Journalism Media and Society (Entire Semester)
Journalism Media and Society (Entire Semester) Journalism 1023
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Journalism Media & Society August 27,2015 Media Significance o Pervasiveness (Media ARE all around us/apart of is) of media in our lives/society o Media influence and impact o Media is PLURAL “Media ARE Biased” First Amendment free speech/free press o Gatekeeper- any of those along the communication chain who influence What DOES OR DOESN’T APPEAR IN MEDIA o QUESTION ON THE FINAL “What does the first amendment say” o What is considered “news” Print Media th o Moveable type Johannes Gutenberg (mid 15 cent) o Was able to print multiple copies of the Gutenberg Bible 1455 September 1, 2015 Telecommunications wave (cont.) Telegraph o Samuel Morse (led to inverted pyramid style of reporting) Radio Broadcasting- o Lee de Forest, 1907 First radio station (KDKA) in PA, 1920 o Became a very important way for communication Television o Zworykin, iconoscope, 1923; Farnsworth, TV images, 1927 o TV demonstrations at the 1939 World’s Fair o TV development on hold during WW2; Became major factor in society in past 50 years Radio and Television were once privately owned and commercially ran High-Technology wave Breakthroughs: o Digital communication 1950’s 1980’s o Computers o Microprocessors o Fiber-optic cables o Communications satellites- circa 1960 An efficient alternative for delivering traditional media products’ they play a major part in globalization and instantaneous communication (we depend heavily on these satellites to have global communication) Kennedy was the first to be shown on a program that played in Europe as well in America. One of the first major events was in 1964 when signals were relayed from Japan to let American TV viewers watch live coverage of the 1964 Olympics in Tokyo. o Defense Dpt begins ARPAnet groundwork for the internet, 1969 o WORLD WIDE WEB (1991) [Sir Tim Berners-Lee] o Media convergence SOCIAL MEDIA Four major media trends Globalization o International ownership, reach, and coverage of the media DEF OF GLOB. o Instantaneous coverage and transmission from all around the world (Major news events, World Cup, Olympics) o *Global Village Marshall Mcluhan o World Cup o When Brazil hosted the World Cup it was like having the Super Bowl every day for an entire month Conglomeration o Smaller companies coming together to create larger ones – mergers, take overs, etc. o Global multi-media conglomerates such as Time-Warner, Disney, News Corp., Sony, Viacom, Bertelsmann, NBC-Universal/Comcast, Gannett (USA Today) o Murdoch controversy o Media Conglomerates Unwieldy conglomerates are slimming and becoming more focused. Viacom split off its broadcast-television business as CBS Corporation in 2006. Time Warner announced plans to spin off Time Inc, its magazines unit. Thomson Reuters sold off its education business in 2007 and its health-care division in 2012 New York Times is best example of this, bought into a lot of different media outlets and now sell them off and cutting back o Consolidation and concentration of ownership o DISNEY “WORLD” Disney is a GIANT conglomerate Best known—films, theme parks, ABC television, ESPN…. ESPN is the most costly cable programmer…. September 3, 2015 Four major media trends (cont.) Demassification o Fragmentation Media aiming at smaller, more specific or targeted segments of the audience instead of a broader audience Examples: Radio formats; Specialized magazines (first national media)(Henry Luce started TIME Magazine, Fortune Magazine, Life Magazine, and Sports Illustrated); Special interest cable channels and web sites/blogs; Social Media Importance of Demographics—the characteristics of an audience such as an age, sex, level of education, level of income, etc. We use demographics in many different ways (ex: Elections, “Polls”, etc) 1. Polling involves Demographics 2. Advertisers use Demographics Convergence o Blending of or overlap of media functions as technologies evolve; o Coming together of computing telecommunications, and media in a digital environment; o Integration of technologies and creation of multi-media operations o Ex: news, music, broadcasting, Internet; news organization web sites o Journalism requires being Multi-dimensional (being able to report, write, and edit across print and digital platforms) WILL NOT BE SUCCESSFUL WITHOUT IT o Social Media- refers to using digital media channels to engage in two way or multi way conversation with other individuals o Murdoch and his companies exemplify globalization and conglomeration September 8, 2015 Four Media Functions Information o We base media on our source of information o We make decisions based on information learned via media 2 main functio o It is the basic function of media. ns of Entertainment MEDIA o Through the media, we have access to much of our sources of entertainment o Ex: Music, TV shows, Sports, etc. o Another basic function of Media Persuasion o Media is used to “advertise” products or even ideas to the given audience o Advertisements are at the center of media persuasion o Even movies and TV shows have an agenda, they are trying to get a point, while sometimes being underlying, they are, in the end, pushing a message or a “point” at the audience. Binding o It may not ring a bell at first o “Transmission of Culture” o Shared experiences (ex: Superbowl) Binding Best examples of “binding” is when moments are “live” and “unexpected” America “binding” over Katrina or 9/11(BIGGEST EXAMPLE) Or back in the 50’s when everyone watched “I Love Lucy” This was a scheduled event that “binded” America Media Role/Function Media covering major political events o Civil Rights on TV o Wars and Protests/Riots Media covering sports and music o Jackie Robinson on the newspaper for major league baseball (reflects back in the category of Civil Rights) o Any music related or pop culture information is found via media September 15, 2015 Print Media Books Current trends in publishing and book selling o Consolidation and conglomeration HarperCollins, Bertlsmann (owns Random House (oldest and most respected publishers)), etc. Book Sales: Online: Amazon (Jeff Bezos) and others Mega-stores: Barnes & Noble, Books-A-Million, Borders out of business Ebooks o An e-book is a digital book o Still developing but e-books make up an increasingly large share of publishers’ sales o The best known e-book readers are Amazon Kindle, etc Independent book stores o Failing miserably o Only few left Newspapers o History and significance of newspapers o Developments in appearance, content, and organization o Party Press Supported by a specific political group/party Since then, advertising has been the principle source of funding for media o Penny Press—Benjamin Day, 1833 Sell a lot of newspapers VERY cheaply by relying on advertising o Sensationalism/Yellow Journalism th th Late 19 -20 century in New York Competition between two dominant publishers at the time Joseph Plitzer and William Randolph Hertz o Hertz company was first major media conglomerate Yellow Journalism Based off of “The Yellow Kid” o Color in newspapers is relatively new Strings of American Journalism September 17, 2015 TEST is Tuesday September 29 bring a pen! Thursday before the test 24 REVIEW Magazine Critique DUE OCTOBER 1ST o Compare and critique a group of 3 magazines o Must be current/very recent Topical Paper DUE OCTOBER 8 TH o Diversity in the media o Media in Civil Rights o Television and Sports o President Obama and the media o Celebrity news: How much is enough? o Net neutrality o 3 more (look online) Magazines o Most significant of the early magazines was the Saturday Evening Post, first published in 1821 o Postal Act of 1879 o Innovations/Contributions associated with magazines Long-form journalism/essays Personality profiles –New Yorker In depth profile of a person of interest in society To give readers and idea of who this specific person is really like Investigative reporting/Muckraking –McClure’s and other magazines; Ida Tarbell and others The muckraking label was applied by Teddy Roosevelt The Muckraking era of magazine journalism in the early 20 century exposed social, industrial and political ills and established a tradition of hard- hitting, crusading journalism Photojournalism o Pioneered by National Geographic o Really took off after Henry Luce and Life Magazine in 1936 Featured photography of Margaret Bourke-White September 24, 2015 REVIEW FOR TEST QUESTIONS ABOUT “STRAINS AGAINST AMERICAN JOURNALISM” USA Today, pioneered the color Chapters 3-7! Chapter 3- media business, media conglomerates (ESPN, Disney, etc) o Pg. 78 is a classic photo Chapter 4- Books (look atstotes), E-books, Print books. Chapter 5- Magazines, 1 part is most important (History of =magazines muckraking, etc Chapter 6- newspapers Chapter 7- pg. 181-radio format- o 1) Country or New country 14% of listener popularity, o 2) News talk and information 11.4% o 3) Pop/ Top 40 (OG radio format) o 4) Adult Contemporary o 5) Classic Hits/Classic Rock Print Wave--MOVEABLE TYPE MADE HISTORY (not the printing press) Telecommunications wave—Telegraph, sound recording, movies, kinetoscope, radio, TV, etc. High-tech wave—digital communication, World Wide Web, media convergence (social media) Globalization, Conglomeration, Convergence, Multi-dimensional journalism Henry Luce- LIFE magazine October 13, 2015 MIDTERM THURSDAY Chapters 3-7 and a little bit of 9 Television and Cable Chapter 9 Kennedy age was a time when we became a TV nation If you lived in a city then it was easy to get cable but if you lived out in the middle of nowhere or in valleys or anywhere then you would just get “snow” Pennsylvania, Oregon, Arkansas (3 men from these states) Pennsylvania o Mr. Walson, he would charge amonthly fee to run a wire to people’s homes to get picture…this was called Community Antenna Television CAT TV Arkansas o Mr. Davidson in Tuckerman, AR so he used CAT TV to promote cable to smaller towns, and got a Razorback football game to show CAT TV- bring distant signals to remote locations Time & temperature channel o Camera pivoting between clock and thermometer Only for rural area at first FCC (federal communication committee) set up country wide CAT Ted turner came up with the idea to put his station up on the satellite that turned into WTBS, cable companies country-wide started to offer this. ESPN, HBO (first premium channel) o HBO was meant for motels and hotels and other places to entice their customers to stay there. HBO (Home Box Office) One exception to CAT only in rural area, Manhattan, Kansas but in New York could not. Because of so m any tall buildings and electrical interference. But then in Manhattan, NY people would put their own cable set ups at the top of buildings MidTerm Print wave o Johannes Gutenburg- Moveable type Telecommunications wave o Telegraph o Sound recording o Movies o Radio-Marconi (wireless radio) o KDKA first radio station in pittsburg o TV, Farnsworth who came up with the concept of television High tech wave o Digital communications o Communications satellites-1960 An efficient alternative for elivering traditional media proucts they play a major part in globalization and instantaneous communication o World wide web-(Berners-Lee) o Four trends Globalization Conglomeration Disney, ESPN, Time-Warner Demassification Fragmentation o Demographics-characteristics of an audience Convergence Blending or overlapping of media outlets o multi-dimensional journalism o News Corp-21 Century Fox Split into two Murdoch and his companies exemplify globalization and conglomeration o Super Bowl o World Cup o ESPN is most costly cable programmer conglomerate of Disney o Media Functions o Civil rights on TV Jackie Robinson breaking color barriers on newspaper o Newspapers Party press Penny press Yellow journalism Yellow kid Trends in newspapers Decline in # of newspapers Demise of afternoon newspapers Decline in circulation October 26, 2015 Television Camel News Caravan NBC 1 regularly aired television news a 15-minute American television news program aired by NBC News from Feb 14, 1949-October 26, 1956 Sponsored by Camel cigarettes with John Cameron Swayze as the “anchor” Milton Berle and Ed Sullivan variety shows Live programs Occasionally John Cameron Swayze would smoke while delivering the news, sometimes even blowing smoke rings at the camera Had Camel cigarettes at the front being displayed of his segment Roles of Farnsworth and Zworykin David Sarnoff Coaxial cables connected the country by 1951. Originally 4 national networks but Dumont Network did not last. For many years TV was dominated by the BIG 3 ABC, NBC, CBS PBS, 1967 FOX, 1986 Fox outbid CBS to televise some NFL games in 1994 (Relationship between football and TV) Edward R. Murrow-CBS radio and television journalist plaed significant role Walter Cronkite—CBS News—‘the most trusted man in America: Roone Arledge—ABC sports and news Had a lot of ideas about tv and sports Came up with the idea of Monday Night Football If you made the whole thing entertaining, then you’ll pull in a wider audience He became director of ABC Sports and ABC News as a whole At suggestion from one of his advisors that made the 1964 national championship game between Arkansas and Texas, which became the “Great Shoot Out”. They moved their schedules to make the game in early December where it was the only game played that day, in order to pull in more people to watch the game. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) Radio Act-1927 Federal Communications Act—1934 Cacophony –Airways Licensing Regulation vs. Deregulation Telecommunications Act of 1996 eliminated most radio and television station ownership rules o Rules were relaxed if not dropped all together 1960 Kennedy-Nixon TV debate Beginning of political advertising 1 aired political debate MILESTONE Nixon was a traditional debater who wanted to score points Kennedy was speaking to the audience at home, wanting to reach them so he would look right into the camera. He had that inherent understanding. He was better on television For those who listened to the radio, they thought Nixon won the debate But those who watched the television version thought Kennedy won (This showed the important-ness of television) Kennedy and Television Kennedy-Nixon debates 1960 Aftermath of Kennedy assassination in November 1963 USA becomes a “TV Nation” (Happened during ^^) Abraham Zapruder: took the only actual picture of the Kennedy assassination NBC Nightly News The Huntley-Brinkley Report (1956) Brian Williams (The successor) lost his job due to exaggerated stories Civil Rights on TV 1957 Little Rock Cable TV CATV (Community Antenna Television) Intended to bring distant signals to more remote areas Circa 1948 Entrepreneurs – Expansion First communications satellite relays signals 1961 TV called a vast wasteland October 29, 2015 Television Cable The Manhattan Exception – no demand in metro areas Cable begins offering more services HBO launches in 1975 Super stations –Ted Turner ESPN (1979) CNN (1980) Cable-Satellite o Only 14% of U.S. homes received cable in 1977, 46% by 1985, and by 1997 basic cable channels captured a larger prime-time audience than broadcast networks Major events on TV 1964 Beatles on Ed Sullivan 1966 Prime Time goes color 1967 Public Broadcasting Act 1972 FCC opens cities to cable 1975 HBO goes on satellite; Cable starts to boom 1977 WTBS goes on cable 1979 ESPN; 1980 CNN 1980 Who Shot JR? 83 million tuned in 1983 MASH finale; 125 million viewers 1987 Fox TV network debuts 1996 1 billion TV sets in the world 1997 TV begins going digital and streaming on the Internet 2001 9/11 2005 Flat screens, HDTV, Digital 2012 Super Bowl-largest total audience Specifics of TV Networks and affiliates o Most stations are not owned by the networks o Many are owned, however, by conglomerates o Most local stations are affiliates of the networks and carry network programs. Local stations are “terrestrial” and “over the air” o They maybe included in cable and satellite systems International News Associated Press Calls itself the essential global news network, delivering fast, unbiased news from every corner of the world to all media platforms and formats Founded in 1846 Claims to be the largest and oldest news-gathering operation “AP” has been the first to tell the world of many of history’s most important moments (assassination of Abe Lincoln, bombing of Pearl Harbor, fall of shah of Iran, and the death of Pope John Paul) Neither privately owned or nor government funded It’s a non-profit news cooperative owned by its American newspaper and broadcast members November 3, 2015 International News Associated Press 300-plus locations world wide The AP news report is 24/7 Reuters Founded in 1851, British-based In 2008, it became part of Thomson Reuters, a Canadian- based company Agence France-Presse (AFP) Founded in 1835 as Agence Havas Based in Paris Xinhua The Xinhua News Agency (“New China News Agency”) is the official press agency of the People’s Republic of China Establishing a stronger international presence along with CCTV (Chinese Central Television) Xinhua opening new facilities near New York’s Time Square Newsworthiness The often unstated criteria that journalists use to determine which evens an issues should be reporting including: o Timeliness, proximity, conflict, prominence, human interest, consequence, usefulness, novelty, and deviance. The Rise of the New Media Internet and WWW ARPAnet—1969—Defense Dept o Created for contractors/researchers to communicate – the first national computer network. o Opened the way for email and Internet o To create a real Internet, there had to be a common language o Sir Tim Berners-Lee – WWW Key Developments o Concept of the “Information Super Highway” o Early developments – AOL and the walled garden concept o Netscape introduced browsers in 1994 o Browsers greatly expanded access Development of Search Engines (Yahoo 1994; Google 1996) – they play an essential role o Social Media – Facebook – Twitter o E-mail is a core Internet activity Revolution o Computer revolution 1980 o Internet revolution 1994+ o Digital lifestyle today and tomorrow… Digital Developments o Texting o Blogs Can be watchdogs, forums, etc o Online commerce & advertising Internet advertising grew 12% in 2012 o The shape of the Internet business/industry still taking form Google o Google is a powerhouse o The Google search engine mapped the Internet and made it functional for everyday use o By selling on-screen ad space, Google became a media juggernaut financially o Facebook also maps the Internet and Internet users and has amused vast quantities of data to help advertisers target potential customers New Media Landscape o Allows access to vast information resources o Democratizing effect of the Internet o Internet technology is blurring distinctions among traditional media o On-line editions of major news sources o Changes in media brought about by digitalization and the Internet are fundamental and transformative o Digital media allow for easier creation of multimedia —combining video, audio, text, animation, graphics, etc. ICANN o Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers o Formed in 1998. o Is an internationally organized, nonprofit corporation that has responsibility for Internet Protocol (IP) address space allocation, country codes, etc. It assigns domain names o Issues? Internet governance? ICANN is seen as U.S. dominated and some countries want to change that… November 5, 2015 Internet Internet Users by Country China 642 m. 46.03% USA 279.8 m. 87 % India 244 m. 19.2% Japan 109.3 m. 86% Brazil 108 m. 53.4% Russia 84.4 m. 59.3% Germany 71.8 m. 86.8% Nigeria, UK, France, Mexico, and South Korea Europe has highest level of household Interet penetration at 77% Africa has the lowest at 7% America is at 61% China o China emphasizes Cyberspace Sovereignty o China ranks last among nations for openness according to a new report on Internet freedom o Cultural imperialism o Internet Governance? U.S. dominance? Net neutrality The principle that Internet service providers should enable access to all content and applications regardless of the source, and without favoring or blocking particular products or websites. Twitter Online social networking website and micro blogging service that allows users to post and read text-based messages of up to 140 character, known as “tweets” Launched in July of 2006 by Jack Dorsey Twitter is now in the top 10 most visited internet sites Public Relations Early PR—promotion and publicity Puffery and hype o Getting people excited about something, by publicity stunts, or exaggerating P.T. Barnum o First to promote as P.R. o Put on various traveling shows Buffalo Bill o Wild west show o Annie Oakley Today o The art & science of establishing and promoting favorable relationships o Integrated Marking Communications (IMC) The process of using promotional tools, including advertising, in a unified way so that a synergistic communication… o Key figures Ivy Lee Father of public relations; founder of first PR agency; began advising clients in 1906; believed in straight talk Edward Bernays PR pioneer o 3 major functions Informing Persuading Integrating (Bringing publics and institutions together) Lobbying and Government Relations Lobbyists advise their clients, which include trade associations, corporations, public interests groups and regulated utilities and industries, on how to achieve their goals by working with legislators and government officials. “Government relations” or “Public Affairs” Committee on Public Information (CPI-The Creel Commission) President Wilson appointed George Creel to head a new government agency in WW1 Government becomes involved in PR November 10, 2015 th TV News Analysis due 24 News or public affairs programs Analyze or critique 2 diff news program, at least 30 min 5 o’clock (national) news program, news hour on PBS, local news programs, or one of each CNN Headline News…. does NOT work Not tabloid or entertainment news Specify the date and time, station/network, and program in which you’re covering Advertisers, how much time is given to them, lighting and background, how well anchors do, etc. P.R. Services Political communication Has developed in a major way, campaign management, polling and research, publicity, media relations, and image consulting, campaigns are big operations Image consulting, financial public relations, fundraising, contingency planning –includes crisis management, polling and research, events and coordination Spin Control “a new kind of PR” has risen since the 1970’s –efforts to influence or manipulate the media to reflect a particular viewpoint; often intended to deflect unfavorable reports or to put information in the most favorable way. Crisis Management Process by which an organization deals with a major event that threatens to harm the organization, its stakeholders, or the public PRINCIPLES OF CRISIS COMMUNICATION o Be prepared o Be honest o Apologize and mean it o Move quickly o Communicate with the media and other constituencies Examples o Tylenol—successful o Toyota has regained some public support o Goldman Sachs—negative public perception since 2008 and government “bail out” o BP improved somewhat since oil stopped spilling into the Gulf, but still has major problems in regaining public favor… o Carnival Cruise Lines o BLUE BELL ICE CREAM? P.R. Many large PR companies/agencies are apart of larger conglomerates—IMC (Integrated Marketing Communications) companies o The process of using promotional tools, including advertising, in a unified way so that a synergistic communication effect is created (ON FINAL EXAM) o Fundamental shifts in how companies market to consumers have made IMC possible o The shift…. From traditional marketing to digital/interactive marketing From mass media to specialized media From low accountability in marketing spend to high accountability in marketing spend From limited connectivity to pervasive connectedness Among the largest in the U.S. as stand-alone PR agencies Edelman (New York); Edelman (Chicago) Fleishcman Hillard (St. Louis); Global conglomerates in IMC such as WPP o One of the largest, includes major PR components such as Hill & Knowlton, Burson-Marsteller, and Ogilby Advertising Advertising history—barber poles. Etc. Gutenberg’s moveable type made possible mass production of advertising messages First Ad agency- Wayland Ayer (N.W. Ayer & Son) in Philadelphia in 1869 Advertising all around us/pervasive Media dependence on advertising revenue Modern consumer economies are driven by the demand stirred by advertising November 12, 2015 Public relations/Advertising IMC The Big Four o Omnicon (New York headquarters) Is a leading global advertising and marketing communications services company. Omnicon’s branded networks and numerous specialty firms provide advertising, strategic media planning and buying, digital and interactive marketing, direct and promotional marketing, public relations and other specialty communication services to more than 5,000 clients in more than 100 countries o Interpublic (New York) o WPP (London) o Publicis Groupe (Paris) Together they account for nearly half of the industry Advertising Trends Product placement Celebrity endorsements New media advertising—online Competition among media Advertising in China and other rising markets\ Super Bowl Advertising For 2015, the asking price for a 30-secon spot was $4.5 million; the cost goes up every year. This was up fro $3.5 million in 2012. The 2014 game brought up to $4 million for a 30-second spot. PRIME TIME FOR ADVERTISING This helps a lot for advertising to the 18-30 year old male age range. (Hardest age range to advertise to) November 17, 2015 P.R. Representative sample A small quantity of a targeted group whose characteristics represent as accurately as possible the entire group of population… Used for polling, audience measurement, etc. Polling If public opinion surveys involve a true representative sample, the number of respondents can be surprisingly small. A recent NY Times-CBS national poll was conducted by landline and cellphone over a 4 day period among 1,014 adults. It has a margin of sampling error of plus or minus three percentage points. Audience measurement There are three principal means of carrying out audience measurement and research Diaries: used primarily for local television and radio surveys Individuals in selected households are asked to keep a record to every program they watch or listen to during a specific time period. Interviews: telephone surveys are widely used in polling, including some audience survey Meters: the principal method of measuring television audiences for national surveys; meters are installed in selected households Nielsen Consumers are watching more TV than ever, which makes understanding what and how they’re watching an essential part of any marketing campaign. With expansive and representative television panels, Nielsen tracks viewing behavior down to the second. And because viewers now have multiple screes to choose from, Nielsen integrates audience measurement across TV’s, PC’s December 1, 2015 Upcoming Review in class beginning Thursday Dec 3 Review handout FINAL EXAM Tuesday Dec. 15 1 pm Bring unmarked Blue Book and Pen Campaign Journalism Characteristics The horse-race emphasis Extensive use of and reliance on polls Sound-bite coverage on radio and television Major attention to debates A continuing focus on strategy, tactics, campaign mechanics, and process Campaign finance reports and funding sources Analysis of TV advertising/fact checks, etc. Prior restraint Def: governmental efforts or actions to prevent something from being published, broadcast, or distributed; such action would normally be prohibited by the First Amendment o Ex: Pentagon Papers One of the most important cases involving freedom of press 1971; Nixon Administration Conflict between government and the media Nixon administration sought to impose prior restraint on publication of reports based on classified documents Supreme Court ruled that freedom of press outweighed government concerns about national security, which did not appear very strong in this case. Shield Laws Def: provide privilege to journalists to protect confidential sources under certain circumstances; there is no federal shield law, but most states have shield laws or legal precedent Media and National Security WikiLeaks and Snowden controversies Publishing or broadcasting classified information related to national security Viacom and CBS Viacom and CBS split into separate corporations in 2005. Still largely owned and managed by the same people In general, CBS owns broadcasting and publishing propertied while Viacom owns cable and movie properties Viacom o Leading global media conglomerate o 33 languages o 562 million households o MAJOR FACOTR, GLOBALY IN THE MEDIA MTV MTV UK, MTV Russia, MTV Africa, MTV Germany, etc Owns MTV< VH1, Nickelodeon, BET, CMT, etc. International Media Global Village o A world linked together by telecommunications, a concept popularized by media theorist Marshall McLuhan Cultural imperialism o Term used by critics of what is seen as one culture’s dominance of another through popular media, fashion, food, etc. BBC o British Broadcasting Corp. o A public corporation-largest, oldest, and most revered public broadcasting operation in the world o Supported by license fee, currently $240 on every British household with a TV set o Long enjoyed a monopoly on broadcasting o (Changes/Pirate Radio) Journalism Ethics Journalist Code of Ethics o To see truth and report it o Minimize harm o Act independently o Be accountable December 8, 2015 REVIEW DAY 2 FINAL IS NEXT WEEK, TODAY, @1 pm Grades 1000 points possible o 10% (100 points) First Test* o 40% (400 points) 3 choice assignments with blog or 4 without blog o 20% (200 points) Mid-Term Exam o 20% (200 points) Final Exam o 10% (100 points) class participation/short assignments, attendance, etc. o extra credit points added on o * counts 5% s student has done consistently better (5% added to best choice assignment) o He rounds up in final grading 3 waves Print o MOVEABLE TYPE th o Gutenberg 15 century o Bible 1455 Telecommunications o Telegraph o Inverted pyramid style of reporting o Sound recording o Movies o Radio o Associated Press o “In recent days, records have been broken for the largest sales of an album in the history of the sales of recorded music…what is this record breaking album?” Adele 25 COULD BE A QUESTION ON THE FINAL What percentage are CD’s and Digital? 50/50 High-Tech o Digital communication o Communications satellites circa 1960 Efficient alternative for media o ARPAnet—Defense Dept. o World Wide Web Sir Tim Berners-Lee 1991 o Media convergence-social media Globalization o INTERNATIONAL OWNERSHIP, REACH, AND COVERAGE OF MEDIA Conglomeration Demassification/Fragmentation Convergence Multi-dimensional journalism Super Bowl Each year it’s the largest audience for any scheduled tv program Cost for advertising constantly increases ESPN Most costly cable programmer Media Functions Information Entertainment Persuasion Binding Media role/function Little Rock, AR segregation Civil Rights on TV Print Media Books o Book sales Print and digital Amazon (Jeff Bezos) o HarperCollins o Bertelsmann (owns Random House) o Mega Stores Barnes and Noble Books-A-Million E-books o Kindle o Nook o Still developing Newspapers o History & significance of the newspaper o Party Press o Penny Press Benjamin Day, 1833 o Sensationalism/Yellow Journalism The Yellow Kid o Decline in # of newspapers—consolidation and conglomeration o Demise of the afternoon newspaper o Online editions and growing significance Magazines o The Postal Act of 1879
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