NR 001 - Walter Poleman
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Political Science 103
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This 19 page Bundle was uploaded by Sadie Shelton on Tuesday January 19, 2016. The Bundle belongs to NR 001 at University of Vermont taught by Walter Poleman in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 46 views.
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Eugh...this class is soo hard! I'm so glad that you'll be posting notes for this class
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Date Created: 01/19/16
Native Tree Test: online test Oct 8-9 1. Sugar maple - latin name 2. Eed maple - shade tolerance 3. Yellow birch - longevity 4. Paper birch - soil conditions 5. Eastern hemlock - human uses 6. Northern red oak 7. Black cherry 8. White oak 9. Striped maple 10. American beech 11. Basswood Phytoplankton - tiny plants, float around water; nitrogen, sunlight, phosphorus, H2O, CO2 Blue-Green Algae Costly to humans - Property values - Unable to drinking - Related to Parkinson’s disease - More dangerous to swim in the water How Blue-Green Algae Blooms Occur - Take over the surface and block out the sun for the other species which die - Phosphorus bound with iron on the bottom of the lake - Deplete nitrogen, and some are able to take nitrogen from the air - Prefer calm warmer water - When it dies, it sinks to the bottom and sucks up the O2 on the bottom of the water body, less O2 causes the P to separate from the iron and increases the algae bloom - climate change + land use (stress, fertilizer) = conditions for blooms Cost to the food wed/ecosystem - Good mechanics defense by grouping together - Some blooms produce toxins that can kill other organisms - Not very nutritious Phenology - an interdisciplinary branch of ecology that studies plant and animal development through the seasons; able to study climate change and how it affects phenology Ex: ice forming and melting, bird migration, insect hatching Place-based Phenology Project: observe and document the unfolding of the fall season 1. Choose a place in Burlington 2. Create a google map showing plot center and post it to your lab blog no later than 9am on Monday, October 5th 3. Roughly circular area w/ about 20 meter radius 4. Create clog of the site 5. IDEAS: centennial woods, redstone quarry, city parks, Burlington geographic —> maps, waterfront area Falcon - angular and smooth wing outline, long straight tail Accipiter - Angular wings, flap their wings every 3-4 seconds, hunt other birds, can navigate the woodlands and agile (coopers hawk, sharp shinned hawk) Buteo - straighter wings, larger than accipiter (red tailed hawk) Factors Affecting Lakes Origin Water Bedrock Land/water Depth surface Setting ratio Land Lake level uses Regulation Critical Water Quality Variables Temperature Oxygen Warmer the water more oxygen Water Clarity Clearer the water more bottom growing plants are able to grow Nutrients Stratification: when water masses with different properties - salinity, oxygenation, density, temperature Types of Mixing Dimictic - two mixing/year deeper water systems with ice cover Monomictic - one mixing/year deeper water without ice cover Polymictic - many mixings/year shallow system affected by winds and rain Amictic - no mixing Drivers of Drivers of Drivers of Cyanobacteria Stratification Stratification Blooms Depth/mor Depth Nutrients - phosphorus phology Setting Temperature Bedrock Water clarity Setting needs clear water to photosynthesize Caveats Lake segments interact with one another Don’t take numbers too seriously Citing info from a guest lecture: EX: Winslow, M. (2015, October 1). NR 001 guest lecture: Ecology of Lake Champlain. University of Vermont, Burlington, VT. Citing specific info from talking to a person: Personal communication is not included in references cited section Searching database: In quotes —> search as a phrase * —> all suffixes Ex: hatch* —> hatching, hatcher, hatchery DOI — corresponds to only one article Land Trust Alliance (landtrustalliance.org) MIDTERM EXAM THURSDAY, OCT 15th Counts as 16.6% of final grade out of 50 points Consists of: 10 multiple choice — 2 pts 5 short answer — 4 pts 1 essay question — 10 pts Study Revisit lecture powerpoint and notes together Lab intro material Visit to ECHO Lake Champlain — A Natural History Main topics — look at study guide and review Lake trout & sturgeon: natural history, environmental needs Other Readings Information —>Ice reaches max 18,000 years ago —> Starts to melt faster than it advances —> Appears to retreat —>Exposes sediment and as glacial till and melt water stays and creates lakes (glacial lake VT) —> Lake drains once glacier passes St. Lawrence and fills with salt water (depression of land from glacier) and creates Champlain Sea —>Burlington would be a delta feature of the sea —> Land rebounds and the sea drains — Most common surgical geology is glacial till VT Law School Difference between science and law science — what Creating something new law — how Getting an invention into general use as fast as possible Evapotranspiration — Living things giving off water How does land development affect the hydraulic cycle? —> What happens to the following parts of the water cycle in an urban environment? Runoff volume Increased runoff Infiltration Lessened due to more impervious surfaces Groundwater recharge/flow Not as much due to impervious surfaces In-stream changes in them, turbidity, pollutants, flow patterns More pollutants; and in general lower water quality Foresters For the Birds — Audubon Vermont New England has one of the highest diversity of nesting birds. “Responsibility Species” — we have a responsibility to make sure the birds stay in their native forests Northeast forests are the core breeding range for many Long term population declines or at risk for decline Diverse forest habitat requirements Birds matter to people Distributing of timberland area by ownership type Individuals 63% Public 14% Reasons for Forest ownership Privacy Beauty Biodiversity/nature Threats to forest birds Global climate change Lack of structure — layers of the forest Non-native, invasive pests and plants Forest fragmentation and conversion High Quality Habitat Cover Food Nesting sites Territories Understory Woody material — food Leaf litter Snags and or cavity Green Mountain Audubon Center Looking at birds that require whole forests for song birds Goal: Improve future timber resource and breeding habitat for mature forest nesting birds Create canopy gaps to stimulate growth in the understory where many birds nest Release crop trees so they will grow faster and stronger Increase the amount of downed logs and branches for cover, drumming and perch sites Leave snags and dead trees with cavities Forest treatments 50-70 trees/acre Crop tree release with canopy gap formation — release the crown on 2-4 sides to let tree grow to full capacity Single tree selection — allows for diﬀerent sized trees so they all have full crowns; diameter distribution Expanding gap group shelterwood — making gaps larger at 1%/year in order to get regeneration Next steps Post harvet monitoring Birds Timber habitat Gaps Tours and workshops Deer browse control Invasive species EXTRA CREDIT: four 300-word reflections of events posted to blackboard site worth 3 points each What is Ecology? 1. The process by which living organisms interact with each other and with the physical and chemical components of their surrounding environment 2. The way those processes lead to patterns in the geographical distribution and abundance of different kinds of organisms. An Ecosystem is… “a community of living organisms conjunction with the nonliving components of their environment, interacting as a system.” - Arthur Tansley Components are linked together through nutrient cycles and energy flows Can be any size, but usually encompass specific, limited spaces Provide a variety of services upon which people depend Biodiversity is... The degree of variation of life Genetic diversity Species diversity Ecosystem diversity “The challenge in ecology is resolving the complexity underlying the structure of ecosystems.” — Schmitz 2007 Community Composition Topography Substrate Climate Disturbance Geology Hydrology Species Interactions S1 +<—> - S2 One species is benefiting and the other is not (consumer relationship) S1 - <—> - S2 (two plants for sunlight) Competition between two species S1 - <—> + S2 - <—> + S3 - <- -> + S1 (hawk, owl, mouse) Two predators in competition for prey <- -> indirectly competing <—> directly competing P - <—> + H - <—> + C + - - -> P Plants, Herbivores, Carnivores Competitive Exclusion 1. Two species competing for the same resources cannot stably coexist, if the ecological facts are constant 2. Either of the two competitors will always take over the other which leads to either the extinction of one of the competitors 3. Or it will split into separate niches 4. Species occupy niches Species Definition A group of organisms, with similar structure function and behavior that is capable of inter breeding with one another Population All the organisms of a species found within a specific geographic region Habitat The place where an individual of a given species survives and reproduces Niche The functional role of an organism in its environment, including its habitat, the periods of time during which it occurs and is active there, and the resources it obtains there (profession) Pileated Woodpecker Needs: closed canopy large diameter trees large number of snags Forest Stand Development — Aviva Biomass — mass of living and organic material in a system Carbon Sequestration (uptake) — process or CO2 being taken out of the atmosphere Carbon Storage — all carbon that is stored in biomass of ecosystem Pre settlement —> lots of natural disturbances Settlers —> clearing for agriculture Land abandonment —> Clearings are covered with white pine —> harvested Second growth — Deforestation —> ~15% of annual global GHG emissions — World forests are a net C sink, sequestering 2.3 Pg/yr Four Phases of stand development Stand initiation — Immediately after disturbance Seedlings and rapid growth Stem exclusion Canopy is closed Weaker trees are dying off while vigorous trees are flourishing Understory reinitiating Shade tolerant trees begin to grow Complex/ Old Growth 150 years of age Independent mortality Density and steady state of biomass Equilibrium Model Succession to a climax state At climax, system is functionally and structurally complete Natural disturbances viewed as external Management implications Disturbances and Legacy Creation — linear models don’t account for disturbances Non-Equilibrium Model There are consistent processes but the end points are not always the same Systems are open Management implications Complexity, disturbances, processes — Young trees sequester more carbon, but old growth forests store more carbon Management Options 1. Plant new forests: Intense harvesting and replanting 1. Not storing enough CO2 2. CO2 goes back into the atmosphere 2. Preservation: Passive management 1. Too little too late 2. Increased stress on non preserved forests 3. Manage forests: Light harvest, manage for structural complexity Silviculture — art and science of managing forests Promote late successional forest structure and function Ecological and economic management objectives 90% energy is lost as you move up the food chain Landscape Analysis Framework: Dynamic timeline Bedrock formation —> glacial retreat —> Pre-European settlement (deforestation) —> loss of native species, into of exotics, soil erosion, secondary succession, wildlife restoration, human management —> Peak of land clearance —> Current landscape condition (reforestation) —> (Land use planning) —> Desired future landscape condition Chestnut sided warbler — likes to nest and live in second succession/ post agriculture — Trees and animals migrate north when ice sheet retreats; Trees are carried by birds — 11,000 years ago people arrive in Maine Pre-settlement Present Forest Facts Forests Maple — Dominant trees have ~30% beech Other changed (beech) Maple Birch — Glaciers melt and Other Hemlock create ponds that fills Hemlock Pine with sediment and moss Pine Beech overtime and creates an Birch Oak acidic bog that preserves Spruce Spruce pollen due to no Oak decomposition in the bog Paleo-indian Era: Archaic Era: 9,000- Woodland Era: 3,000 11,000-9,000 BP 3,000 BP -250 BP Tundra landscape Forested landscape Riverine people Small dispersed Small groups More sedentary groups short term camp Larger sites Hunting & sites Mostly hunting, gathering hunting & gathering & maybe gathering agriculture Pottery, bow and arrow technology — Many of the natives died off at 250 BP due to European diseases — 1609-1760 attracted European trappers looking for beavers —> basically extricate the beaver population Subsistence Farming Dairy Era: 1850-1950 Farm Abandonment Era Butter and cheese Hill farms become Small scale farms ~1850 abandoned Sheep era: 1820- Clearing increases White pines are 1850 to 80% by 1880 growing up Merino Milk ~1900 The pines are cut sheep down and young World wool hardwoods are economy taking over from was very the understory high Land clearing accelerated 1820: 40% cleare d 1850: 80% cleare d Ecoquest: study abroad in New Zealand What is NEON? Video Collecting data on a continental scale over 30 years Trend detection over time and forecasting them The data will be available on a webpage that is free to the public Space and Time Is 30 years long enough to see trends on a continental scale? 20 “eco-climactic” domains throughout the continent one core site & two relocatable sites 60 sites 20 “core" sites that do not move 40 “relocatable” sites that can move Goals, Objectives & Brain Flex Causes of change: Key Questions Climate Change 1. What are the impacts of Land use and climate change on change over time continental-scale Invasive species ecology? Responses to change: 2. What are the impacts of Biochemistry land use change on Biodiversity continental-scale Ecohydrology ecology? Infectious 3. What are the impacts of diseases invasive species on continental-scale ecology? Scaling UP (and down) Global —> Continental —> Regional —> Landscape —> Site level Satellite Da—> Airborne Data —> Ground Data Ground Data Airborne Data Satellite Data Ground beetles and small Overview of Layout of the mammals trees land “Sentinel” organisms Overview of Where Fast reproduction where things development rates and sites are is located Ticks and mosquitoes How Infectious diseases everything Plants, birds and soil fits together Macro invertebrates, aquatic plants, sediment, water, fish, microbes Weather variables, greenhouse gas, camera phenology Who Cares? 1. Wanting to know is one of the most powerful forms of caring 2. Implied premise of NEON is we care about: 1. Our ecosystem 2. Ourselves as part of the ecosystem 3. Ourselves 3. NEON embodies “everything is connected to everything else." 4. NEON forsters collaboration and innovation in ecological research and outereach Opportunities Paid summer internships Multiple areas of interest Live in Boulder, CO with housing Vertical Forest Structure 1. Overstory 2. Midstory 3. Understory 4. Herbaceous — Glades simplify the forest and bears need the diversity — Backcountry skiing disturbs the wildlife which scares the animals away Agency of Natural Resources Issues in Vermont: Climate change Run off Erosion Agricultural nutrients — They are all connected and if you pull on one they all change Ecological Restoration and Closing the Phosphorous Loop Phosphorous Loop Is never in a gaseous state Eventually ends up in the ocean Works on geological time scale — The Phosphorous loop is out of whack because we are mining it and spreading it on our fields. Recycling Phosphorous Plants are not great at removing phosphorous but minerals are Divert a stream Renewable source Agriculture reuse potential Current practice is metal salts, effective but not good for agriculture GFO and shrimp shells burnt with vinegar are most effective in removing phosphorous (99.8 -96.2% removed) Shrimp shells turned water black and smelly Pond Restorers Plants can take up low concentration of phosphorous so perhaps growing them hydroponically on rafts in lakes and ponds Can create high levels of biodiversity in the body of water Citizen Science — Practice of public participation and collaboration in scientific research to increase scientific knowledge It is very cost effective Allows for larger scale geological collection of data Strength in numbers Pitfalls Of Citizen Science Is the data any good? Technology increases the potential of the data Training requirements are low Experts need to review it Project Structure Online quizes To test ability to identify species Spreadsheets that must be completely filled out How to attract and retain volunteers Easy, fun & social Recognize volunteers Certificates Sharing the end result of data Do people get to interact w/ animals Too physically daunting Adventure Science Outdoor recreation + Citizen science = ADVENTURE SCIENCE Give them a mission Resources Nature Mapping, Jackson Hole, WY Project BudBurst Natures Notebook Galaxy Zoo Cell Slider iNaturalist Citizen science projects on blackboard Pileated Woodpecker Year-round resident 6inch tongue that wraps around its scull Niches Thousands of years of and ecosystem working together and evolution No two species share the same niche They may overlap Natural Selection — The process that determines which individuals whiten a specie will reproduce and pass their genes onto the next generation Evolution — The changes in the genes displaced by successive genetics of a population over time Evolution by Natural Selection Individuals within a species show genetically determined variation Organisms typically produce more offspring than are needed to replace parents Excess number of individuals results in competition for specific resources Variation among individuals leads to differential survival With passing generations, the percentage of individuals showing favorable variations will increase
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