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Intro to Production and Design

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by: Eris Spicer

Intro to Production and Design MSCH-C 223

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Eris Spicer

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About this Document

The entire semester's worth of notes based on the lecture.
Krahnke S
Media, production, Design
75 ?




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"Amazing. Wouldn't have passed this test without these notes. Hoping this notetaker will be around for the final!"
Laurence Glover DVM


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This 31 page Bundle was uploaded by Eris Spicer on Tuesday January 19, 2016. The Bundle belongs to MSCH-C 223 at Indiana University taught by Krahnke S in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see INTRO TO DESIGN & PRODUCTION in Media at Indiana University.


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Amazing. Wouldn't have passed this test without these notes. Hoping this notetaker will be around for the final!

-Laurence Glover DVM


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Date Created: 01/19/16
INTRO TO PRODUCTION AND DESIGN – DAY 1 Must see TV - Everybody has to watch at a certain time in order to participate in conversation More channels = more selections, less viewers Program guides - Give the audience more choices - More choices = less quality (100 channels but not all of them are good) VCR - Intentionally made degraded so you were unable to copy Hulu/Netflix - Combine program guides and DVD - More control over what you want to watch, when you want to watch it, and how Youtube - Ability to participate in the creation of media Smart Phone - Device used to create and share media - When watching cinematic productions on smart phones, you miss detail due to small screen The Web - Distributes content different from TV and movie (made specific for web) - Gains power as a viewer INTRO TO PRODUCTION AND DESIGN – DAY 2 Forms of media - One of the first things human beings started to do was tell stories How did I get here? - What were people trying to do? How were they doing it?’ - Does this actually exist? Or is it what people desire? How do I better reproduce reality so people who weren’t there can experience? - First filmmaker Being in control of media - Remote controls INTRO TO PRODUCTION AND DESIGN – DAY 3 Multiple Screens - Only receiving partial message What kinds of content? - Informational o Basic, useful facts  Weather  Stock reports  Sports scores  EX: “…snow will increase towards midnight, tapering off to flurries by morning…” - Educational o New information that informs, but “sticks”  Science documentaries  History documentaries  Sports documentaries  Children’s television  EX: “Alfred Kinsey was a little-known biologist at Indiana University…” - Entertainment o Diverting, surprising, or allowing vicarious experience  Sitcoms, dramas, variety shows, reality shows, movies, music, sports, etc.  EX: “Grissom, there are blood spatters on the inside of the car roof, that means that the bullet must have come from below the car…”  The person that creates the message is responsible for both the creation of the message as well as the receipt and decoding of the message - Enlightenment o Ideas and opinions which may be unfamiliar to viewers  News, op-ed, talk, etc.  EX: “Today, Supreme Court nominee Samuel Alito fielded questions…” - Persuasive o Media intended to “sell” a product or an idea  Commercials, public service announcements, music videos, religious programming, infomercials, home-shopping, etc.  EX: “…but wait, there’s more. If you order now…”  Hyperbole, narcissistic, lying with numbers  The feeling of constantly being persuaded when people are just trying to convey information - Instructional What is “truth”? Truth in media How do we decide which information is true and which in untrue? Trust - Audience casts out at press and science when they’re upset with information - “A number” and “a feeling of a number” get mixed - Circular Reasoning: Using belief system to dictate what they believe to be true o EX: photo shopped Sarah Palin picture - Captions on photographs are what the photographers think they’re doing o EX: Hurricane Katrina photographs - As the media creator, what I want to do to you - As the media consumer, what you want to have done to you o If these two can be aligned, then the message can be understood INTRO TO PRODUCTION AND DESIGN – DAY 4 - We (as media creators) cannot make assumptions about any groups of people - The creator of media wants to 1) Educate 2) Enlighten 3) Inform 4) Persuade 5) Instruct - Creators are mostly worried about the message not being interpreted correctly o Must ask: what does the audience already know? Key understandings for the creator to get it right - Education - Religion - Income - Race - Rage INTRODUCTION TO PRODUCTION AND DEISGN – DAY 5 Research - What do we need to know about our audience? - Who can tell us? - What will we do with the results? o Change the show? o Change the next show? o Ignore them? Two main kinds of research 1) Formative research - Intended to inform the creation of a program - Focuses on the program itself 2) Basic research - Intended to inform our general understanding of mental or physical processes - Focuses on people Other types of research - Survey research (Nielsen Ratings, MRI) - Focus groups - Experimentation Formative research is “practical” - Related to specific questions o Is it understanding? o Is it appealing? o Does it catch and hold attention? o What do people already know? o What are people’s misconceptions that a program might correct? Formative research must be timely - Studies must be accomplished in days, not months o Information must be available within a production timeline o Late decisions about content changes are useless Formative research is generalizable - Information (data) must not relate only to the test group o The same information can be used to inform decisions about other programs o Material to be tested must have “general” qualities Formative research is conducted for non-researchers - Producers, not scientists, make television o Information must be credible and convincing o Must be perceived as relevant o Must carry concrete implications for production Two issues 1) Methodological issues: how to test? a. What and when to test (worth it?) b. Behavioral versus verbal measures c. Individual (experiment) versus group (focus group) 2) Process issues a. Who does the testing? b. How is the testing dome? INTRO TO PRODUCTION AND DESGIN – DAY 6 Sesame Street - If you can hold the attention of children, you can educate them o Change the structure and format of the content becomes “sticky” o “eye tracking” – the center of the screen is “stickier” than the outsides o Movement is distracting - Confusion = fear o Human beings like to solve puzzles o If the puzzle is too hard to solve (confusion), we will push it away (fear) INTRO TO PRODUCTION AND DESIGN – DAY 7 Conflict - Conflict + character = plot - Different kinds of conflict o Interpersonal (between themselves) o Global (characters share) o Internal/intrapersonal (should I do it?) Information (exposition)  talking, reacting, behaving - About themselves - About others - About situations Reveal information through - Internal monologues - Conversation - Actions - Reaction to actions Butler scene: 2 people who have a scene at the beginning of the show, intended to reveal information in a short amount of time Characters have reason for being in the media INTRO TO PRODUCTION AND DESIGN – DAY 8 Protagonist (hero) - Motivation: what gets him/her going? - Mission: where is he/she going? What does he/she want to accomplish? - Obstacles: what is in the way? - Change: how does the situation change them, or how must they change to accomplish mission? Antagonist (anti-hero) - Motivation: what gets him/her going? - Mission: where is he/she going? What does he/she want to accomplish? - Obstacles: what is in the way? - Change: how does the situation change them, or how must they change to accomplish mission? Ally - Motivation: what gets him/her going? - Mission: where is he/she going? What does he/she want to accomplish? - Obstacles: what is in the way? - Change: how does the situation change them, or how must they change to accomplish mission? Enabler - Motivation: what gets him/her going? - Mission: where is he/she going? What does he/she want to accomplish? - Obstacles: what is in the way? - Change: how does the situation change them, or how must they change to accomplish mission? Point of view - Not opinion Manipulation - We can manipulate point of view to achieve certain effects The purpose of manipulating point of view - To channel, direct and control the spectator’s knowledge and desire along predetermined pathways of plot Manipulate what? - What is known = knowledge - What is happening = participation - What is believed = attitudes - Where it is happening = location The audience - Participation: the audience is a character in the story (interaction) - Knowledge: the audience knows information which is unknown to the characters (omniscience) - Attitude: the audience has preconceived ideas about the story/characters/narrator - Location: where are you in relation to the characters? Writer/narrator - Attitude: the writer/narrator has preconceived ideas about information in the story - Knowledge: the writer/narrator knows things about the characters that has not been revealed to them (omniscient) - Participation: the writer/narrator is a character in the story - Location: where is the narrator in relation to the characters? INTRO TO PRODUCTION AND DESIGN – DAY 8 Premise and theme - Interchangeable terms but NOT interchangeable ideas Premise: proposition upon which an argument is based or from which a conclusion is drawn - The “idea” that is proven through the story - EX: “true love can lead to willing sacrifice” Theme: a subject of artistic representation - Focuses on the universal truth into a specific situation A Premise has 3 parts 1) Dramatic issue: an idea/state of being a. Love of money b. Intolerance of others c. Blind jealousy 2) Movement: an action/motion a. Leads to b. Results in c. Creates d. Destroys e. dissolves 3) Fulfillment: a new state of being/idea a. Isolation from friends b. Friendship c. Love d. Family e. Freedom of oppression Put them together - Blind jealousy destroys friendship - Love of money creates loneliness - Intolerance dissolves family Build a theme upon foundation of premise - Premise: intolerance dissolves family o A father who cannot accept his sons sexual orientation There are NOT successful premises They do not suggest a theme Fish EX Dramatic issue: the fish is stuck in a fish bowl Movement: (leap of faith) the fish jumps out the window Fulfillment: be more empowered - Risk, sacrifice, luck INTRO TO PRODUCTION AND DESIGN – DAY 10 Balloon video Characters - Protagonists – orange jumpsuit team - Antagonists – opposing workers Set the balloons free – why? - Freedom is good – motivation - Free the balloons – mission Good stories include - Premise - Theme - Character - Conflict - Plot Two “stories” 1) Objective story 2) Subjective story Log lines tell us what “both stories” are about - Shorter version of scripts that reveal objective/subjective story Objective Story - The background against which the protagonist’s story takes place - The story you can ‘see’ - About o Tangible goals o Action o Entertainment Subjective Story - The protagonist’s story - What is happening on the “inside” of the character - About o “character flaws” o Relationships o Theme The “character flaw” - “a weakness or ‘defense mechanism’ that hinders the character in such a way as to make him/her incomplete” Enabling circumstances - The conditions at the beginning of the story that make it possible for the hero to maintain their “flaw” Antagonist - Not always a villain (might be the woman who the man wants to have fall in love with him) - The person who instigates the event which results in the correction of the “flaw” Allies - Other characters whose presence helps reveal the basic “flaws” of the protagonist The “life changing event” - End of act 1 - A challenge, threat, or opportunity that forces the protagonist to respond in a way that is related to the “flaw” Jeopardy - The conditions that must be risked or faced in order for the character to overcome his/her flaw o Adds excitement o Often posed by the antagonist o Usually an act 2 device Log line EX - A working class father (protagonist) with consistently poor judgement (flaw) causes a series of events that result in his becoming responsible for all law enforcement in his town (life-changing event), in which role he runs afoul of a local mobster (antagonist) who determines to kill him (conflict) but who is saved in the end by his family (ally), causing him to reflect on his honorable role as head of family. - A jaded (flaw) WWII casino owner (protagonist) in Nazi-occupied Morocco sees his former lover (antagonist) arrive, accompanied by her husband (ally) whose heroism forces the hero to choose between his cynicism, his feeling for his ex-lover, and his once-strong feelings of patriotism (conflict) Premise  theme  logline  treatment  capture  editing INTRO TO PRODUCTION AND DESIGN – DAY 11 Treatment – a document that says what they’re going to see and hear (expansion from logline) - Written pitch for production of television/film - Sales document, convincing someone to want more Several types of treatment subjects - Original stories - True stories - Adaptions of other stories A treatment is NOT a script - 1-5 pages in length - Does not use TV jargon (such as types of shots/camera movements) - Helps convey the passion and importance of the story - Helps convey structure of the story (begins at the beginning of the song, ends when its over) (3-act comedy) - Describes essence of characters and plot Treatment vs. synopsis - A synopsis is a summations of the scenes in the entire script - A simple description of the plot Treatment vs. outline - The outline is a scene to scene detailed breakdown of the script - A description of the structure Treatment vs. coverage - A diagnostic document that includes a synopsis, and a set of criterion on which decisions can be made What treatments are - Relatively brief - Loosely narrative – tells and shows - User friendly - Dramatic - Highly descriptive of visuals - Written in present tense What treatments include - Straightforward and simple language - Story highlights; not every scene - Primary characters (protagonist, antagonist) - Plot twists and turning points - The most dramatic scenes, not exposition Great treatments - Every scene o Includes conflict o Moves the plot forward - Everything hinges on characters st Written in 1 person plural, present tense - We see flowers melt on the Simpson’s doorstep, ink run from the newspaper and Bart’s crusty the clown… Treatments can be chronological - You can describe the basic story outline chronologically You can describe key dramatic points Characters in treatments - Do not include function or minor characters - Do include supporting and main characters o Indicate how they change o Indicate their motivations o Indicate their obstacles o Suggest their jeopardy Other treatment elements - Setting o Enough description in each scene so that the reader knows what they will see and hear - Point of view o A suggestion in each scene of the various points-of-view in operation  Camera  Narrator  Audience  Characters o Pace How to explain point of view - Who is telling the story? o The Simpson’s has no narrator but rather has an omnipotent author who can see and hear everything - Who is the story intended for? How to discuss style of your approach - The Simpson’s will be the roughest form of 2-D line animation using bold fields of color instead of shading. For example, the main skin color of the Simpsons family is actually yellow, while Marge Simpson’s hair is a bright blue… How to discuss pace - The half-hour will be a collection of 30-40 short “cut-scenes” following the activities of numerous characters and humorous “bits” that establish the overall inanity of the denizens of Springfield Format - First page, includes centered title, writer, name, date, and type (based on true story, adaption) and logline - Write in scenes, not paragraphs - Single space, wide margins - Common single typeface - No idents - Begin in the middle of the first scene with action INTRO TO PRODUCTION AND DESIGN – DAY 12 The “shot” - Generally organized by distance from subject o The basic types of shots  Long shot (LS)  Medium shot (MS)  Close shot (CS) The long shot (Wide shot) - Long shot o Orients audience to subjects, objects, settings, and situations o Sometimes used synonymously with establishing shot (ES), wide shot (WS), or full shot (FS)  ES establishes the setting/situation  Establishing shot can be anything, as long as it orients the viewer  FS provides head to toe view of character Wide angle - Wide angle refers to the size/apparent “field of view” not direction o Any shot can be “wide angle” o Usually not used for close-ups  Distortion of image  Compression of distance Aspect ratio: 16 units wide 9 units tall Medium shot - The medium shot (MS) provides head to knee view of subject o Can be differentiated into medium long shot (MLS) and medium close up (MCU) o Can be referred to as two-shots or three-shots based on the number of people in each shot Close shot - The close shot (CS) or close up (CU) provides a head to shoulders view of the subject o Close ups help highlight important information revealed by a character o Close ups focus and direct attention o Overuse results in negative effect Edits have been getting faster due to the invention of MTD Audience has to know exactly why you used an extreme close up (ECU) Different shot “angles” - POV shot - Reverse-angle - Over-the-shoulder - Low-angle - High-angle - Overhead Camera angles - Can be used to share a particular character’s perspective on the action - Can enhance the audiences identification with a person’s psychological or philosophical point-of-view Point-of-view shot - Puts camera in the approximate spatial position of a particular character o Usually preceded by a shot that indicated which character and where they are looking Reverse-angle shot - Opposite in direction from the previous shot - Frequently used in interview settings and sports Low-angle shot - Closer to floor than typical eye height o Tends to exaggerate size and importance of subject o If used as a POV shot can indicate stature (such as child, animal, or person lying down) o Can be used to reveal background above subject Over the shoulder shots = good for reaction High angle shot - Places camera high above subject o Tends to minimize size and importance of subject o If used as a POV shot can indicate stature o Can be used to reveal background below subject Overhead shot - Camera is placed directly overhead o Can be used to orient viewer (a kind of “mapping” function) o Can indicate “godliness” of viewer INTRO TO PRODUCTION AND DESIGN – DAY 14 Editing Styles - Continuity editing o Matching consecutive shots to tell a story/inform o Clear sense of location and time *very important* o Color, shot, framing, and screen direction help orient the view - Parallel editing o Alternate between two related events o Parallel two separate actions that come together in a climax o Use it to compare present and past events, old and new, etc. o Use it to increase the tension - Montage editing: a series of shots juxtaposed with one another. Frequently used in show “opening sequences.” Often includes very rapid edits and shots might be unrelated to one another. o Utilitarian – to collect disconnected information o Compressed time – to rapidly go through the passage of time o Dramatic – to go through a series of related scenes that link to a dramatic content o Impressionistic – the images are related by feeling, mood, motion or color Aesthetic approaches - Realism o Consistent placement of characters, action and events o Intends to clarify and simplify the message  Often used in sit-coms and documentaries o Frequently moves from EST shot to MS to CU and back to LS - Modernism o Disrupts spatial and temporal continuity and between shots for effect o Intends to call attention to the editing process o Often focuses on abstract qualities of design, juxtaposing textures, colors or shapes - Post-modernism o Combines elements of realism and modernism to create fresh interpretations of information o Uses “heightened” colors and audio to achieve dramatic effects  Needs to break the pattern you notice o Can combine “real” footage with new material to point out irony or paradoxes Sequence motivations - Follow the action - Use a better angle - Improve pace - Advance the narrative - Show a point of view - Create a mood - Emphasize a subject or event o EX: close up to show how a person feels - Cut with dialogue and reactions - Illustrate interviews - Provide audience visual variety to hold interest Every edit has a reason - Keep the viewer oriented: use wide or long establishing shots to remind viewer of character or object placement - Keep the viewer interested: close ups provide insight into character’s emoltions - Keep the viewer focused Building a sequence - Selecting: choosing shots - Combining: putting shots in sequence - Trimming: cutting scenes to appropriate length - Consolidating: removing extraneous material INTRO TO PRODUCTION AND DESIGN – DAY 15 Graphic design - Design elements - Color - Composition Aesthetic principals - Realist design o Stimulates existing setting or location o Emphasis on set elements appearing to be exactly what they look like (steel instead of wood, paint instead of stone, etc.) o Often stylized to reflect emotional or psychological ideas related to be the theme o Often used for sitcoms and drama - Modernist design o Not tied to “reality” o Can exaggerate one elements to “make a point” o Can call attention to colors, shapes, or textures for their own sake o Often used for news or talk show settings o For attraction, not communication - Post-modernist design o Can mix a variety of design styles (realism and modernism) o Often blend traditional with contemporary design; combine classical with modern elements o Usually appeal to the emotions o Often found in film or fantasy Design elements - Line o Define edges of one element versus another o Create a path or direction for the eye  Straight lines are dynamic and suggest “quick action”  Curved lines are softer and suggest casual movement o Converging lines suggest distance - Shape o Provide “resonance” – calls something to mind (circle = sun; regularly curving line = waves/water; vertical lines = rain) o Recognized symbols (8 point star = compass; 5 point star = patriotism; 6 point star = religious belief) - Texture o A sense of how something feels o A sense of depth (a lot of detail suggests we are close) o A sense of comfort (smooth but stonelike = cold; soft and heavily textured = warm) - Movement o The illusion of movement provided by visual signals (arrows) o Still figures in front of vibrating images seem to vibrate as well o Visual signals provide sense of physical “gravity” or “floating”  A spiral on the floor might suggest sinking Color - Associating colors with feelings INTRO TO PRODUCTION AND DESIGN – DAY 15 Color - Messaging o Conveys meaning - Harmony (certain colors used together can create tension or relaxation) o Clashing colors vs. matching colors send messages to audience - Contrast (virtual separation between design elements without physical separation) o Contrast of hue  EX. Yellow and blue, green and pink = high contrast  EX. Red and orange, dark blue and light blue = low contrast o Contrast of value (how much white is in the color) - Emotional response (colors evoke involuntary cultural and psychological reactions) o Blue, green, violet  Cool colors suggest relaxation or lack of physical/personal “warmth”  Can appear to “recede” into a scene o Red, orange, yellow  Warm colors suggest tension or passion  Appear to “advance” in a scene - Cultural response (colors evoke political, social and religious identification) o Starts to include more than color (shape) o Different color combinations cause resonance with “real-world” ideas, etc.  Black and red = nazi Germany  Red white and blue = America Composition - Balance (symmetry) - Proximity (how close/far – often related to depth of field) - Similarity (how much like each other) - Correspondence (resonance) - Emphasis (how much greater in importance) - Readability (distance, importance) - Equilibrium (how the image appears to correspond to natural occurrences) - Figure/ground Symmetry of line/asymmetry of cololr INTRO TO PRODUCTION AND DESIGN – DAY 1 Mise-en-scene - “putting things in place” or “Setting the scene” o The relationship between the camera (audience) and what is in its sights o Distinct from “montage” which is the relationship between one “shot” and another What is in the “shot”? - Who is in the shot? - Where did they come from? - Where are they going? - Where is the light coming from? - Where is everyone else? - What does the “mise-en-scene” say about the characters? Set or stage design - Incorporated graphic design elements to achieve a “locale” for action - Set provides logical space for o Mise-en-scene o Action o Exposition - Set provides contextual information related to characters Contextual information - Indoors or outdoors? - Economic status? o Person belongs there o Person is “fish-out-of-water” - Cultural significance (church, temple, gym, alleyway) - Subject to phenomena (is situation “under control of characters”?) Logical space for action - Do characters “belong” there? - Does the space seem to have been altered to the benefit of the characters? - Does the space “affect” the characters? Exposition - Does the space tell you where you are without verbal clues? - Does the space tell you what to “feel” without verbal clues? - Does the space reinforce or reject verbal clues? - Does the space imply a course of action? Is the space appropriate for “shooting” - Does the space accommodate cameras? - Does the space allow for interesting backgrounds/foregrounds - Does the space support “figure/ground” needs? - Does the space provide adequate room for character movement? Does the space make sense? - Do the various elements of the design work together or against each other? - Does the layout of the space vindicate areas outside of the space? (closure) - Is the space confirming or confusing? - Does the space provide visual clues to thematic ideas? Where is the light coming from? - Is it natural? - Is it artificial, but looks natural? - Is it point source? What things are in the shot? - Interior o Furniture o Clothing o Walls o Doorways o Floor treatments - Exterior o Vehicles o Houses/buildings o Streets o Light sources o Landscapes Why are things in the shot? - Define characters - Provide obstacles - Provide contrast - Provide balance - Establish mood - Define space - Direct action - Provide visual metaphors What do things say about characters? - Wealth (nice things = money) - Social status (same) - Education (books, art, design, etc.) - Values (what is important to the character?) - Help to define “jeopardy” (i.e. basement) - Help to define “goals” (i.e. mountain) INTRO TO PRODUCTION AND DESIGN – DAY 2 - Building stories out of your own experiences Synecdoche - Using a part of something to represent the whole o A chili pepper representing a Mexican restaurant o An abandoned child’s balloon representing the child’s lost innocence  Balloon representative of celebrations, parties, sense of happiness  Joy and freedom go together o A lot of mirrors could represent vanity - Big idea represented by something small - Show don’t tell Drink picture - Large beverage companies (starbucks, dunkin donuts, pepsi, panera) - Balanced - There’s a cross at the top - “Rethink economy” - Companies, religion, economy Hyperbole - Uses exaggeration to convey an idea o “it’s a million degrees in here” o A bomb could represent general danger o A bulging wallet could indicate wealth Metalepsis - The use of an after image to indicate what came before o Several empty beer glassed indicates mass consumption of beer o A messy kitchen indicates the prior preparation of a big meal INTRO TO PRODUCTION AND DESIGN – DAY 3 “The statue got me high” - Statue representing MTV space man o Present day, the symbol is unrecognizable o Depends on when you are exposed to the symbol  The Oscar will be a long term well known symbol  Symbols can go permanently bad  Swastika - Low shot angles to make them appear bigger - Post-modernist video - Television and movie rely on symbols rather than words Scripts - Scripts provide information about o Dialogue o Staging o Shots o Audio o Effects o Settings and lighting o What we hope to see Scripts can take many forms - Story outline - Treatment - Screenplay - Table script - Narration script Script continuum Logline - Introduces o Characters o Conflict o Setting o Jeopardy o Allies o Life changing event - Story outline (NOT a treatment) o Expands on log line by:  Introducing all main characters and their relationships to one another  Presents scenes in order to show dramatic structure  Gives an idea of the size of the project  A “diagnostic” document  Not visual - Story outline for drama o Step outline:  Goldilocks gets lost in the woods  She finds the 3 bears house  She goes into the house and finds it empty  Etc. - Treatment for documentary o A “selling” document  Intended to convince someone to produce  Includes elements of drama, emotion, mood, and atmosphere  Reads a bit like a story or article  Between 4 and 8 pages single spaced  Usually written in first person plural from to POV of the audience - Screenplay (master scene script) o Intended to present all dialogue and stage directions clearly o A new scene is required when place or time changes o Rarely indicates camera positions or effects, unless they are necessary to understand dialogue o Average 1 page per minute of “screen time” o Not intended to do director’s job o You do not want to deviate from the normal format Process: idea, premise, theme, logline Treatment: expression of what it’s going be like story outline, master scene script, table script, shooting, narration, transcript, actual script INTRO TO PRODUCTION AND DESIGN – DAY 3 What do storyboards tell us? - Who is in the shot - Where is the point of view of the camera - What sort of lighting is needed - What kind of shot is it - What are people wearing - What is the location Who is in the shot? - Which characters - What is the physical relationship of the characters - What can we learn about what the character doesn’t say, by seeing what the character does, or how the character “views” the situation? What is the camera’s POV - Camera stationary, but lens moves back and forth or up and down (pan or tilt) - Camera moves from side to side (truck or track) - Forward or backward (dolly or zoom) - Low angle (LA), high angle (HA), wide angle (WA) What sort of lighting? - Amount (day or night) - Interior (point source) or exterior (directional) - Behind, in front, or to the side - Artificial (street light) or natural (moonlight) - Color What kind of shot? - EST (establishing shot – where are we) - CU (close up – in your face) - MS (medium shot – includes character or item and part of location) - LS (long shot – from a distance) - OS (overhead shot) - Zoom (from CU to LS or vise-versa) What is the location? - Basic “setting the scene” information – in a car, on the beach, on the moon, underwater, in the shower, on a train, floating mid-air… - BGD – background - FGD – foreground - MGD – medium “ground” How will we shoot? - Single camera o Location o Studio o Handheld or tripod - Multiple camera o Location o Studio (soundstage) o Mounted on tripods - How we do it will instantly translate to audience’s experience Advantages of single camera - Camera can easily move anywhere - Camera can easily behave as character - Multiple lens choices allow for many different shots - Camera is small and portable o ENG or “beta” cam o Film camera o Digital SLR o Other formats Disadvantages of single camera - Requires editing of separate takes into a sequence - Shots from new directions require new lighting set-ups - Camera usually must store the images as they are created (tape, disk, drive, card, etc.) - Limited in terms of size of lenses available for simple use - Requires some sort of portable power source (battery or generator) Advantages of multiple camera - Very stable pedestal tripod means virtually no image discontinuities - Power easily supplied - Images can be recorded via cable to remote servers - Can be connected to switcher via router into a single camera chain o Camera chain: links every device in the system, treats it like one system, creates essentially an edited piece o Switcher: manipulating camera change - Can result in a completely edited sequence during shooting Disadvantages of multi-camera - Camera generally have to be all on one side of the scene - Cameras are often large and cumbersome - Studios must be large - Studios require either permanent or mobile control rooms for switching - Lighting is often fairly general and flat Shot sequence - The logical order of on shot after another - two important rules of screen direction o 1. 180 degree rule  never move camera beyond the line defined by the subject’s eyes  sometimes called “eyeline match”  important to make sure that the subject does not “change direction” or position because of a camera move  Important with moving objects (cars, parades, races, field sports, etc.)  Breaking the rile is often called “crossing the line” o 2. 30 degree rule  you should move the camera more than 30 degrees from a previous shot when shooting the same subject  supplies new information  adds visual interest  avoids “jerkiness” against the background  avoids a kind of “jump cut” or a shot sequence that doesn’t make sense - Important to maintain “continuity” o EX: man getting hit by the car scene Screen direction choices - Use logical placement of one subject to another in order to avoid confusion o Use establishing shots to orient viewer to the space o Use over-the-shoulder shots to justify abrupt change in camera angle o Use intermediate shots to emulate the movement of a viewer around subjects - A choice to break a rule must be intentional and in service of the story - Proper orientation of subjects to one another between shots o People who are speaking with one another should be looking at each other o A person moving away from the camera should not immediately begin moving toward the camera How to avoid problems - Do not change shot during action (unless you intend to disorient the viewer) - Do include a new establishing shot on the same line as the action (either behind or in front of action) - Do move camera in continuous shot from one side of line to the other - Do remember that the rule is important whether shooting single camera or multi-camera Line of action - The “directionality” of camera vs. subject o Imagine a circle (360 degrees) drawn around two people having a conversation o The camera must stay on half of the circle determined by a diameter drawn along eyelines Editing - The art of deciding “what comes next?” - Art of anticipating what the audience wants to see - Selecting: choosing shots - Combining: putting shots in sequence - Trimming: “cutting” scenes to appropriate length - Consolidating: removing extraneous material - Correcting: improving sound or color problems Three techniques 1. Continuity editing a. Matching consecutive shots to tell a story or to inform b. Clear sense of location and time c. Color, shot, framing, and screen direction help orient the viewer 2. Parallel editing a. Alternate between two related events b. Parallel two separate actions that come together in a climax c. Use it to compare present and past events, old and new, etc. d. Use it to increase the tension 3. Montage editing: a series of shots juxtaposed with one another. Frequently used in show “opening sequences.” Often includes very rapid edits and shots might be unrelated to one another. a. Utilitarian – to collect disconnected information b. Compressed time – to rapidly go through the passage of time c. Dramatic – to go through a series of related scenes that link to a dramatic content d. Impressionistic – the images are related by feeling, mood, motion or color e. Good to describe incident or feeling, bad at telling stories Combining shots - Straight cuts or takes – from one shot to another, more direct - Fades – up or down from black - Dissolves – cross fade from one shot to another, indicate passing of time - Wipes – a “clearing” of the frame from one border to another - Defocus – blurring the frame - Special effects – a variety of methods Aesthetic approaches - Realism o Consistent placement of characters, action and events o Intends to clarify and simplify the message  Often used in sit-coms and documentaries o Frequently moves from EST shot to MS to CU and back to LS o EX: We are never ever getting back together music video - all done in one shot with no cuts - Modernism o Disrupts spatial and temporal continuity between shots for effect o Intends to call attention to the editing process o Often focuses on abstract qualities of design, juxtaposing textures, colors or shapes (to pull out of realism) o Piece of art o EX: green sky, red tree with no juxtaposition - Post modernism o Combines elements of realism and modernism to create fresh interpretations of information o Uses “heightened” colors and audio to achieve dramatic effects o Can combine “real” footage with new material to point out irony or paradoxes Stages of editing - Off line editing o Making a rough cut of the program  Allows various contributors to see basic structure  Allows director/producer to see what is missing  Allows writer to further develop dialogue to match images and pacing o Eventually results in a fine-cut of the program and an Edit Decision List (EDL) and sequence - On line editing o Making a final version of the program o Results in a “master broadcast tape” with the highest possible resolution or quality o “smooths out” any odd or problematic synchronized audio issues - Sweetening o Adds music and audio sound effects to enhance the program o Provides a full range of possibilities that can be “mixed” together in the next process o Can create audio “environments” to tell parts of the story that can’t be told with words or scenery - Mix o Changing the volume and length of various sounds in relation to one another o Establishing a “hierarchy” of sounds such as voice, narration, music, effects - Packaging Two basic methods - Linear editing o The “old way” of splicing one shot to another in an analog editing suite - Non-linear editing o The “new way” of seamlessly integrating one video image to another in a digital domain Audio, SFX, and music Aesthetics - Realist o Natural sounds reinforce naturally occurring imagery o Emphasizes clarity and doesn’t call attention to itself o Audio leads video o Sometimes called diegetic sound (part of the world, created within the world) or actual sound - Modern o Sounds may be asynchronous with imagery o Sounds can develop subjective impressions which rely on the viewer/listener to fill in gaps o The pace can work in contrast to realistic imagery, creating irony - Post-modern o Combines all forms o Can juxtapose realistic, natural sounds with artificial, man-made sounds o Can use musical variety to enhance visual variety Audio recording - Sync sound o Recorded at the same time and place as visual recording, frequently on the same tape - Natural sound o Recorded separately from video, but at the same time and place - Wild sound o Recorded independently of videotaping to use from time-to-time throughout a film or video Audio capture issues - Highest “signal-to-noise” ratio**** - Low distortion o No system noise: sound created by amplifiers, cables, mixers, etc. o No ambient noise: sound present at the location or studio - Highest sound intensity possible without distortion - Best stereo separation o Directional sound reinforced o Directional “rule of 180 degrees” Audio editing issues - Online o Balancing ambient noise or “room tone” o Eliminating “lip-flap” due to video edits - Sweetening o Adding unique sound effects from SFX libraries or wild or natural sound tapes - Mixing o Adjusting levels of music, dialogue, narration, and SFX so that the most important is always easiest to distinguish Diegetic vs Non Diegetic Sound and image interaction - On-screen versus off-screen sound - Commentative versus actual sound - Synchronous versus asynchronous sound - Parallel versus contrapuntal sound On-screen versus off-screen sound - Off-screen sound can increase illusion of spatial depth - Off-screen sound can increase expectations of events o A motorcycle revving before it comes into the frame o A bomb whistling before it impacts Synchronous vs. asynchronous sound - Synchronous o Match their on-camera sources (a ball bouncing, an instrument playing, a person talking) o Rarely non-diegetic - Asynchronous o Off camera music o Can be “surreal” o Doesn’t match what is going on screen o Rarely diegtic Parallel versus Contrapuntal sound - Parallel sound o Makes sense with the activities (choral music with a choir, gunshots in a battle, babies crying in a day care center) - Contrapuntal sound o Works in counterpoint to the scene o Can be “tongue-in-cheek” No light – no color No light – no sight No light – no demensions Lighting - Can be used to o Enhance 3-deminsionality of a scene o Evoke a mood or create a visual o Emphasize a subject  Bringing it into sharp focus  Increasing contrast between foreground and background o De-emphasize a subject by  Softening and harmonizing Lighting aesthetics - Realist o Tries to emulate “real life” lighting o Pays attention to real sources and expected intensity of light - Modernist o Does not rely on actual “sources” of light o Can create abstract patterns o Tries to emulate emotions o Often used in theatrical style scenes - Post-modernist o Mixes realist and modernist techniques to evoke emotional responses o Can disorient and confuse viewer for effect o Often seen in “rock concert” footage using moving lights, unrealistic color, or harsh overpowering light Types of lights - Sunlight o Intense, harsh, and high-contrast o Often called “hard light” o Includes equal proportions of color and spectrum o Appears blue-ish to the camera o Indirect sunlight (reflected off buildings, etc.) is called “skylight” and is less harsh - Reflected light - Lamp-light o What we are accustomed to indoors o Implies a “choice” by characters o Sometimes called “point source”  This means that the thing that creates the light is part of the mise-en-scene (lamp)  Can also be part of the world, but not of the scene (overhead light in an office) o Incandescent o Florescent o LED o Metal halide (HMI) Different light looks use different means of light production - Tungsten o Light is produced by heating a filament o Often on the “warmer”, redder side of the spectrum - Metal halide (HMI) o Light is produced by exciting gas molecules o Tends to be bluish and very bright, so often used to stimulate sunlight - Florescent o Produced by exciting gas molecules o Produces a very flat, greenish light o Used in many TV studios with special color/temperature “filters”  Produces far less heat than incandescent lamps  Produces a softer light - LED o New standard of lighting o Are actually small “machines” which use circuitry to produce light o Can vary in color/temperature o Produces almost no heart, use little power o Still in development Lighting instruments - Spotlights (incandescent or LED) o Fresnel: name refers to type of lens that makes light beam narrower o Ellipsoidal: name refers to mirror which reflects and concentrates light into parallel rays - Floodlights (light produced many ways) o Scoops, broads, PARs: provide directional, but diffuse light o Soft-lights: provides lots of even light over large area Lighting set-ups - Where we put the light matters o Light the subject  Attractiveness  Dimensionality o Light the background  Attractiveness  Dimensionality Light the subject - Manipulate highlights and lowlights o Can be enhanced through makeup o Bad lighting can add weight, change appearance, confuse message - Enhance “figure” vs “ground” - Indicate relative importance of characters, body parts, etc. Light the background - Increase mise-en-scene - Draw attention to important artifacts in the scene - Increase dimensionality - Set “mood” - Define location Important lighting issues - All light must be generated o Many lighting instruments generate a lot of heat, use a lot of power o Light must be corrected to match temperature of other light sources o Lights require physical hanging and support structures Types of lighting set up - Interviews (documentary, news, etc.) o Three and four-point setups (light-plots) - Single camera o Lighting set up for each shot  Must pay attention to temporal and special continuity o Multiple camera  Emphasis on lack of shadows  Lighting often very “flat”  Intended mainly to keep characters visible Three-point Light Plot backlig ht Kicker light Key light Fill light


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