P 155 Lectures Notes
P 155 Lectures Notes COLL-P155
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P155 Lecture Notes Lecture 1 o POC o What is this course for?? o Subject object o This course is for/about you o Not naval gazing, not communing with yourself, it’s about you and I become we o Subject (I) subject (us) o POC – is the power of speech to achieve the common good with and for others in just institutions o Speech is inherently a public act (assert, reveal, express, respond, reject, accept, commit, promise, ask, challenge, judge, condemn, welcome, separate out, insult) o Range of public speaking o Formal public address o Most of public addresses goes on in town halls, corporations, school meetings o Speech, voice, life (when we talk about POC) o One of the 10 skills most want in employees o Skills looked for-ability to work in a team, ability to make decisions and solve problems, ability to plan, organize, and prioritize work, ability to communicate verbally with people inside and outside an organization, ability to obtain and process info, ability to create and/or edit written reports, ability to influence others 98% of employers want this o Social intelligence – ability to speak with others, work in teams, irreplaceable by “robots”, the distinctive human art of representation, not just a skill o POC is valuable to other ways as well o The temptation to abuse this art in order to deceive, manipulate, distort, corrupt (disclaimer) People who abuse this power, can be very convincing without knowing any backstory o The 7 temptations – deception, manipulation, seduction, propaganda, trickery, flimflam, equivocation o What is the good of eloquence, if it can deceive? If it can go either way why is it considered an art? o Like any power, speech is a vehicle for good or evil o The power you have to speak o The power of the word – (a) amass a personal fortune with mortgage-backed securities and finance a sweat-shop labor operation in the Dominican Republic or (b) lead a community to find a cure for ulcerative colitis, improve work conditions, etc. o Sophistry – weasel words, snake oil, doublespeak, used car salesman P155 Lecture Notes Explanation of temptation o Dangers (manipulation, deception, equivocation, SOPHISTRY) Opportunities (self reflection, inspiring change, building community, ELOQUENCE) KNOW THIS ^^ o Sophistry - slick use of the tools of rhetoric to bamboozle your audience) Eloquence - the capacity of the beauty and power of language to illuminate and move Tug of war, you sometimes don’t know which way to go o The power of the word…. To deceive, to manipulate, to coerce, to get my way, to win at all costs, to vanquish all competitors, to race to the top To learn about others to help find the common good, to work collectively, to figure out the best path forward, to figure out the best thing to do o Logos – the Greek word for language, work, or reason, designed to expose what is helpful or harmful and what is right and wrong (Aristotle) o Creature of the house and the city o What does the word “public” mean? o The fear of private going public o Why do you get a little frightened when you have to speak in public? o We feel safe in private o Fear of the anonymous other and what the feel or think about us o Feeling lost and needing something to pull you close to your comfort o The world beyond our private one The dangerous, alien, unfamiliar, strange, unconnected, unknown, frightening o Home The familiar, intimate, comfortable, protected, safe, possessed, secure Also, the boring, monotonous, routine, usual, commonplace, penned in, restricted, confined o Fear of outer world makes us go to inner world o The world beyond Escape, adventure, discovery, new worlds, new ways, difference, diversity, variety Endangered, at risk, alone, unattached, isolated o Being human is this binary No place like home (the familiar, safe, secure) Over the rainbow (the unfamiliar, new, free) We need both of these o Paradox of being human is this dichotomy P155 Lecture Notes Creature of the home/creature of the city Roof and 3 square meals (needing and hating)/ the distant shore (wanting and fearing) Moving back and forth in your life Not comfortable in any one place Life line = public o The public realm is the slender tether of mores, conventions, practices, rules, institutions…that keep us from drifting off where no one can hear us scream Help us out when we need a little help o POC The public realm Definition of POC - Power of speech to achieve the common good with and for others in just institutions Society – mores, conventions, practices, rules, institutions The De Minimis “ties that bind” (allows us to be creatures of both home and city)…not community but society What allows us to go onto the outer place o The public space is a fragile and weak space (tenuous communicative place) o How effective do you consider these modes of speech, deliberation and dialogue? o Public sphere is only as legitimate as its forms of representation o Public realm is an ideal But how real is it? o “The public” as a thing “The people” Who is included in “the people” “public”?? Is there even such a thing as “the public”? o The public commons Consensus is not possible on many things (bit of a fiction) Positions are often intransigent Values are rarely shared universally Agreement is usually only ever incremental Dissensus is endemic to the commons (reality) KNOW THIS ^^^ o POC is both a solution and a problem Summary o The history of speech theory (according to the textbook) The three models –the evolution of the 20 century theory First stage: Transmission model (radio and TV) Second stage: speech comm model Third stage: public sphere model o Communication as transmission (of info) Or language as envelope Accurate info o Role play From clerk of the registrar P155 Lecture Notes From ex landlord From colts owner Don’t care of what he is doing, just care about the words he is saying…that is transmission Test results, bank statement, package delivery notice, meeting notice, and notification of winnings o Propaganda – aka hypodermic needle model o When transmission becomes sketchy When is treats people as targets, as passive, as all alike, when is disregards their context and their history, when is sees them simply as consumers Then we’re no longer active citizens participating in community, only consumers of info o Public sphere model (p20) Context shapes the meaning of message The message changes the context This reciprocal action is called circulation Looks at audience and sees what is circulating and what they are talking about or liking and making a speech from that information o 5 Star slide o Transmission – info going from one person to another Circulation – info going around from audience to speaker o How does this course work? Teaching philosophy We do it backwards o Speaker audience Who is the audience? This is what forms my speech. o The audience centered speaker (we) Strategic: to achieve a speaker’s ends Ethical: to respond to audience’s needs and demands Constitutive: created by the interaction o Cultivating a habitus (for life) Lecture 2 o Building a Speech From a Claim o Picking a topic, researching, making a claim, outline o Usable concepts Topic, claim, inherency, entailments, constraints o 1. Picking a topic (theme) Public controversies in POC Topic constraints: must address public issue, not pop culture, sports unless these expose an importance public issue o 2. Research Immerse yourself in the essays, arguments, data, and opinions on your topic P155 Lecture Notes Read as deeply in the subject matter as you need to feel confident you’re getting a handle on it Use dictionaries, Wikipedia to master secondary terms, history, and geography, whatever you need of the background general info Take copious notes Good research habits: read many sources, make sure they are credible, immerse yourself in materials until you are well versed in issues, make sure the POV balance each other in theme, level of detail, and strength of arguments o Pre-outline, just jot down notes, gathering material, brainstorming o 3. Claim speech outline o Outline Identity, highlight, and sort types of material: Description, example, and support How would these flow: POV 1 | POV 2 | POV 3 Outline format: in book for speech 2 o Claim – to call or cry out to someone about something (exclamation, clam-mer, exclaim) Constructing a good speech claim well begun, half done (50%) Metaphor – zygote, info inside and very important A topic IS NOT a claim A topic is a phrase, theme and has no bias while a claim is a sentence, states a position, and is spoken by someone to someone Your two ‘claim’ responsibilities: (a) invent sound claim (b) invent a sound claim for a descriptive speech POC claim not universal, impersonal proposition In other words, a rhetorical claim is situated/embedded in a context-dependent matrix Four qualities of a good claim: is in the form of a declarative sentence, is tightly focused and not vague, doesn’t contain loaded language, and is calibrated appropriately to the audience and constraints of your speech KNOW THIS ^^^ Making a descriptive claim: describe the discourse surrounding a public issue Claim in your public issue speech makes a judgment about the range of positions in a public controversy Because the public controversy speech requires you to describe without bias the nature of the division of your topic A good claim fits constraints of your assignment (it’s a controversial public issue) P155 Lecture Notes Rightness-of-fit: appropriateness, fitness, balance, and measure, hitting the target To test your claim: (a) read the assignment sheet for the speech carefully, (b) check your claim against hits all items on checklist, is a complete sentence, doesn’t contain loaded language, describes the range of topic o Inherency – determining the main ideas (issues) you need to cover from a claim / are the issues that an audience needs or wants to have answered when you make a claim for their assent KNOW THIS ^^^ o Next step: tease out inherent issues o The speech comes out of the claim o Issues are inherent relative to your audience Stay away from non-inherent issues o If you’ve dropped an inherent issue, the audience should pick it up in the Q and A o Ch. 2. P 35-57… Head = claim Body = body = main ideas o Decide which pattern is the most fitting arrangement of your main ideas Chronological, categorical, cause-effect, problem-solution, compare-contrast, residues (All speeches have this pattern) Speech composition: Intro - attention getter and thesis, Body – development, Conclusion – peroration o Stasis – point in an argument where the various perspectives have been sorted, the strength and weaknesses weighed, balancing points canceled out, and the irrelevant arguments discarded, sot that what remains is the knot of the controversy at the issue, the balancing point upon which the whole debate rests. It is a clarifying moment Lecture 3 o The Audience and The Occasion o Adaptation and problems with adaptation o POC as adaptation – the adaptation of people to ideas and ideas to people o 1. Better speech decisions o 2. Foster attention and goodwill o 3. Soliciting solidarity confidence o What happens to your speech if you learn what your audience is? It’ll evolve. o The act of speaking Ideas people and the people ideas o Speaker and audience as “discourse community” P155 Lecture Notes Our discourse is itself constitutive of who we are as a community Speech is constitutive o When you speak, you are creating the conditions of your own reality. You create the world you live in o The problem with adaptation Sophistry, vicious relativism, demagoguery o Manipulation (adaptation to the speaker) (indoctrination, brainwashing, propaganda) Pandering (adaptation to the audience) (trying to be everything to everybody SOPHISTRY o If audience “adaptation” is the “process of modifying both your message and your audience’s identity to achieve a message that resonates with your audience,” isn’t speech guilty of vicious relativism o If everybody’s perspective is equally valid, how does anybody ever know what’s right? o Speech topics o Prejudice of the Demagogic speaker The public, the people, Americans Who is it?? Use weasel words o The challenge is to speak our differences o The rhetorical theory of scopus – point of view from where you are o Disposition (hexis) Frame of mind Mood of audience/make them in a good mood Sophistry? o 1. Disposition – the use of pathos to prep your audience for being more receptive to your appeals; since we all see things from many point of views, there is nothing inherently wrong with helping us to see something from a particular point of view o Non manipulation conditioning o 2. Speaking to the composite audience o Composite strategies Speak to each audience in turn with a different message Interweave appeals to different audiences Speak to all audiences at the same time with unifying symbols (freedom, something think of as a positive value, but some feel differently of what it means) o The ambiguity of the unifying symbol – “you” o Stasis It would come at the end of the speech because it leaves audience something to think about and is a nice ending point o POC is addressed to the audience and the occasion P155 Lecture Notes Lecture 4 o Delivery o Delivery is more than speaking voice; includes all the elements of physical presence and representation o Visualize success o Part 1: The standard for delivery The over-riding standard for competent delivery is the same standard as for every other aspect of public oral communication (the standard of appropriateness (right fit)) o Should I use a podium? Should I move around? Adjust by the situation and the audience TB 92-93 o If speeches were fashions; formal, semi-formal, informal, smart casual, business casual, casual, active wear o Three classic style registers High – formal, inspirational, elegant, high-flown, noble, elaborate Middle – pitched between high and low, hybrid Low – colloquial, vernacular, idiomatic, folksy, informal, chatty, jokesy o Extemp – prepared but speaking and using words on the spot Impromptu – no preparation whatsoever Manuscript – written everything out and reading it word for word Memorized – memorized written work o Extemp – it establishes a genuine, living human relationship with your audience; it is the technique that allows the right adaptation between people and ideas in the situation o 1. Communication A genuine human communication takes place when you engage with your audience, which is a moment of real connection o 2. Flexibility (adaptation) No matter how carefully you plan or practice in advance, some speaking situations will surprise you. Flexibility is the key to responding correctly. o Note use of notes for attention grabber, juncture to claim, juncture to mapping o Extemp and Copia – the skill of varying expression in order to amplify an idea fully, the skill of developing a point the bumper sticker or the headline Example includes freestyle improv o On index cards, specialized vocab, keywords only, visual map of argument flow, pair down to bare minimum o An index card is a lifeline, safety net, insurance, backstop o Point A to point B If you don’t have an outline, you won’t know if you are missing any steps while going step to step P155 Lecture Notes Create keywords o Tips for success 1. When transposing to index cards, pair down to the bare minimum. 2. Build in empty gabs so that you have to fill. 3. Leave room to improve 4. Remember: You’re helping yourself achieve extemp by suing as few marks as possible 5. Only give yourself the safety net you absolutely need to latch onto. Less is more. What you want is a visual MAP. 6. Use the “glance test”. Realize how little you can actually take in the heat of the moment o When you give a formal presentation before an audience, a lot of non-verbal communication is going on, and it is a huge part of the meaning of that communication. A big part of the communion of minds is dependent on the relationality that you develop with the audience with eyes, voice, and body. o Relaxation, confidence: gesture, voice (find the right pitch), body language Voice as a musical instrument: rhythm and sense, pauses, emphasis, speeding up/slowing down, repetitive rhythms, enjambments, inflection Make eye contact o Techniques for eliminating verbal ticks “Uhm, like, you know” instead fill with a pause TB 100 (advice) Lecture 5 o The Beauty of This Course of Study o You see a wrong, you can change it, but it takes courage o The theory – Lloyd Bitzer, “The Rhetorical Situation” o A “situation” when something is the matter that matters/something contingent (something that comes up out of the normal, needs to be addressed now, requires us to mobilize, we’d like it to go away so that we can return to normal); Not the stable, permanent, unchanging, now and forever, fixed and invariable An irritant, interruption o A rhetorical situation requires speech. o “Situation is controlling” “Speaker is obliged to speak” “The situation calls forth a response” o Agency SITUATION Audience speaker Shifts away from speaker to situation P155 Lecture Notes o The speaker is not the master of the rhetorical situation but its servant. The rhetor is an aid in service of the audience’s need to address the situation. Socrates portrays himself as the midwife of truth in the dialogues. o Rhetorical discourse comes into existence as a response to a situation, in the same sense that an answer goes into existence in response to a question. o Hence a community finds itself “obliged to speak at a given moment to speak appropriately to a situation. Kairos – good timing, being at the right place at the right time to say the right thing in the right way o Definition summary A rhetorical situation is not just a situation. A RS is contingent. Is a RS the agency is reversed. A RS demands kairos. A RS is one in which speech is the answer which poses the question. Ex: Kennedy assassinated o Audience is the immune system? The people who are capable of fixing it. o Audience as term of art o 1. Audience People who are changing situation and fixing it o 2. Constraints Are the resources of invention, prescribe the response that fits the situation o Exigence, audience, constraints Entailments (tail of a cat) of the rhetorical situation o Entailments – things that arise as a necessary consequence of something and are derived from it) like a flower seed o Speech as the response to the rhetorical situation. What makes an effective response? o You get to judge o Criterion for judging the response to a rhetorical situation Rightness of fit (appropriateness) Inappropriate – cross fit trainer at holocaust memorial o Instinct for the appropriate “The power of situation to constrain a fitting response” o What are the elements of fit? The structure of motives. o The structure of motives “If rhetoric is to be designed to empower the audience to act. It has to touch the springs of action, which are rarely (almost never) just our rational faculties (belief, value, feeling emotion, habit, desire) o The structure of motives is how all the motions, logic, beliefs, values, and opinions of an audience interact and construct themselves in moving an audience to react. o The prejudice of the enlightenment P155 Lecture Notes “Reason alone” o POC speaks to the whole person Logos, ethos, pathos o The case The norm o Use the principle of adaptation How much adjustment will you have to do? How far along can you bring your audience toward your point of view? Mutual adjustment o Degrees of adherence Change audience’s POV just a little but not a lot o Use ethos, pathos, logos Don’t just rely on logos, as though your audience is a digital brain processing evidence divorced from their own experience. Don’t report to your student colleagues as though they’re an abstraction and you’re just giving a book report. Appeal rdrectly to their lives, experiences, and feelings. They’re not a 3 party. They’re your community. o Housekeeping Lecture 6 o Arrangement o Ch 2 and 7 o Organization sounds too linear, monochromatic, abstracted, colorless o Use of “arrangement” because of its composition, instrumentation, genre, melody, timbre, color, tone, volume, texture, rhythm, spacing o Ethos (blue), pathos (red), logos (yellow) o Infinite variation o Monochromatic o Palimpsest – many layers going on at the same time o The many layers of a speech Narrative arrangement (generic expectation), logical organization (argument structure), strategic organization (audience interests), emotional arrangement (psychological effects) o Skeletal substructure Intro (connect to audience, outline argument), body (develop deepen specify support), conclusion (“close the deal”) o Verbal palette Genre (epideictic, forensic, deliberative) argument pattern (problem-solution, chronologic) prose (figure, periodic structure, composition) voice (rhythm, tone, inflection) o Repetition (ex: of skill you can use in palette) No, no, no, no no o Beyond the attention grabber P155 Lecture Notes Identify the audience, refer to the speech situation, state your purpose, state your significance, cite a powerful statistic, make an astonishing claim, tell and anecdote, use an analogy, ask a rhetorical question, quote somebody, use humor o My best piece of advice Ask yourself what kind of indelible experience you want your audience to have when they think back on your speech and then work backwards from there o Endings (one of the hardest skills in public speaking) Summarizing, quoting someone, making a personal reference, challenging the audience, offering a Utopian vision o A speech is a movement o Openness to multiple perspectives (speech 2, logos) degrees of adherence (speech 3) seeking transformation (speech 4) o Goals of invitational rhetoric speech – in book o Calibrating language Audience centered speech Building community Avoid loaded language o Outline format Arouse – capture attention and focus on problem; Dissatisfy – make listeners understand its seriousness and need for their attention; Gratify – reveal the solution and assure listeners it is within their power to remedy it; Visualize – show listeners exactly how to address it (visualization is psychologically one of the most powerful motivators); Move – a ____ is achieved with a call to action (a direct appeal to your audience) o More than an example exemplar less than a template Lecture 7 Lecture 8 Lecture 9 o The Rhetoric of Architecture o Religious piety, gender identity, cultural observance, habitual action, public affair all points to a certain religion? o Personification of evil in Disney and Pixar films (symbols) Symbolism is complex o Symbolic Action As tool of mobilization Speech 4 Speaking about symbolic action Example: “Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall.” o “Let freedom ring” the rhythm of Luther’s speech is like the ringing of a bell o Edmund Pettus Bridge is a symbol of ongoing debate of race o Symbolism is a great power loosed for good and ill P155 Lecture Notes o A symbol is something visible that comes to stand for something concrete that comes to stand for something abstract or evil o Permanence, durability, strength (a boulder) Growth, life, age, rootedness (a naked tree) Flow of time, change, nourishment (a river) o A symbol is the visible (incarnation) of the more abstract thing, often expressing a salient element of that invisible thing o Arbitrary connection? Symbol ----- Thing o Referentiality Wisconsin Badgers (an intercollegiate football team of the University of Wisconsin in the Big Ten) An actual badger (an intercollegiate football team of the University of Wisconsin in the Big Ten) Anything can be a symbol, since the association can be arbitrary o Except when it isn’t golden panthers o Which…? Indians? Is this something intentional? o Symbols change their meanings Symbolic meanings develop overtime. When we say, “[Something] has come to symbolize [something.]” what we really mean is, people have come to invest something with symbolic meaning o Connotation Memory backfills from the future into the past, accruing deeper, richer, more complex meanings over time o Absorption People’s experiences become absorbed into the meaning of public symbols Symbols absorb our experiences like a sponge o Sedimentation *The deposition of accumulation of sediment, the organic matter which settles and forms a geological layer; sediment accumulates into striations (compressed layers). o Carry and absorb affect (pathos) Symbols are invested not just with semantic meaning, but also with life experience. They trigger deep emotional responses because they tap into the network of meanings that gather around the symbol o “Cachectic” symbols Some symbols are so highly charged that they have tremendous cultural power to excite our passions, our loyalties, and our actions Cathexis: P155 Lecture Notes 1. The investment of emotional significance in an activity, object, or idea 2. The charge of psychic energy so invested o A symbol isn’t just one image or word for one thing (A = B) Its meaning is shifting, absorbing, contagious, multiple, sediment, and ambiguous. It’s more like a shape shifting, color changing sea creature o Contagion A powerful symbol can catch on and come to have a communal meaning for larger numbers of people just like a disease becomes viral o Constitutive “Equipment for living” (eg the golden arches) o Attributes Arbitrariness of regerentiality, mutability and plasticity, polyvocal and ambiguous, absorption and sedimentation, intense carrier of emotional meaning (cathectic), ability to tap the subconscious, viral and contagious and transmissible, very real (organize our reality), propagating and expanding o Icon o Some symbols become iconic (symbol When? How? Why? Icon o Iconic images o How does it become iconic? o A communication phenomenon we don’t fully understand yet – what causes their uptake, what keeps them alive, o Lets look at the birth of an iconic moment and ask why it happened Ex: tectonic plates o Crystallization Get ready for the new face of the NFL (picture of two guys kissing) o Symbolism is like the shift in culture o Iconic symbols are not just in the towers we raise in our imagination They are genuinely constitutive of our concrete material lives… the furniture of our lived experience, the boundaries of our reality, the repository of our values, the tools of our reasoning o The constitute us We constitute them (9-11) o How real is a symbol (Twin Towers)? o The heart of the mystery of theory of symbolic action 1. The constitution is a 2-way process. Reciprocal, interanimating o A. In the book, “the focus is less on how one person can deliberately design symbolic action to persuade other people P155 Lecture Notes B. And more on how symbolic actions spontaneously, intuitively, an often unconsciously act upon people to create a sense of colletive identity” Two-way “agency” double o Two-way agency Symbolic action works both… A. outside people’s willing and doing and B. Consciously and strategically by people’s intentional use o 2. (Heart of the mystery) Meaning Network Symbols trigger deep emotional responses because they tap into the network of meanings that gather around the symbolic object. o 1A. Web of Meanings No symbol exists in isolation. It connects itself to an ever shifting family of symbols. (Kim K) o Beyond our willing and doing We are born into a symbolic language o Gendered language (all goes to male language) o 2A. Intentional Agency People construct symbolic language to create the boundaries they wish a society to have. o In this case, humans are using symbolic strategies. o You don’t know if it is intentional or not o Strategic, Calculative, Intentional o Although people don’t always choose the symbols that come to symbolize, they often deploy or mobilize those symbols to achieve strategic ends. (Rosa Parks, seat on the bus) o How Intentional?? (Sigma Alpha Epsilon on U of Oklahoma on bus) o Ideology Hegemony Power o Ideo*logy = [image/idea] + [the study of…] The ideas, values, beliefs, perceptions, and understandings that are known to members of a society [or group] and that guide their behaviors Webs of significance Greek word-idea?? o Ideological “System” Never just one idea or image Ex: capitalism – dollar bill o Normalization Ideology is the typical ways of thinking about the world that help shape human action because it normalizes day to day social, polictical, economic and cultural structures. Normalization is just like what it sounds: what may be completely arbitrary is made to feel normal by the assumption of large groups of people that is the norm. o Ideological Distortion P155 Lecture Notes Subconsious affects o Hegemony The dominant ideology of a society, exerting social control over people without the use of force o Symbol Ideology Hegemony o Sweet reason o Speech 4: symbolic action is not only what youre doing, it is what you are talking about Lecture 10 o Try to change audience’s fixed belief o What are rhetorical resources I would use to accomplish o Paul’s conversion on the road to Damascus Acts 9:1-22 o Goals and pattern is the same o Ideology – network of interrelated beliefs o Bolder, tree, river (symbols) o Symbols mobilize, arouse, excite, prompt, energize (actuate) the system of values o Rock is a symbol for example for strength, but could symbolize a lot more like leadership, constancy, institution (network of values) An institutional ideology o Patriarchal ideology can include “The Rock” o An ideograph is cultural symbol that taps into an ideology (illegal immigrants) (The American dream) o The power of a word “choice” o Ideographs “God Terms” – American dream, freedom, winner, superstar “Devil Terms” – terrorist, illegal immigrant, atheist, communist, looser o Because each card in the pile is called an ideograph, a condensed symbolic expression o You can unlock a door o Consider an ideograph to be a portal into the subconscious of an ideological rientation o Try to upset ideographs o 3 steps – reveal how language is distorting a system of values, repair the relationship, rehearse a new way of speaking o Repair relationship? Substitue a more accurate ideograph o 1. Conversioin story 2. ideograph 3. exchange 4. peroration Pattern – designed to move you audience to undo a mindset by reorganizing their ideological world view P155 Lecture Notes o Story – this can be an anecdote or a mini story (leads to claim) (then that is your intro) o Ideograph – word or phrase that encapsultates o Swap – you can either swap an ideograph Ideographs: “capitalism” “revolution” o Peroration – use techniques to move audience o Swaps The ideograh of “security” for the ideograph of security o A maxim (starting point) is an ideograph in the form of a claim o What is a maxim?
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