BIOL 119 Animals Bundle 1
BIOL 119 Animals Bundle 1 BIOL 119
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This 12 page Bundle was uploaded by Ashley Notetaker on Thursday January 21, 2016. The Bundle belongs to BIOL 119 at Indiana University Purdue University - Fort Wayne taught by Dr. Marshall/ Dr.Nachappa in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Principle Structure and Function in Biology at Indiana University Purdue University - Fort Wayne.
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Date Created: 01/21/16
Lectures 1523** Molecular Basis of Inheritance Chromosomes are structures made if DNA and are associated proteins; all living organisms have chromosomes and they are located in the nucleus. Chromosomes carry cell information and each human has 46 chromosomes. Sister Chromatid one of two attached members of a duplicated eukaryotic chromosome. Tightly wound with loops and scaffolds. Centromere constricted region in a eukaryotic chromosome where sister chromatids are attached. Histone type of protein that structurally organizes eukaryotic chromosomes. DNA is coiled around histones and this forms nucleosomes. DNA is comprised of 4 nucleotides except Uracil only found in RNA DNA nucleotide consists of one fivecarbon sugar (deoxyribose), one phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base. Sugarphosphate backbone gives the DNA molecule stability. The two strands of a DNA molecule are complementary to each other wherever A occurs in DNA T occurs and G occurs with C. Adenine Thymine Guanine Cytosine Semiconservative model predicts that when a double helix replicates, each daughter molecule will have one old strand and one newly made strand. The old strand is derived from the parent molecule. This model was founded by Watson and Crick. The suffix ‘ase’ refers to an enzyme such as helicases, topoisomerases, and DNA/RNA polymerase. There are specific regions where replication occurs. The DNA strands unwind at the Replication Fork from the helicase, which means an enzyme that untwists the double helix. Topoisomerase is an enzyme that regulates breakage and fixes any breaks in the DNA. 5’3’ is the natural direction of the DNA strand, whereas the other strand is 3’5’. RNA primer gets the DNA template ready to be synthesized. It attaches to the template and the primase synthesizes a short RNA primer to initiate a new DNA strand. New DNA extended from primer by DNA polymerase. There is now an RNA molecule in the DNA strand; there is a DNA polymerase that changes the strand to be all DNA. The leading strand is the 5’3’ strand. This strand is easier to synthesize. Describe the evolutionary significance of altered/incorrect DNA nucleotide sequences: There are silent mutations that have no effect but there are mutations that change the base pairs and code for wrong proteins. Mutations can lead to evolution. Mutations serve for genetic diversity and this serves as a base for natural selection to act on. Leading strand of DNA 5’3’ *these differ from templates Lagging strand of DNA 5’3’ Gene Expression RNA is single stranded, has uracil instead of thymine, and is ribonucleic acid. Francis Crick gave the name central dogma to the flow of information from DNA RNA Protein In the nucleus of every cell has DNA that goes through transcription, DNA PreRNA mRNA The mRNA leaves the nucleus and goes into the cytoplasm and forms a ribosome with a polypeptide. There are four nucleotides in DNA (A, G, C, T). These nucleotides code for 20 different amino acids. mRNA uses three of the fours bases. DNA template strand transcription mRNA Translation Protein Triplet codons form amino acids. There are 64 different codons; 61 of them specify amino acids, 1 is to start, and 3 for stop. The first mRNA base is the 5’ end of the codon and the third mRNA base is the 3’ end. True or False DNA polymerase is used to synthesize RNA strand during transcription. False DNA polymerase is used to synthesize DNA strands whereas RNA polymerase is used to synthesize RNA. Gene codes for proteins; a sequence of DNA that codes for mRNA and proteins. Not everything in the DNA is a gene. Transcription takes three steps: Initiation: Elongation: Termination: TATA Box specifies where a gene is going to be transcribed; the TATA box and the other nucleotides in this region is called the promoter area. Once proteins bind with the TATA box, it unwinds the double helix and begins to synthesize the DNA. RNA polymerase unwinds and begins synthesizing by itself. mRNA is nonfunctional without processing: a 5’ cap of modified guanine is added to the 5’ end. 50250 adenine nucleotides added to the 3’ end called a PolyA tail. These modifications facilitate the export of mRNA to the cytoplasm, protects the mRNA from the hydrolytic enzymes, and helps the ribosomes attach to the 5’ end. Introns: thought to be junk DNA, these still code for import parts of the gene. Exons: are spliced in order to allow different types of proteins within the genes. Translation is the reading of an mRNA by a ribosome to assemble amino acids into polypeptide. Transfer RNA is tRNA. Messenger RNA is mRNA. Ribosomal RNA is rRNA. Translation initiation is when the mRNA comes into the cytoplasm and a small ribosomal unit attaches to the mRNA and the ribosome reads the codon to find the start codon (MET). tRNA picks up the amino acids that the cell has previously synthesized and brings it to the RNA. There are three locations in the complex: A is the arrival site, P site, and the E site which is the exist site. How does translation terminate? It starts with the arrival of AUG. It stops with the coding of a stop codon. If the ribosome reads one of three stop codons, translation stops. Release factor a protein that is made up of peptides that causes hydrolysis that breaks up the mRNA. Early Life and Diversification of Prokaryotes The first evidence of life on earth was stromatolites, not dinosaur fossils. Earth was formed approximately 4.6 billion years ago; the first protocells were formed 3.5 billion years ago. RNA world: when the first cells were being formed. Oldest fossils are prokaryotes date back to 3.5 billion years ago. The three major groups on the tree of life are: Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukaryote. Bacteria and archaea are two domains under prokaryotes. Archaea are the most recently discovered and live in extreme conditions such are hydrothermal vents, high salt concentrations, and areas high in methane gas. Conditions on early Earth made the origin of life possible. Chemical and physical processes on early Earth may have produced very simple cells through a sequence of stages: Abiotic synthesis of small organic molecules. Organic molecules of life are: proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids. Joining of these molecules into macromolecules **check slideshow Instead of forming in the atmosphere, the first organic compunds may have been synthesized near volcanoes and deep sea vents. The abiotic synthesis of macromolecules begin to form RNA monomers. These have been produced spontaneously from simple molecules. Small organic molecules polymerize when they are concentrated on hot sand, clay, or rock. The synthesis of RNA begins with an RNA primer. RNA is the starter molecule for how life began. Protocells may have been fluidfilled vesicles with a membranelike structure. In water, lipids and other organic molecules can spontaneously form vesicles with a lipid bilayer. Bacteria divides by binary fission. The first genetic material was probably RNA: RNA molecules called ribozymes have been found to catalyze many different reactions and vesicles with RNA are capable of replication would have been protocells. DNA is more stable than RNA, in which RNA serves as a template for DNA. Many of the oldest fossils are stromatolites, which are layered rocks formed from bacteria, were dated 3.5 billion years ago. Eukaryotes: The earliest evidence of eukaryotes were found 1.8 billion years ago. Describe symbiosis: when an organism can benefit from another organism. There are three types of symbiotic relationships: mutualism, parasitism, and commensalism. Example a honeybee pollenating a flower. Eukaryotes arose by endosymbiosis which is a symbiotic relationship in which one organism lives inside the body or cell of another organism. Mitochondrial genes have not changed for billions of years; most lineage is traced through the DNAof the mitochondria. QUIZ: DNA is would around histone protein that structurally organizes eukaryotic chromosomes. DNA replication on the lagging strand (discontinuous synthesis) runs in the 3’5’ direction. FALSE. Transcription requires which of the following enzymes? PRIMASE. Alternative splicing of genes greatly increase the biodiversity of proteins that can be encoded by the genome. TRUE The Origin and Diversification of Eukaryotes/Animal Diversity Describe endosymbiotic theory of eukaryotic evolution A prokaryotic cell engulfs another prokaryotic cell and this begins a mutualistic relationship between the two cells. From here the cells divide and multiple and produce more complex cells such as eukaryotic cells. Protists are eukaryote that is not a fungus, plant, or animal. Protists are the most diverse group in the eukaryotic clade; they aren’t the most abundant. The evolution of eukaryotic cells allowed for a greater range of unicellular organisms. Animals, plants, and fungi evolved from multiple eukaryotic organisms. The first step that gave rise to the multicellular organisms was cell signaling. The cells adhere to each other and communicate with each other and begin to form tissue. Cell signaling has been found between choanoflagettes and animals. Cadherins cell signaling proteins The four super groups of eukaryotes have been proposed based on morphological and molecular data. Excavata SAR clade Archaeplastida Unikonta Rise of Animal Diversity Evolution of life the most common ancestor of animals have evolved about 700770 million years ago. The most common ancestor is a fish: First fossil evidence of animals are Dickinsonia Costata (unknown taxonomic affiliation) and Mollusc Kimberella. The initial primitive animal was sponges and then cnidarians from there during the Cambrian period gave rise to more diverse organisms. Sponges are filter feeders that capture food as water passes through them. Cnidarians are jellyfish and have true tissues. Their bodies have a central digestive system with a gastro vascular system. Animals are classified by symmetry, tissues, and body cavities. Symmetry radial symmetry and bilateral symmetry Multicellularity gave rise to metazoan organisms. Tissues gave rise to the eumetazoa organisms. Bilaterians have diversified into three major clades. The most abundant invertebrate is arthropods, with over a million species. Chordates are the intermediate group between invertebrates and vertebrates; they have a nerve column that gives rise to the spine cord and spine which later supports the more advanced organs such as the brain. Arthropods were the first organisms to colonize land and become terrestrial. For the fish to move on to land, they had to develop legs; the link between the fish and arthropods are called fishapod (tiktaalik). Amniotes are tetrapods whose living members are reptiles, birds, and mammals. Amniotes lay eggs on land, an amniotic egg. Monotremes are mammals that lay eggs. Marsupials carry their young in a pouch. Placental animals are euthiarials. The most diverse group of all animals are: Arthropods Microbiology Lecture Microbes are in everyday life: digestive system, food, on your skin, on objects. Microbes are everywhere; ubiquitous. Nothing is sterile unless made sterile by humans. Some microbes cause disease, but only less than 1%. This one percent are only the microbes that we can grow. We cannot actually grow all the microbes there are. Many microbes are beneficial; they are found in food, digestion, fermentation, antibiotics, and genetic engineering. Our digestive system has approximately 10^13 microbes per gram. There are more microbes than blood cells and genetic material. Antibiotics antibacterial made by bacterial groups. Bacteria have important roles in chemical cycles; a lot of bacteria are photosynthetic and put oxygen in the atmosphere. Cyanobacteria put more oxygen in the atmosphere than plants do. Bacteria can live in extreme conditions. Nitrogenfixing bacteria make nitrogen available and decomposers break down organic molecules. Most fungi are invisible to the human eye. Beneficial microbes: many bacteria live in the normal human intestine and they protect the gut from harmful bacteria. They produce essential vitamins and breakdown indigestible materials. The organisms that live in a host, typically a human host, and do not cause harm or damage are called Normal Flora. Imbalances of normal flora can lead to severe health problems. These problems can arise from over use of antibiotics. Pathogens are organisms that cause disease; pathogenic bacteria can enter the body through food, water, body fluids, fomites (inanimate objects such as a pen or cell phone) or a vector (an animal that transmits a pathogen between hosts). Five Kingdoms Bacteria and Archaea are generally unicellular and have no true nucleus. MONERA: bacteria are typically unicellular and do not have a true nucleus or organelles. Archaea are known for living in extreme conditions as well as no true nucleus or organelles. Protista and algae are generally unicellular and have a nucleus. Fungi can be unicellular and multicellular. Plantae are multicellular and have cell walls; photosynthesize. Animals are multicellular. The Three Domain System (Woese 1990) Bacteria Archaea Eukarya Prokaryotes have a cell wall around the plasma membrane that gives the cell a characteristic shape: coccus is a round shape bacillus is a rod shape spirillum is a spiral shape Every cell, every living organism has to have a membrane; excluding viruses. Prokaryotic cells have a cell membrane, cell walls, intracellular structures, filamentous appendages, and … Bacterial cell walls have peptidoglycan that makes up the cell wall. Gramnegative cells stain pink because they do not have much peptidoglycan and has two membranes; thin layer. Grampositive cells stain purple and have a large amount of peptidoglycan and only have one membrane. Bacterial chromosomes are circular chromosomes with no nucleus; one large circular cell that is a super coil of knots that can stretch for miles. Some bacterial cells have DNA contained in a nucleoid region. Capsules are gelatinous coatings that coat around a cell made of polysaccharides (sticky sugars). Protective functions such as reducing drying and protecting against body defenses. These are extremely important to form biofilm. Most bacteria divide asexually by binary fission (also known as vertical transmission); some divide every 20 minutes. Very few reproduce by budding like in yeast. Not mitosis or meiosis. Vertical transmission does not give rise to genetic diversity, they just produce exact clones. Lateral or horizontal gene transfer can accomplish this with a pilus which is a rod that extends from one gene to another. They transfer plasmids, which are small pieces of DNA, and this contributes to genetic diversity. Viruses technically nonliving because they cannot reproduce on their own. They are made of nucleic acid and a protein coat. They contain DNA or RNA, but NOT both. They hijack a host and the host organism helps the virus replicate. Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites. The virus is enclosed in a capsid, which the protein coat (capsomeres are protein subunits that make up the protein coat). Some viruses have a lipid bilayer (envelope) that comes from the host cell. Viruses may have spikes for help to attach to hosts. Viral shapes: complex, helical, icosahedral or polyhedral. The protists typically are unicellular and contain a nucleus and organelles. These can be pathogenic or nonpathogenic. Algae falls into the nonpathogenic protists. The fungi are known as decomposers; they can reproduce sexually or asexually. The fungi hs cell walls but they are made of chitin instead of peptodigylcon. The largest organism is a soil fungus in Oregon with hyphae that extends over 2200 acres. Yeast is a singlecellular fungi. Human uses of fungi are forfoods, fermentation, and drugs and medicines. There are also poisonous fungi. Parasitic worms are helminthes that can cause disease. Animal Nutrition: Nutrition is essential for all living organisms. Herbivores eat mainly plants and algae. Carnivores eat other animals (meat). Omnivores regularly consume animals as well as plants or algae. Opportunistic feeders: organisms eat what they can find. Diet includes: chemical energy: which is converted into ATP to power cellular processes. organic building blocks, such as organic carbon and organic nitrogen which synthesizes organic molecules. essential nutrients, nutrients that our bodies cannot synthesize such as amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins, and minerals. Fatty acids: there are two essential fatty acids which are omega3 and omega6. Fatty acids convert into phospholipids, signaling molecules, and storage fats. These can be synthesized by plants. Amino acids: must be obtained from food in preassembled form. Animals require 20 amino acids. There are eight essential amino acids. Vitamins: organic molecules that are required in small amounts. There are 13 essential vitamins for humans. Minerals: simple inorganic nutrients that are required in small amounts. Large amounts can cause imbalance. Feeders: filter feeders bulk feeders Substrate feeders fluid feeders Human beings may be considered as: Bulk Feeders Intracellular vs. Extracellular Digestion: Intracellular food particles are engulfed by phagocytosis. Food vacuoles fuse with lysosomes containing hydrolytic enzymes. Extracellularbreaks down food particles outside the cell. Mammalian digestive system: alimentary canals and accessory glands. These glands are salivary glands, pancreas, liver, and the gallbladder. The only digestion that takes place in the stomach is protein digestion, most digestion takes placein the duodenum. The food broken down is called chyme. **Bile is produced by the liver but is stored in the gallbladder. The large intestine mainly absorbs water. Which of these has the shortest digestive track: Carnivore Endocrine System & Homeostasis Homeostasis uniformed state. Cells Tissues Organs Organ Systems Body Systems: Digestive, Nervous, Endocrine, Muscular, Skeletal, Circulatory, Lymphatic, Integumentary Systems. Animal tissues can be grouped into four categories: Epithelial, Connective, Muscle, and Nervous. Epithelium Tissues: Simple squamous, stratified squamous, cuboidal, columnar epithelium. There are six types of connective tissues: Loose connective fibroblasts are scattered throughout the tissue. Bone tissues osteocytes in a matrix of collagen and glycoproteins. Cartilage chondrocytes embedded in a pliable, solid matrix of collagen and chondroitin sulfate. Fibrous connective striated long rows of fibroblasts surrounded by collagen and elastin bundles. Blood tissues leukocytes, erythrocytes, and platelets suspended in a plasma matrix. Adipose tissues large, tightly packed adipocytes with little extracellular matrix. Muscle tissues: Skeletal, Cardiac, Smooth muscles. Neuron structure includes dendrites, a nucleus, a cell body, an axon, and axon terminals. Homeostasis: in humans, body temperature, blood ph, and glucose concentration are maintained at a constant level. Regulators use internal mechanisms to control internal change despite external fluctuation. Conformers allow its internal condition to change in accordance to the external environment. A river otter is a regulator whereas the bass is a conformer: True or False True. Thermoregulation is the process by which animals maintain an internal temperature within a tolerable range. Endothermic animals generate heat by metabolism. Ectothermic animals gain heat from their surroundings. Hormones are released into the blood stream through the endocrine system; from here they attach to receptors which starts a stimulus to a response. Hypothalamus controls just about everything in the body by secreting hormones. These hormones signal pituitary gland hormones which travel throughout the body. Command signals come from the hypothalamus. Neuroendocrine pathways are hormone pathways that respond to stimuli from the external environment rely or a sensor in the nervous system. Compare and contrast between acinar cells and pancreatic islets: exocrine and endocrine glands secretes products. Epinephrine is the fight or flight hormone. Osmoregulation is the general term for the processes by which animals control solute concentrations in the interstitial fluid and balance water gain and loss. Interstitial fluid is the fluid that surrounds the cell such as cytoplasm or nucleoplasm. Osmolarity is the solute concentration of a solution and determines the movement of water across a selectively permeable membrane. Osmoconformers marine animals, isosmotic with their surroundings and do not regulate their osmolarity Osmoregulators expend energy to control water uptakes and loss in a hyposmotic or hyoosmotic environment. Nitrogenous wastes: the type and quantity of an animal’s waste products may greatly affect its water balance. Among the most significant wastes are nitrogenous breakdown products of proteins and nucleic acids. Which of the following nitrogenous waste is excreted by humans: Urea, Uric Acid, and Ammonium Ions. Urea is the most abundant waste. Aphids secrete only sugars; they feed on only phloem which leaves sugar as a waste product. Most aquatic animals including most bony fishes excrete ammonia. Mammals, most amphibians secrete urea. Reptiles and birds secrete uric acid. The most simple excretory system is the protonephridia with is a network of dead end tubules connected to external openings; found in flatworms. Filtration: filtering of body fluids. Reabsorption: reclaiming valuable solutes. Secretion: adding nonessential solutes and wastes from the body fluids to the filtrate. Excretion: releasing processed filtrate containing nitrogenous wastes from the body. Proximal tubule at the proximal end, the nephron forms a cuplike Bowman’s capsule around a ball of capillaries (glomerulus) In the descending limb of the loop of Henle, reabsorption of water continues through channels from by aquaporin proteins and the filtrates becomes increasingly concentrated. The ascending limb has a transport epithelium that lacks water channels. Homeostatic Regulation of the Kidney: one key hormone in the regulatory circuitry of the kidney is the Antidiuretic hormone or AND also known as vasopressin. Circulation and Gas Exchange Small, nonpolar molecules such as O2 and CO2 move between cells and their immediate surroundings by diffusion. When water diffuses it is called osmosis, and osmosis needs a permeable membrane. Gas exchange takes place at capillaries. Open system: the blood is everywhere and is not enclosed in veins; such as in insects and arthropods. There is no distinction between circulatory fluid and interstitial fluid. List the types of blood vessels: artery, arteriole, capillaries, venule, and vein. Atrium Ventricle Arteries Arterioles Capillaries Venules Veins Atrium Vertebrates have two circulatory systems: pulmonary and systemic circuits. Pulmonary circuit through which blood flows from the heart to the lungs and back. Systemic circuit through which blood flows from the… Four chambers of the heart: Left and Right Atrium (upper two chambers) and Left and Right Ventricle (lower two chambers). Atrioventricular valves between atria and ventricles (mitral or bicuspid and tricuspid). Semilunar valves (SV). Cardiac cycle: one complete sequence of pumping and filling Systole contraction Diastole relaxation The heart rate is also called the pulse and it is the number of beats per minute. The stroke volume is the amount of blood pumped in a single contraction. The lubdup sound of a heart beat is cause by the recoil of blood against the Av valves (lub) then against the semilunar (dup) valves. Backflow of blood through a defective valves causes a heart murmur. What type of mechanisms initiates the contractions of the heart? Muscular. Both muscular and neuronal mechanisms control the contractions. Pacemaker sinoatrial (SA) node. These produceds electrical impulses that spread rapidly through the heart and can be recorded as an EKG (electrocardiogram). Blood flow velocity is not constant throughout the body. Blow flows slowest in the capillaries because there is an increase in area in the capillaries. Lymphatic system: returns fluid called lymph which leaks out from the capillary. Lymph has a very similar to interstitial fluid. Lymph nodes are organs that filter lymph and play an important role in the body’s defense. Edema is swelling caused by disruptions in the flow of lymph. QUIZ: EXAM 3 REVIEW: Histones proteins that DNA is wrapped around. Nitrogenous Bases A binds with T and C binds with G in DNA. Semiconservative model the baby genome has one copy of dna from the parents and one from the copy. Continued on notecards**
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