predictions from facts Facts are the data collected through observation and measurement Measurements are always fraught with error Hypothesis o Made, tested and debated Predictions are made based on the hypothesis to be considered verified Are the predictions verified or not? Hypothesis that fails rigorous testing are discarded Theory evolves from hypothesis Scientific laws more mathematical in nature rather than experimental Geography The Scientific Method Summary 1. Collect scientific facts through observation and measurement 2. Develop one or more working hypotheses 3. Develop observations and experiments to test hypotheses 4. Accept (theory), reject or modify hypotheses based on extensive testing How Meteorology fits into Earth Science solid lithoshere hydrosphere atmosphere liquid gas Why is weather and climate in geography, planning and environment? Atmosphere is the key component of environment Geography: a science that deals with the atmosphere Wladimir Peter Koppen (1846-1940) Categories: A= rainforest/tropical B= dessert C= subtropical D= temperant E= tundra/ice High pressure: atmosphere is pushing more than usual Low pressure: atmosphere isn’t pushing as much Geography Cold front: cold air is pushing southward Warm front: warm air is pushing west to east Stationary front: stays still Troth: area of lower pressure Symbols for reading a weather map: Decoding barometric pressure: 1. Place decimal point to the left of the last number 2. Place either a 9 or 10 in front 3. To determine whether to place a 9 or 10 in front: if the number falls between 00.0 and 55.9 place a 10 Geography Temperature Scales Celsius: (based on the melting (0 degrees) and boiling (100 degrees) points of water Kelvin: (based on “absolute zero”); no negative values, no molecular movement Fahrenheit: (based on nothing in particular) Kelvin (K) and Celsius (°C) scale have the same units: K= C + 273.15 Fahrenheit (°F) and Celsius (°C) have different units For what, (boiling point – melting point) (212 °F- 32 °F) = 180 °F (100 °C – 1°C) = 100 °C 180/100= 9/5 °F= 9/5 C +32 Geography Plotting temperature on a map: “the art of interpolation” Isotherm: line of equal temperature Rules for interpolating: Make sure values are less than the contour are on one side and values greater than the contour are on the other Contour lines should never cross Lines can either be closed (circle) or end at the edge of the map o Thus, it is often helpful to begin with the smallest/larges value or at the edge of map Always label contours Names: iso-info o Temperature= isotherm o Pressure= isobar o Precipitation= isohyet o Humidity= isohume o Wind= isotach Whenever isobars are close together, that means fast winds As well as high pressure gradient Low pressure gradient means slow winds Air Masses: Temperature and moisture characteristics the same *horizontally* Continental inn size ( 1600km/ 1000 mi across) Source Areas: Where air mass gets its characteristics Either over land or over sea Either in high or low latitude (tropics or polar regions) Flat topography Four types of source areas o cP- continental polar (cold-dry) o mP- maritime polar (cool-wet) o mT- maritime tropical (warm-wet) o cT- continental tropical (hot-dry) Geography Front: Boundary between air masses Continental polar (cP) Cold, dry Northern Canada: winter, snow-covered Few clouds, little precipitation High pressure Lake effect snow intensify with cP air mass Maritime Polar (mP) Cool to cold temperatures (mild compared to cP), moderately moist Precipitation Source area: Gulf of Alaska, North Atlantic Maritime Tropical (mT) Warm/hot, very moist Source area: Gulf of Mexico (warm water) Unstable: thunderstorms, intense rain Continental tropical (cT) Hot, dry Little precipitation Source area: Mexico and southwestern US
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