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Management Organizational Behavior Fall 2015 Semester Notes

by: Yared Castillo

Management Organizational Behavior Fall 2015 Semester Notes Mana 3318

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Notes for the whole semester of Management Organizational Behavior by Baldwin, unedited.
Management Organizational Behavior
Janice Baldwin
Mana, ORGB, Management, Mana 3318, UTArlington, business, Semester notes, bundle
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This 46 page Bundle was uploaded by Yared Castillo on Thursday January 21, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Mana 3318 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Janice Baldwin in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 234 views. For similar materials see Management Organizational Behavior in Business, management at University of Texas at Arlington.

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Date Created: 01/21/16
ORGB1 Monday, August 31, 2015 3:07 PM Intro Ch. 1 Organizational behavior- broad base in ch1 and in ch2 in the business world’ You and I as individuals influence the orgs were part of and vise versa In ch 2- influence in the business and where we work -terms from the corners of the books The study of indivdual behavior and group dynamics in organizations In Ch1 authors introduce 1 theory—w/o name (until ch2) the name is “Locus of Control” Theory-examines humans and behavior and puts them in 2 categories…(dychonomy(2sides) theory?): Internal or external Internal-when asked to explain others of their own behavior…they will describe ppl based on feelings and thoughts ---or value systems External-they look at external stuff that influence behavior External or internal perspectives ( E )Understand behavior in terms of external events, environmental forces, and behavior consequences. Explain behavior by examining surrounding external events and evironmental forces ( I )Understanding ………………………of thoughts, feelings, past experiences, and needs. Explain behavior by exam indiv hist and personal values sys Academic social sciences Pure science goal- 100% standard, full replication, example bio, engineering, physics, botany, astrology Social sciences-probabilities, psychology, management, sociology, ^ Academic sciences that contribute to organizational behavior -Psychology-the study of psyche-the study of individual behavior and the human mind (social science) -Sociology- the study of human behavior in groups and group dynamics- (S.S) -Anthropology- the study of the past of human behavior, cultures and systems from the past, symbols important. (S.S.) -Engineering- the applied science of energy and matter (Pure Science) -Management- the study of superv group of ppl, and purchasing and creating raw-turning – material , (Frederick taylor and scientific management) (SS) -Medicine- the applied sci of curing diseases and….(PS) P.S. The concept of success- “is never guaranteed”-‘sometimes change can result on failure or chaos’ Does that mean that change is not always the solution? 9/2/15 Monday, August 31, 2015 3:14 PM ORGB The one and only model that the authors give The Open Systems Model -not all companies adhere to this model -in capital system it can be dang to a company -capitalist market Task-a companies mission or purpose, reison detra (?)- its reason for being Structure-the lines of communication, the theory relationships, and the … set up by the company Technology- People- Management includes the taking of inputs…our human resources and raw materials And takes inputs and makes them into high quality outputs that can be put out on the market by using hr Can lead to a company’s success---true largely in capitalism (NOT Political Systems) Capitlism Socialism Communism Seeks to reward-Individuals Seeks to eliminate the economic (comm-group) only provides who work extremes in its group rewards Harder/smarter society- the extreme, poor and the very Regardless of how much or such how little everyone in the group works Formal vs. Informal Organization Fo- the official, legitimate, and most visible part of the sys, ex I heard it through the grapevine Io-the unofficial and less visible part of the sys. Economic Engines 1. What is the productivity of its citizens? 2. What is the standard of living…? US is the #1 economic engine in the world #2 Japan (#1 of asia) Global Competition in Business Increased global competition->radical change Both india and china are rising in productivity.. Why should we study ORGB 1. Help us learn objective knowledge 2. It helps develop our skills -sit at the feet of the masters and learn from them- Modeling Find someone who is highly successful and model their behavior An active process Feedback-how do we know we're getting it, very imp for success -realist from authors- 9/4/15 Monday, August 31, 2015 3:14 PM Challenges for Managers 1.Globalization-rapid political and social change in the past 50? years 2.Diversity 3.Ethics 4. The transnational org -(in which the global viewpoint supersedes national issues) Muilticultural org coca-cola- Atlanta Georgia-#1 soft drink manufacturer in the world…%55 in the world-owned by stock holders. -social upheavals in the last 20-25 years. For ex) 9/11, Economic alliance in one of the ls 2.= Hodsteads's 1. Individialism- focuses in proncipal inter…. 2. High power distance 3. Collectivism 4. Lower uncertainty avoidance- 5. High unceratinty avoidance-assertiveness, highly . 6. Maculinity 7. Feminity 8. Long-term orientation 9. Short-term orientation 10. Power Distance 9/9/15 Wednesday, September 9, 2015 1:04 PM Diversity Stats Ethnic 2020 Workforce:68% white non-Hispanic 14% Hispanic 11% African-American 5% Asian Gender 2020 Workforce: 50% male 50% female their unemployment rate exceeds 50% Age By 2030, ppl over 65 will comprise of the population Ability An estimate 50 million disabled live in the US; Glass ceiling concept--? Study on the boards of directors 100% male at one point -directors elected by stockholders 1996-2002: % of women in board did not change Issue of age… Bet 2010-2030- baby boomers retiring Study-comparing younger to older workers Younger workers think that older workers are kinda slow…not that motivated Ppl aren't disabled…theyre just persons with diff abilities Ethics Theories Consequential-emphazise the result of behavior Rule-based-emphazise the character of the act itself rather than its effects Character Theory- emph the char of the indiv and the intent of the actor instead of the character of the act itself or its consequence Management-the company-and liability Managers can be sued individually along with your company Org Justice Procedural-fairness of the process by which the outcomes are allocated in an org…, Alternative work arragengents telecomm, satellite offce, vitual offices VO- ? 9/11/15 Friday, September 11, 2015 1:11 PM Ch3 -covers more than 1 topic Personality, Perception, and Attribution ORGB-how we as indiv influence the orgs were in and how they influence us -Individual sides of things To org, which specs focused on how ppl think and … Psych -humans are very alike and also diff. Personality -determined by family tree -rooted in our family tree The relatively stable set of characteristics that influences an indivs behavior and lend it consistency. -Who are you most like personality wise…father or mother? Theories: Trait-a person theory that advocates breaking down behavior patterns into a series of observable traits in order to understand human behavior. (successful ppl do things diff than other folks…the traits are the same for those who are successful?...corp america interested in these type of research ---answer yes, but no-not a few traits rather a lot of diff traits) Integrative approach Big Five Personality Traits: Chart on p38 Agreeableness-rate their votes higher Conscientiousness-rate their ppl average Openness -custumer service Extravert +…- best managers Integrative Approach- the broad theory that describe person as a composite of an individials psych process Personality Chars in Orgs Locus of Control (1) Internal-I control what happens to me!, exhibit more work, often promoted into managers External-ppl and circumstance control my fate!, prefer structured work, prefer others to make choices (2) Self-Efficacy -a person's overall view of himself/herself as being able to perform effectively in a wide variety of situations (3) Self-Esteem -success tends to increase self-esteem -Failure tends to decrease self-esteem (4) Self-Monitoring -pay attention to evry thing and evryone and adjust to them -behavior based on cues High- flexible, adjust behavior -can appear inconsistent Low: The Role of Affect Positive Affect- an indiv tendency to accentuate the pos aspects of him/her self, other ppl, and the world in general Negative Affect- an indivs tendency to accentuate the neg aspects of himself or herself, other ppl, and the world in general. Negative's ppls opinions matter Accountants tend to be neg Measures of Personality. Projective Test-elicits response to abstract stimuli Behavioral Measures- involve observ an indivs behavior in a controlled situation. Self-Report Questionnaire- involves indivs responses to series of questions Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)-instrument dev to measure E/I, S/N, T/F, J/P, 9/14/15 Monday, September 14, 2015 1:00 PM First Impression -very important -influences us -can be wrong Perception-environmentalist side-the situation around us and … -major influence of perception is culture based Social Perception model p47 -the process of developing info about the things around us-def Attitude- a person's biases, there can be neg or pos Mood-we can evaluate ppl dep on how we feel Self-concept- things like self esteem and things like that Cog structure-an indivs pattern of thinking Appearance or the persons personality Person to influence- study shows that good looking ppl get paid more than the avg ppl, also get promoted more Attractiveness of the target,, Verbal cues-are they looking at us?, are they in an angry mood? Not the right time to talk Situation -context- -when you can feel the tension Discounting principles- Perceptions-what makes them more accurate The 6 barriers to social perception -impression management- we want ppl to think good about us -they think youre trying to get their job -stereotype- generalizations about groups of ppl that are sometimes accurate-NEVER be that stereotype -first impresion error-primacy effect-first impression are lasting impression and recency effect- 1st 5 min in interview are the most important -projection- human nature, we think ppl are like us -Self-fulfilling prophecy-our expectations of the target Impression mngmt Name dropping Appearance Self-description Flattery Favors Agreement with opinion Attribution Theory A theory that explains how indivs pinpoint the causes of their own and others' behavior -internal- attributing events to something within the indivs control -external- outside the indiv control Biases -fundamental attribution error- the tendency to make attributions to internal causes when focusing on others behavior -self-serving- the tendency to attribute ones own success to internal causes and ones failures to external causes TEST WED Ch1-3 pA-multiple choice -pencil pB matching qs and short answer questions 3 short answer qs (broad based, multiple elements) -ink pen Student activities fees-student counseling center 9/21/15 Monday, September 21, 2015 12:55 PM Ch.4 Ethical Behavior-acting in ways consistent with one's personal values and the commonly held values of the org and society. -companies have their own values, sometimes they have code of ethics that are given to employees 4 major influences in ppls ethical behavior 1.Values -enduring beliefs that a spec mode of conduct or end state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or convese mode of conduct or end state of existence -family, religion (2 major influences in values) (attitudes are very changeable) -2types: Instrumental-values that shape the acceptable behavior that can be used to achieve some goal or end state Terminal-values that influence the goals to be achieved or the end states of existence Chart p.67 -everybody values the same things? Eastern western values…very different Suicide in west vs in the east -concern vs, embrace of religious suicide Individual life not very valued on east 1. Locus of Control Internal-belief in personal control and personal responsibility External-belief in control by outside forces (fate, chance, other ppl) Generally, internal make much more ethical decisions Machiavellianism High-Machs-better to be feared than loved the ends justify the means Low-Machs-value loyalty and relationships, concerned with others opinions -most imp thing in his life was power, the issue for him was how to keep power -do whatev in order to achieve his goals even if it meant selling his own soul… --ppl like hitler, josef stalin, gengis khan, Cognitive Moral Development -chart -each person develops his ethics in these levels -1 and 2 are age determined-through rewards and punishments -not everyone gets to lev 3 -aware that there are other value sys in the world than their own, 9/23/15 Wednesday, September 23, 2015 1:02 PM Attitude Managers contribute work performance to this ABC model Model of an Attitude A-affect-reps the emotional aspect of an attitude B-behavioral intentions-measured in observation C- cognition -a person's perceptions or beliefs Cognitive Dissoncance A state of tension prod when indiv exps conflict bet attitudes an behavior ..butterflies in the tummy There's a person type that doesn't like conflict… And if faced with conflict they start looking for another job…. Environmentalist school of thought is dominanat Attitudes are dev over time 2 influences Direct experience-the school of hard knocks-more on the painful side Social Learning-(less painful and less time consuming) -learning from the mistakes of others 4 influences in social learning -core family (major) -peers and peer pressure -religious associations Our culture as a whole Modeling-pattering one's behavior and appearance after another person, often by observation -adopting patterns of behavior, manerism WORKPLACE How do attitudes affect the workplace? -intriguing study-the ones who express worst attitudes- 1- a job that’s very demanding-deadlines, deadlines, deadlines-people barely have any time to breathe or work for a boss who is a perfectionist. 2- employee has very little or no control over their job, even though everyone's making decisions, everyone except them. Job satisfaction- a pleasurable or pos emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one's job or job experience Organizational Commitment- the strenght as how the person identifies with the company. --3 kinds: Affective-employees intention to stay with the company Continuous- an employee stays with their company bc they decided they can't afford to leave (a financial decision?) -ex…people have accumulated pension money..and would lose it all if left. Vesting time requirements Normative- employee decides they have an obligation to stay with the company bc the company treats them so well Affective and normative-= good attendance rates, higher producers for the company Challenges-at times you'll have to make your employees do a certain thing…..persuasion How can we approve our ability to persuade others? Who do you allow to persuade you orinfluence you? Characteritics Source- expertise, trustworthiness, attractiveness Target- high or low self-esteem? Message- biased or balance? Emotions and Moods Emotions-discrete and fairly short lived feelings that have a spec, known cause. -can't be measured easily… Moods- typically class as pos or neg and are made up of various emotions -typically last longer and don't have a spec cause CEOs and managers, what would they like employees to do with their emotions? -going postal- -person whos acting erratical or are thinking of going postal- diffuse it 9/25/15 Wednesday, September 23, 2015 1:02 PM Chapter 5 Motivation at work Internal motivation at work What motivates human beings inside? External motivation -circumstance, ppl, events motivate us Motivation- the process of arousing and sustaining goal-directed behavior 3 -Internal- Process -External- Early motivational theorists Max Weber- cred by research by discovering the protestant work ethic -2 principles: (radical for his day) Work itself is good, A person's work has a value to their society as a whole Sigmund Freud- person's org life founded on compulsion to work and power of love -believed that it's part of our uncons behavior -what motivates? Look through uncons. -examine what a person dream about, Adam Smith-ppl motiv by self-interest for economic gain to provide nessecities of life Frederick Taylor- scientific management; eemphsized coop bet management and labor to inc profit. The hawthorn studies- So successful and extensive that led to the creation of management as a field Issue of light…. What level of lights/ lumens makes ppl more productiv -2- the tmp where ppl The big 5 5 MOST most important motiv theories 1 Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs-only unmet needs motivate us -Phys -Food -Shelter -Clothing -Safety and Seccurity-war(saf) and crime(sec) -Love(social)- a subset of social needs-ppl want to assoc with others… -Esteem- improve themselvesand their minds- better themselves -Self-actualization-realizing life long dre-no falling dreams -no falling backwards -critics say it's too rigid -(crit 1)ppl think it can move backwards -critics never came up with research to prove that he was wrong Exceptions: Ppl can be self-actualized w/o any of the stuff before from the ladder. (starving artist) Ignore chart p77 (fig 5-5) 2Theory X and Y -only to managers -theory x managers: a set of assumptions of how to manage indivs who are motiv by lower needs,…. there's a line of demarcation bet … and … don't ask for opinions -employees lack … Theory y managers: A set of assumptions of how to manage indivs who are motivated by higher order needs  3Existence, Relatedness, and Growth by Aldofer -first researcher that proved that humans can regress in their hierchy of needs -he asserts that there's only 3 things -regression itself is a motivator 4McClelland's Need Theory 3 Categories of Needs Achievement-high need to excel, need to compete, likes challenges, and enjoys diff projects -warning- someone wasn't handling a B very well Power- Affiliation 9/28/15 Monday, September 28, 2015 1:08 PM McClelland's Theory-only one is dominant 3 categories -Achievement -Power: the most imp thing in their life is they want to make a diff in the world, they want to influence ppl Extreme: person might be always wanting to control anyone and anything, control-freaks Char of managers: -Affiliation:desc. Social behavior, their most imp in life is warm human relationships, don't like conflict, prefer to work through conflicts Extreme: groupies, joiners, they want to go and be a part of everything. Manifest in-too busy socializing that not much work Herzberg's Two Factor Theory -he announce in public arena, there are many things that motiv ppl at work, there are categories of them, and if so how many categories were there, and is one of those mainly about work -diachonomy theory -both are work conditions, but ea adresses a diff part of an employee's experience -funded by corp america -private sector Hygiene factor:-ongrowthce we get to work don't motiv to work harder Motivation Factor:- the one that actually motivs in the workplace, that provides psych Fig 5.3 Money is a motivator? Diff way of research? -in hr mana Incentive pay plans and salary -money is very imp in the… -how can we make money a motivator? -is money the only motivator? Is it always a motivator -it can be if? 1-direct relationship between the reward money and the relationship that .. Is trying to afffect? 2-Close in time Absenteeism big in assembly line, reduced to 3 or 4 steps..-biggest challenge bc of boredom -fredrick taylor's design mostly in assembly work 5% absenteeism 4,000 Ees Excess employees- 200 additional… -instituted program -called all employee meeting -ppl who come to work everyday will receive a reward the next week -callled them out by name and handed them a $5 3% absenteeism -excess pay 120 -saved $1.2 million -incentive pay plans -hard to succeed…unless they meet both Stress -where are they coming from? -when ppl hear stress…they think neg -when these authors write…they write it as a neutral Stress-neutral Distress-neg stress Eustress-pos stress New theories: Social Exchange& Equity Theory-by adam -an exchange process that focuses in ppl and their behavior w/ each other Commitedrel- gives a great deal to the org they're involved with, ex religious order, surrender all to it, completely committed Calculated rel - demands things upfront or it falls apart, ex business world, partnership, calc upfront Alieneted rel- mem of org that they hate and don't support what it stands for, ex ppl who are in prison Inequity: -ppl are motiv when they find themselves in sits of inequity or unfairness Greater motivs than pursuit of equeffort leads to performanceity -believes receiving less than they are getting, motivs person step up, aggression, tension Expectancy Theory- -focuses on personal perceptions Key to internal motiv is the performance Valence-value placed on particular reward Expectancy-effort leads to performance Instrument-directly related to rewards 9/30/15 Wednesday, September 30, 2015 1:09 PM Ch 6 Learning and performance management Learning theories: -external motivation theories 3 ways to learn things (focus external) -in the classroom -in the real world- learning by doing-school of hard knocks -on our own-reading materials observing ^ ^-active processes 3 major theories: Conditioning Pavel Classical Conditioning: Modifying behavior by pairing a conditioned stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus to elicit an unconditioned response -it's a formula, what is needed for learning to occur -teach the dog that food is coming even though it's not in the room Dog-immediately starts salivating Uses pos stimulant only 1- 2-harder than a laboratory 3-humans have volition/free will, reason and make decisions, can overcome conditioning…. Operant Conditioning: Modifying behavior through the use of positive or negative consequences following specific behaviors Uses both pos and neg stimulant Sends message of not doing e -father of behavior modification -skitter- bf Most famous for lab ra experiments and electric shots Neg things can be just as helpful/impacting behavior Skinner was involved inn unethical research He was asked a direct question? Have you used your 6 year old daughter in any of your maze experiments? Did not answer -tenured professor (couldn’t be fired unless committed felony or declared mentally ill) The national association of psych…new rules Children may not be used in any -any adults will have complete knowledge of the procedure… Reinforcement Theory: Reinforcement: a strategy to cultivate desirable behavior by eithher bestowing pos consequences or withholding neg consequences Neg reinforcement is not the same as punishment, it's power to withhold rewards, I'll give it to you if you do… and…. Punishment: a strategy to discourage undesirable behavior by either bestowing neg consequences or withholding pos consequences Extinction: a strategy to weaken behavior by attaching no consequences to it -The attempt to get rid of neg behavior by ignoring it 2 Theories: Social Learning Theory: -among childre, pay attention to parents , folow their behaviors -self efficatcy Gastov theory -gastov premise Cognitive Theories: 10/5/15 Monday, October 5, 2015 12:58 PM ch 8 Basic Interpersonal Communication Model Fig communicator and receiver -not guaranteed feedback..indirect realtionship Table 8.1 Methods and techniques for communication….. -head of dept. 3rd quarter report to other dept. homes -problems-better facetoface Reflective Listening -skill -can be learned -not born with it -can be praticed and improved-can overcome fog from perceptual screen from fig 8.1 Verbal Affirm Contact: -comm attentiveness -provides reassurance Paraphrase: -what has already been expressed (don't use their words) -builds empathy, openness, acceptance Clarify the Implicit: -Bring out unspoken thoughts and feelings -builds greater awareness Reflect 'core' feelings: -resonate response according to urgency feeling of who is speaking Nonverbal Silence: Speaker: -useful for thinking -deter how to express diff ideas or feelings Listener: -sort out thought/ feelings -id and isolated personal responses Eye Contact: -useful to open relationship -improves comm -imp in us culture -be aware of cultural diff -use moderate eye contact -use times of no ey contact for privacy and control (does not apply to asia) One-way comm vs two-way comm One -comm in which one person sends message to another and no qs, feedback, interaction follow -good for simple -efficient, often less accurate Two -the better one -interactive, exchange of thoughts, feelings, or both. -might be phone calls as well, but might not be as well Five Keys to Effective Supervisory Communication -Expressiveness -Empathy -Sensitivity -Persuasion -Informative -praise in public, criticize in private 10/12/15 Monday, October 12, 2015 1:04 PM Excellent comm->promotes Barriers to com.: -factors that distor, disrupt or even halt successful comuniication -phys separation -status diff -gender diff -cultural diversity -language Workplace: -appearns in one of two EX v N - Do men and women commm diff.? -women tend to be more emotional and men more analytical…? -inderect approach vs not? -behavioral or heredity? -research show that men are comf talking w/o looking at the other person -on the other hand women expect reciprocal behavior… Bull in a china closet… American stereotype of asians…all subservient, mild… Unless you see the jap in ww2 or history of samurai warriors… Concept of acronyms.. EX vs NX UUMV UCW Jargon and colloqualism Ya'll = you all Use= ya'll 10/14/15 Wednesday, October 14, 2015 1:04 PM Ch8 end Defensive Communication Messages that are aggressive, malevolent, passive, or withdrawn Nondefensive Comm Messages that are assertive, direct, and powerful Defensive tactics Tactic Example Power Play "Finish this report by month's end or lose your promotion" Labeling "You must be slow learner. Your report is still not done?" Misleading Info "He didn't finish the report because he was out drinking last night." Hostile Jokes "Can you finish the report, or are you too stupid?" Njnjnjnj -could trigger the opposite effect Types of nonverbal communication 1 Proxemics -study of indivs perceptions and use of the space around them Territorial Space- bands of space radiating outward from the body -territorial space differs from culture to culture A-intimate space-sig other, family avg 12 in wide B-personal distance: friendships C-social distance: business assoc, aquaintances D-public distance, strangers Kinesics The study of body movements and body lang -this slide focuses on the hand gestures -can symbolize neg and pos things Facial and Eye Behavior -communicate emotional state, reveal beh intentions, cue the receiver… -one universal facial expression: smile Paralanguage Variation in speech send messages Diff message sent by -high-pitched, breathy voice -rapid, loud speech -interuptions -tongue clucking Information Communication Technology(ICT) -information databases -email- printable -voice mail -smartphones -video referencing Writing communications: -writing a policy manual -formal reports -letter vs internal memorandum-formal(always), third parties to ppl outside company vs only to inside the company Ch7 beginning Stress and Well-being at Work How do you measure success? How do you define success? -some are willing to sacrifice friends, family, health in order to achieve their definintion of success Stress-the unconscious preparation to fight or flee that a person experiences hen faced with any demand Stressor-the person or event that triggers our stress reposonse Eustree and distress 4 Approaches to stress Homeostatic/medical Stress occurs whe an external demand upsets an indivs nat, steady-state balance(equilibrium). Ppl. Uncons prepared for fight-or-flight mode. The stress response -release of chemical messangers->activation of sympathetic nerous and endocrine systems -senses are heightened… -sight, hearing, and touch peak 10/16/15 Friday, October 16, 2015 12:58 PM Cognitive Appraisal -Indivs differ in their appraisal of events and people -What is stressful for one parson is not for another -Perception and cognitive appraisal determines what is stressful -research rooted from Psychology: Does it affect us Psychologically? -environmentally produced (whether it has effects in -- or --) -dicovered that we all don't intepret things the same -Dychotomy theory -proble focus-coping *when encountered by stressors they try to manage the stressor itself -emotion-focused coping *they try to manage how they respond to the stressor Person-environment Fit ppl involved in mvmt tried to merge psych and sociol-80s -social psychology Research from this mvmt: -emphasis o ccognitive dissonance -confusing and conflicting expectations in a social role create stress(social context) -good person-environmnet fit occurs when one's skill and abilities match clearly.. -… Psychoanalytic Stress -discrepancy bet idealized self and the real self-image 2 elements Eagle ideal- def of our perfect selfs, the person that we want to be Self-image- the person we really are -the further appart those 2 are = more stress 4 areas of stress in the work environ Task Demands: unpredictable things -stress=so many things that can go wrong -change -lack of control -Career progress -new technologies(might have to produced more, proper training lack, might be some layoffs) -temporal pressure Role demands: territorial issues, -reole conflict Interrole Intrarole Person-role Role ambiguity Interpersonal demands Emotinal toxins Sexual harasssment Poor leadership Abrasive personalities Demanding management-micro managers, looking over you shoulder, always there Physical demands Extreme environments Strenuous activities Hazardous substance Global travel Stress Source: Nonwork Demands Nonwork demands -home demands Family expectations Child-rearing/ day care arrangements Parental cares -personal demands Workaholism: -don't know how to enjoy their vacations -civic and volunteer work -can a person do too much volunteer work? -too involved, without money pay -traumatic events -life-changing events -ex. in japan giant tsunami->melt down of power plant -texas tornadoes "sandwich generation" Personal- In every gen, parents are expected to raise their children Alzheimers, living with -stres on family Yerkes-Dodson Law -fig 7-1 in textbook -main part of chart- all of us can deal with stress successfully to a certain point, anything after that is distress and does not motivate us to work harder and instead can be harmful - Indiv distress Long term stress Physical Psychological ( disorders can occur ex clinical depression) -medical illness (heart disease, strokes, headaches, backaches) Work-related psych disorders (depression, burnout, psychosomatic disorders) Behavioral problems(substance abuse, violence, accidents) Organizational Distress -communication breakdowns Particitative problems- a cost assoc twith absenteeism, tardiness, strikes and work stoppages, and turnover Performance Decrement- cost resulting from poor quality or low quantity production, grievances, and unscheduled machine downtime and repair Compensation Award-an organizational cost resulting from court awards for job distress 10/19/15 Monday, October 19, 2015 1:02 PM Ch7 Cont. Avg life span Avg male 77. 78 Avg women 83 Group comparisons The reason women live more apparently…bc they don't have as much stress as men -women w/working live live less than women who don't, but women still live longer than men Personalities Type a -more stressed filled lives -competitiveness -Time urgency -social status insecurity -Aggresion -hostility -quest for achievements Type b New Reseach -Personality Hardiness-degree to which our personality hadle distress Personality Hardiness -challenge(versus threat) -commitment(vs alienation) -control (vs powerlessness) Transformation Coping -active process of modifying one's perception …. Self-Reliance SR-a healthy, secure, interdependent pattern of behavior related to how ppl form and maintain supportive attachments with others Counterdependence- unhealthy, insecure pattern of behavior that leads to separation in relationships with other ppl Overdepence- unhealthy, insecure pattern of behavior the lead to preoccupied attempts… ---Reducing indiv stress--- Preventive Stress Management Primary-seek to reduce the demands that are causing stress(cause of problem) Secondary-seek to modify our response to stressor (coping) Tertiary-things getting serious, seek to heal the person who are suffering from stress Fig in text Primary Positive thinking-non-negative self-talk, book "Happiness is a choice" Time management- keep calendar, don't say yes to everything Leisure time- 2 Excersise Relaxation training Diet-"Sugar Blues" 3 Opening up Pro help 10/21/15 Wednesday, October 21, 2015 1:07 PM Teamwork Joint action by a team of ppl in which indiv interests are subordinated to team unity Good loser? -no adverse act/reaction 2 Social benefits Psychological Intimacy-psychological closeness to other team members Integrated Involvement- closeness achieved by working together Group Behavior Norms of Behavior = Norm-standards used to judge the behavior of the ppl on a group Group Cohesion-the 'interpersonal glue' that makes members of a group stick together Job complexity and Task autonomy -the opposite happened. They thought it would decrease group cohesion, but it actually increased group cohesion Social Loafing-failure of group member to contribute personal time, effort, thoughts, or other Loss of Individuality- a social process in which individual group members lose self-awareness and its accompanying sense of accountability, inhibition, and responsibility for individual behavior. 4 issues 1.2 kinds of groups performing Formal-established by management/ company informal 2.5 stages of group development Fig 9.1- five stage mwwe 1. Forming 2. Storming 3. naming 4. Appealing Critics: 'model increase'/ Nerd dr… 4 characteristics of 'mature groups' 1 purpose and mission May be assigned or emerge from the grop -often q's, reexamines… 2behaviral norms 3 group cohesion Enables group to influence memes to re- nfluen 4. Status Structure set of authority and task relational among group members 1. Wse 2 function 1 experience in their field 1activities directly Team Task Function on book Maintenance functions Those activities essential to the eefe -not one more imoutnnat a Self-Managed Work teams Also called self-directed autonomous group work groups; tems that make descisions once reserved for managers 10/26/15 Monday, October 26, 2015 1:01 PM Ch. 10…. Decision Making by Individuals and Groups How do groups make decisions? . Decision-making Process 1. Recognize the problem and the need for a decision 2. Identify the objective of the decision 3. Gather and evaluate data and diagnose the situation 4. List and evaluate alternatives F 5. Choose the best course of action 6. Implement Decisions 7. Gather Feedbaks 8. Follow u=p Consensus Management- everybody agrees -more than the majority rules -extreme: person wants 100% agreement…. Find out why….. 10/28/15 Wednesday, October 28, 2015 1:02 PM Ch 10 Decision Making by Individuals and Groups Ratinality A logical, step by step approach to decision making, with a thorough analysis of alternatives and their consequences Rational model Macroeconomics- human beings making decisions set out to optimize (choosing the best alternative) Perfect knowledge- complete knowledge…? Do we have complete knowledge in business to make decisions? No -why? Because time and money….have to do things during a timeframe, not enough money 1, not enough money to gather it all 2, not enough money to pay for it Bounded rationality model A theory that suggests that there are limits to how rational a decision maker can actually be -that which meets the min reqs Satisfize rather than optimize in macroecon Heuristics-mental shortcut that a person or a group takes to save time, learned through experience. People learn from real world. The ability to take shortcuts cause you can mentally tae short cuts. Z theory- He asserts that there are only 4 steps to decision making rather than 8.. Escalation and Commitmment The tendency to continue to support a failing course of action -response of a group to outside criticismo -embraces a wrong course of action and continues Sypmtom- … We can solev it with more money ….. ….. Ex: international space stations Risk Aversion The tendency to choose options that entail fewer risks and less uncertainty, Women - more rirsked aversed than men Bc women like security…? Why ? Bc genetics, environment,…. Highest risk takers in the us -single men/ -.. -……….. Older workers own more…..true Influences on Decision Making Intuition-fast, pos force in decision making that is utilized at a level below consciousness and involves learned patterns of information Creativity-a process influenced by individual and organizational factors that results in the production of novel and useful ideas, products, or both. 10/30/15 Friday, October 30, 2015 1:00 PM Ch 10 Group Decision Making Synergy- a positive force that occurs in groups when group members stimulate new solutions to problems through the process of mutual influence and encouragement within the group. Social decision schemes- simple rules used to determine final group decisions. Truth wins, majority wins, two-thirds majority (67ppl in the senate), first shift Group Decision Making Advantages More knowledge through pooling of group resources Increased acceptance and commitment due to voice in decisions Greater understanding due to involvement in decisions stages Disadvantages Pressure in groups to conform Domination by one forceful member or dominant clique Amount of time required, because group is slower than individual to make a decision Limits of Group Decision Making Groupthink- deterioration a metal efficiency, reality testing, and moral judgement resulting from pressures within the group Group polarization- the tendency for group discussion to produce shifts toward more extreme attitudes among members Groupthink ppl have high cohesiveness, all members tend to think alike., if reputation at stake- groupthinnk seeps in…can affect it more, or if group is against the wall…. Mineguards-usely self-appointed persons, indiv members that take it upon their themselves to protect the group from outside criticisms and make them(who??) wonder if they are heading the right direction -look at group think chart in book Recommend that leader of group does not state his opinion on the matter until group members of the group express their idea. Grouphink nasa example-1986, the challenger disaster- after the launch,(whole world watching, ) unique thing-first civilian to ever go in space-female elementary school teacher-, right after liftoff, the space station blew up… , memo buried into a sack of papers one that said potential danger when lift off… 2003- the columbia-reentry had been programmed to enter through west to east coast of u.s. , five minute into tx heat shields started coming off (what keeps astronauts from burning off) ….another memo problem…. 11/2/15 Monday, November 2, 2015 1:08 PM Group Decision Techniques -brainstorming: any and every idea is accepted…?, no one allowed to criticize until every option is on the board, often credited to coming up with more options than other techniques, prevent groupthink -Self-managed teams -nominal group technique: brainstorming in the quiet, similar to brainstorming except it really is quiet, anonymous ideas , minimum of two meetings and sometimes three. 2 advantages: -cut out/ overcome biases that may exist in the group - -quality circles and quality teams -dialectal inquiry -delphi technique -devil's advocacy: focus is the negative, Special decision-making groups -Qaulity cirlcles: a small group of employees eho work volunteering on company time, typically one hour week, to address work-ralted probs such as quality control, cost reduction,production planning and techniques, and even design -Qualiry teams:a team that is part of an org's structure and is empowered to act on its decisions regarding product and service quality Dr.Ouchi -quality circles " Theory 2" Ch 11 Power and Political Behavior -office politics The concept of power Power-the ability to influence another person Influence-the process of affecting the thoughts, behavior, and feelings of another person Authority- the right to influence another person 11/4/15 Wednesday, November 4, 2015 12:59 PM Interpersonal Forms of Power Reward Power- agent's ability to control the rewards that the target wants -bonuses of some kind Coercive Power- agent's ability to cause an unpleasant experience for a target -tend to be called penalties, ex. Suspension, anything in a disciplinary procedure , probation, demotion Legitimate Power- power based on position and mutual agreement; agent and target agree that the agent has the right to influence the target -attached to the job title that a person has -(job descriptions: job title is very important, ) -granted based on job title Referent Power- an elusive power that is based on interpersonal attraction -wants to be like the person who is in power -doesn't have to be a superior, it is possible for non superiors to have influence on supervisors… Expert Power- the power that exists when an agent has specialized knowledge or skills that the target needs. -they have to have 3 things to influence: -trust -their area has to be relevant and useful to whatever dealing with -we as recipients have to be able to understand what the expert means Criteria for Using Power Ethically -Does the behavior produce a good outcome for people both inside and outside the organization? -Does the behavior respect the rights of all parties? -DO all leaders do this? NO-> ex dictators… -Does the behavior treat all parties equitably and fairly? There's pos power and negative -the neg side: Negative power is one that's used for primary gain for self, Ex. Tycon ceo kolawski -lavish party for wife, 300 ppl , theme a grecian holiday -est to have spend 2 million -tycon board opens investigation- by the time through-deter 240 million embezzled by kowlaski Machievelli 1st principle-it's perfectly fine to manipulate others for personal gain, uer 2nd- you don't have to be concern with …. Successful Power Users -belief in the authority system (there has to be order) -belief in justice (seeking justice for many) -preference for work and discipline (work has value as a society as a whole, and work is good) -altruism (very giving persons, they give up themselves, time, money, energy) Kanter's Symbols of Power-invisible -Common thing : doing things for others -intercede for someone in trouble -Obtain placements for favored employees -exceed budget limitations -procure above-avg raises for employees -place items on meeting agendas -access to early info -have top managers seek out their opinion -research on powerlessness: they feel less powerless when supervisor breathing down their necks When there's a turf war(bet 2 departments) and employee is in between, 11/06/15 Friday, November 6, 2015 12:57 PM Power--Ch 11---- Korda's power Symbols (visual) Furnishings-office furniture, what kinds communicate power or lack thereof? Desk-type of wood, or if it's wood, fine woods, heavily oiled, hand crafted, bigger desk= more power, location Time-(very true in the US) busy people are very powerful bc they're in demand... Standing by- ability to impose your schedule on somebody else, ex secretary, supposed to drop all things and adjust his/her sched to fit in with the boss . . Organizational Politics-the use of power and influence in organizations Political behavior- actions not officially sanctioned by an organization that are taken to influence others in order to meet one's personal goals. -there's no such thing as an org that doesn't have office politics -political behavior is not inherently positive or negative Cart in textbook 11.2-influence tactics Political skill and managing political behavior in orgs-not on test Coalition and rational persuasion- changing something (policy...etc), Conmmunication ultaionand inspirational appeal-pitching something completely new Rational persuasion and ingratiation-higher evaluations -reason:bosses are ppl too, har to remain neutral when complimented . Four Dimensions of Empowerment Meaning-fit bet a person work role and their values and beliefs (the higher it is, the higher the meaning and more empowered a person is) Competence-ability of a person to do their job well, as it increases, higher empowerment Self-determination- the volition- how much control a person has in his or her job ( the more decisions allowed-->more empowerment) Impact-belief that one's job makes a difference . Ch 12-------------------------------------- Leadership and followership -world studies have shown that across the world 80-87 % are followers, 15-20% are leaders Companies looking for leadership-good ones, successful ones, innovating ones . Leadership-process of guiding and directing people's behavior at work There are diffs between managers and leaders Summary of arguments: all leaders are managers, but not all managers are leaders What's th diff bet? management -planning and budgeting -organizing and staffing(hiring and firing authority) -controlling an d problem solving(controlling refers to accounting side) Leadership(they do all that +) -setting a direction for the organization -aligning ppl with that direction -motivating ppl . Group 1 on leadership reasearch theory Early trait theories Distinguised leaders by: Physical attributes Personality characteristics Abilities(speech fluency, social skills, insight) -funded by corporate america -to recognize it and use it In the area of leadership they weren't able to deliver--could not ... (recent by historian in 1990s- research question (only US participated in the ): Does height influence presidential races? In every presidential race except for 2, the tallest candidate won...this is an example of….can we say that there is a direct relationship--->no, but we can say...height may be an influencer…) 11/09/15 Monday, November 9, 2015 1:03 PM Behaviorists-4 Successful leadership depends on the leaders action Continuocy? -2 Successful ledership depends in the contingent …. Lewin on leadershp Autocratic style The leader uses strong, directive actions to control the rules, regulations, activities, and relationships in the work environment -controlling, rules,…. Democatic Uses interaction and collaboration with followers to direct the work and the work environ Laissez-Faire The leaders has a hands-off approach Ohio State Studies + Michigan Studies OHIO -2dimensions(horiz scale that has beg and end and ppl can be plotted in those) - Initiating Structure-leader behavior aimed at defining and org work relationships and roles; est. clear patterns or organization, comm, and ways of getting things done Consideration- leader behavior aimed at nurturing friendly, warm working relatioships, as well as encouraging mutual trust … . MICHIGAN -agrees with lewin, but only 2 types of leadership styles Production-oriented- focus on getting work done -uses direct supervision Employee oriented- employee relationships, getting along . Leadership Grid Definition Fig 12.1 Leadership Grid-an approach to understanding a leader's or manager's concern for results (production) and concern for people -7 styles? . Organization man (5,5)- middle-of-the-road leader -has been able to achieve a perfect balance bet production and the employee relationship -'ideal', do they really exist? 1991-this theory…. . Authority Compliance (9,1) -a lot on production, not that much focus on employees (who are very low priority Opposite…. The country-club (1,9) -las thing on their mind is production -not focus in production . The worst ? (1,1)-impoverished manager -avoid taking sides -stay out of conflict -Just enough to get by . . Ostriches---ignore probs -don't use this method for problem solving . CONTINGENCY managers 1 Fiedler's Fit bet leader's need structure and favorableness of leader's situation determine the team's effectiveness LPC-least preferred coworker High LP-leaders who describe LPCmin pos terms _low LPC- leader's who describe l . Situation favorableness 3 elements: -task structure -position power-legitimate authority to give ---rewar power and coercive powerment -leader-member relations Situation-structured task for the work group, strong position power for leader, Fig 12.3 -path -goal (minor theory)'' -leaders have ability to adapst their behavior and leader to fit chars and environ in which they work in . . . Vroom-Yetton -Jago Normative Decision Model] Manager shoul use : Decide Consult Individually -consult group -facilitate- Delegate- Situation . Situational--''''''''''';'' - . Leader-member exchange -diff relationship with diff memebers Inner circle (in-group) -members similar to the leader -given greater resposibilities, rewards, attention -within a leaders' inner circle of communication -high job satisfaction and org commitment, low turnover Stress from added resposibilities Outer circle( out-groups) -managemed by formal rules and policies -given less attention; fewer rewards -outside the leader's communication circle -more likely to retaliate against the organization -stress from being left out of communication network . . New theories…. Transformational Leadership -inspire and excite followers to high level of performance through personal attributes, ex. Former ceo of southwest Transactionals-sybols of the business, focus on production Charismatic leadership -use the force of personal abilities and talents to have a profound effects on followers -greek words means a gift -actually a neutral term -do not think of it as always positive -rely on referent power -ex adolf hitler, david coresh...waco..? Followership -5types -2measurement Passive-active Independent-dependent 5: Alienated Effective Sheep Survivors-risk aversion Yes,people 11/13/15 Friday, November 13, 2015 1:12 PM Chapter 13 Conflict and Negotiation Conflict Any situation in which incomplatible goals, attitudes, emotions, or behaviors lead to ………….. Importance of Conflict Management Skills -21% time solving conflict . -Conflict management skills predict managerial success -emotional inteligence is critical The ability to solve conflict successfully ---ppl will notice...whawha - Not all conflict is bad -good conflict= functional conflict -management theory tat asserts if group starts having symptoms of groupthink that you should include a little bit of conflict -when 2 ppl work through their disagreements they feel that they've been gone through a problem and help them become ---work better together -disfunctional-leads to bad things - Chart of consequences of conflict 11/18/15 Wednesday, November 18, 2015 12:55 PM Withdrawal Defense Mechnisms Flight/Withdrawal- entails physically escaping (flight) or psychologically escaping (withdrawal) a conflict Conversion- emotional conflicts are expressed in physical symptoms Fantasy- provides an escape from a conflict through daydreaming. Ineffective Techniques for Dealing with Conflict Nonaction-ignores conflict completely Secrecy- 2 ppl w/ disagreement--> keep among selfs Administrative orbiting-->buy time, increase frustration Due process nonaction- Character assassination You can always know when somedody Conflict Management Stlyd Avoiding- Avoidin-delibarate decision to make no actiona on a Accomodating Competing- Comromising- ec gives uo somethind Collaborating- arriving at a soltion agreeable to all trough open and through discussion. CH 14 Jobs an the Design of Work…. Hr topic? How they influence us? -diff ways to design jobs --and together they make up the co Macro perspective Job and career Career-long term, 10 yrs or longer Job-short term, Job-a set of specified work and task activities that engage an individual in an organization 'work is imp bc it ties us to reality' Meaning of work-the way a person interprets and understands the value of work as a part of life World wide- concepts idetifiable all over their world 2 concepts -job context-the number of pilicies and procedures-too many-rigid, too little- -work content-amount of responsbility that exist in a job--more respect? More statues bc more respons? Traditional approaches to job design Scientific management-20s frederick taylors, -….. -work standardization -smallest number of tasks possible Min stuff --don't think too much about job Productivity based Mostly no longer used except for manufacturing… Job characteristics theory Job enrichmentte aaaaa Job enlargement/job rotation Germany-culture suposed to r -f[[ Se crees Scanvia chart -social concern of the jobd -law raised to federal levvel the subuject of job design research -tax mone alllowed to be used n 11/20/15 Friday, November 20, 2015 1:09 PM Job enlargement -the number of tasks is increased in the job description -resposibilities are added to make ppl not be doing anything, introduce variety and challenges Job rotation -single dep, or so. Each learn the jobs of others-crosstraining, -both horizontal procesis, boredom affects job satisfaction, they draw from other job responsabilities. Pure level jobs . Job enrichment -job responsabilities from one level above are added to them from their current level Job characteristics model -employees love itesse -don't lose the focus,,tedrr'\ Ignire:m -\- uno ideally resolaimilar ti -lea ---- rpoduction How to pronove''''''l wirll all their jobn design - 1/23/15 Monday, November 23, 2015 1:02 PM Work Des and the wor[pign and Well-Being Increase control by: -gving workers the opportutnity control several aspects of the work and the workplace -designing machines and tasks with optimal response times ad/or fames -implementing perf-monitoring sytem Reduce anxiety peJOb nner -… . Emerging Issues in Design of Work Telecommuting: employees work at home or in other locations geographically separate from their company's main location Alt work patternsXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Flexible: an alt work pattern that enables employees to set their own daily Job Searching: $th kind of design 4 day workweek - --------------------- Ch15: Organizational Design Structure Macro Org Design The process of constructing and adjusting an organization's structure to achieve its business strategy and goals Structure The linking of departments and jobs within an organization 4 contextual variables -a set of chars that influences the orgs's design process Size -measured in number of employees -formalization, specialization,…. Technology -th rel bet technology and structure is complex… -diff dep employ diff technologies Strategy and Goals Long term Environment 11/25/15 Wednesday, November 25, 2015 12:46 PM Environment Anything outside the boundaries of an organization . Federal reserve…. -check for forged, check checks/design…/checkcheckers Online banking introduced-->layoff for 50% (10 yrs ago)-->no control, Utility…? 95-?% of citizens use… . Cultural Demands Siesta time…every single place closed -accomodate culture . Government Regulations . Stategy Provides legitimacy to the organization, employee direction, decision guidelines, and criteria for performance. . Key Organizational Design Processes . Differentiation The process of deciding how to divide the work in an organization -manager's goal orientation -time orientation -interpersonal orientation (the manager's style) -formality of structure . Differentiation . Horizontal Diff<--------> Degree of difference bet org subunits Vertical Diff |^ The diff in authority and responsibility in the org hierarchy Spatial diff Geographic dispersion of an org's offices, plants and personnel . . Key Org Design Processes Integretion ………. Vertical -hierarchical referral -Rules and procedures -Plans and schedules -Positions added to the organization structure -Management information systems Horizontal Int -Liaison roles -task forces -integrator positions -teams . . Tall and wide vs flat and wide(more liaisons) . Structural Dimensions(no sa of these on test, but will be in test) -Formalization The degree to which the org has official rules, regulations, and procedures -Centralization The degree to which decisions are made up at the top of the org -Specialization The degree to which jobs are narrowly defined and depend on unique expertise -Standarization The degree to which work activities are accomplished in a rountine fashion -Complexity The degree to which many different types of activities occur in the organization. -Hierarchy of authority The degree of vertical differentiation across levels of management. . Civil service-15 promotion levels-with each 3 or 4 subparts Of ll new busnes- 9/10 don't make it mast their 2,l; . Chart Simple structure A centralized form of org that emphasizes a small tech and supp staff, strong centralization of descision making I the upper echelon, and a minimal middle level Machine Baeurocracy A moderately decentralized from of org that emph a supp staff differentiated from the line operations of the org, and a well-def hier of auth Proffessionnal Beauu A decent for of org that emph the expertise of proffesii Mabive em 11/30/15 Monday, November 30, 2015 1:05 PM Ch 15 continued….. . Structural configurations Divisionalized form- a loosely coupled, composite structural configuration composed of divisions, each of which may have its own structural configuration. -a holding company, or a conglomerate -ex: valero-retail gas seller, Adhocracy- a selectively decentralized form of organization that emphasizes the support staff and mutual adjustment among people -horizontal linking is liasons….horizontal specialization bc they employ a lot of support staff...Nasa . Where is my company in its life cycle Born(distinct beginning)----> they grow and peak---->plateu------>midlife crisis----> slow down-----> not all companies die --->reassesment/restructuring done at the plateu period... Forces Reshaping Organizations -Organizational life cycles -globalization ---can put stress on company, bc of spacial differentiation, how many comps does it manage ...diff cultures, timezones, ...etc...restructuring will be req -changes in information-processing technologies ----->by upgrades or completely overhauling -demands on organizational processes . Comp structure out of alignment? . Four Symptoms of Structural Weakness -delay in decision making -poor quality decision making -lack of innovative response to changing environment -high level of conflict . . . . . Chapter 16 . Orgonaizational Culture -corporate culture . Org culture-a pattern of basic assumptions that are considered valid and that are taught to new members as the way to perceive, think, and feel in the organization. Types of Artifacts -Personal Enactment --actual behavior of upper management, modeling? -Ceremonies and Rites -Stories -about the boss -getting fired -relocating -promotions -crisis situation -status considerations -Rituals -Symbols . Peroh?....? . . 1 2 3 4 rite-rite of integration 5 rite of degradation -how co disciplines employees? Ppl indiv or in public 12/2/15 Wednesday, December 2, 2015 1:13 PM Artifacts Example: Values..' Fuctions \ Cultur provides a sencse of identity to nd increases their commitment to the org memebers a . . w 3 theories Strong ddulture-an or culture with s consensus Because -They are char by goal assignment Bers -they p] ovide . .File pe . Adaptive Culture definition, asking hw doing?, aske cusomer and employees and … Cautious management. -try to protect their oe Most Importtant elemet sin managing -pay attent ention too How leaders react to crises How leders behave Allocate rewards Hire and fire individuals 12/4/15 Friday, December 4, 2015 1:06 PM Ch 16 Organizational Culture Organizational Socialization The process by which newcomers are transformed from outsiders to participating, effective members Socialization Process Anticipatory Socialization- the first socialization stage, which encompasses all of the learning that takes place prior to the newcomer's first day on the job Encounter- the second socialization stage in which newcomers learn the tasks associated with the job, clarifie their roles, and establish new relationships at work Change and Acquisition- the third stage, in which the newcomer begins to master the demands of the job Line vs Staff Line - that which contributes directly to the production of the product provised…all supervisor jobs are line jobs pretty much Staff- technically, co can survive without these…they exists at the request of supervisor…? , example payroll deppt, hr Ethics -strong corp culture ---->ethical behavior---> managers 4 explanations -I didn't think this was unethical behavior was done in I though my actions were for the best interest of co …. Adolf…? Ch 16 endsleqq Ch 17 Manl -proactive…. -learn from mistake… Career vs carreie 12/7/15 Monday, December 7, 2015 1:11 PM Ch 17 3 subjective reasons for fail: -fail their duties - - 1 objective 1st -preparation -2Nd rec -choice of occupation . Recession-choosing our company?' Career stage model 1-Establishment- th person learns and begins to fit into the org and occupation. 2-Advancemement- people focus on increasing their competence -a period many strive for achievement 2 models- . . Mentoring-psychosocial functions provided by a mentor -role modeling -acceptance and confirmation -counseling -friendship . 2-Maintenance stage Crissis -slwoed/stalled career growth -burnou of achievement -no need for continued awkward mobilty contentment -sense of achievemnet Retirement Factors -health Company policy Fam issues Income Opportunity Deraling eit., Ch 18 -Commucicatio00Parti -procedd 5 Group -Focused 3 [[[ Quality Prograaaaaaaammmm Procccess consultation -an od Process Coclats 12/9/15 Wednesday, December 9, 2015 1:06 PM Organizational Changes Planned Change -change resulting from a deliberate decision to alter the org Unplanne


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