Anatomy and Physiology Chapters 1 and @
Anatomy and Physiology Chapters 1 and @ BIO 1004
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This 8 page Bundle was uploaded by Juliane Notetaker on Thursday January 21, 2016. The Bundle belongs to BIO 1004 at Mississippi State University taught by Jeffery Echols in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see Anatomy & Physiology in Biology at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 01/21/16
Chapter 1 Organization of the Body Anatomy – structure of body parts Physiology – function of body parts Organization of Body Parts Atoms – smallest part of an element that can enter into a chemical reaction o C/H/N/O/P/S/Ca Molecules – combinations of atoms in a fixed ratio o H 2SO4 (sulfuric acid) o CaCO 3(Calcium carbonate) Organelles – membrane bound spaces which have a particular functions (nucleus/ribosomes/mitochondria) Cells – smallest unit of life Tissues – muscle tissue/epithelial tissue/connective tissue/nervous tissue o Muscle – movement o Connective – connects o Nervous – communication o Epithelial – covers Organs – groups of tissue (all four types) that have a specific function o Heart o Lungs o Kidneys o Brain Organ Systems – groups of organs with a specific function o Cardiovascular system = heart + veins + arteries + blood + capillaries Organism – a group of organ systems that can function as an independent unit Anatomical Terms Relative Positions of Body Parts o Superior – above o Inferior – below o Anterior (ventral) – in front o Posterior (dorsal) – behind o Medial – middle o Lateral – to the side o Proximal – close to o Distal – away from o Superficial – near the surface o Deep – deep o Central – toward the center (medial) o Peripheral – to the sides (lateral) Planes and Sections of the Body o Sagittal (vertical) – right/left halves o Transverse (horizontal) – upper/lower o Frontal (coronal) – front/back Regions of the Body o Head Cephalic – entire region Cranial – brain Frontal – sense organs Occipital – sides Oral – mouth Nasal – nose Ophthalmic – eyes o Thorax (chest) Pectoral Mammary Axillary – where limbs connect to torso Vertebral – back/spine Costal – sides/between ribs Cavities of the Body o Hollow space within the body o Dorsal cavity – back Cranial cavity – (brain) Spinal cavity – (spine) o Ventral cavity – front Thoracic cavity (chest) – separated from abdominal pelvic cavity by diaphragm Pleural cavity (lungs) Pericardial cavity (heart) Abdominopelvic cavity Abdominal (MOST of the digestive organs) Pelvic (REMAINDER of digestive, reproductive organs) Organ Systems o Integumentary system – skin, largest organ Primary function : protection Secondary function : temperature regulation (sweating and insulation/blood flow) Made up mainly of epithelial tissue, but does contain muscles, nervous, and connective tissue o Skeletal system Living tissue Provides points of attachment for muscles that are involved in movement Primary function : protection Secondary function : storage area for minerals, especially calcium Calcium is involved in muscle contractions Blood production (blood is produced in the bones) o Muscular system Primary function : movement Skeletal muscle – connects to bone, moves the bones Smooth muscle – usually forms hollow tubes found in the digestive system, circulatory system to push blood through blood vessels, reproductive system Cardiac muscle – found in the heart o Function is to pump blood o Nervous system – brain, spinal cord, nerves Function is to communicate, connects the systems o Endocrine system – pancreas, endocrine glands Endocrine glands (pancreas, pituitary gland, adrenal gland [on top of kidneys]) o Circulatory system – heart, blood vessels, veins, arteries, capillaries, capillary beds Function is to circulate blood through the body o Lymphatic system – a series of veins similar to circulatory veins, but not connected to circulatory system Function is to drain excess fluid from around the tissues Elephantiasis (worm infects your lymphatic system (Africa) Lymphatic system – spleen, appendix, tonsils, veins o Respiratory system – lungs Lungs exchange gasses in the blood (O 2 and CO 2) o Digestive system – esophagus, stomach, small and large intestine Breaks down complex nutrients into a form that can be absorbed by the blood o Urinary system – kidneys Removes nitrogenous waste from the blood Nitrogenous waste comes from breakdown of proteins in all cells of the body (everywhere) o Reproductive system – ovaries, testicles Function – reproduction Produces hormones that maintain secondary sexual characteristics Chapter 2 Chemistry of Life Elements and Atoms o Element – substance that cannot be broken down by normal chemical means 92 naturally occurring elements / 6 most common in living systems are C/H/N/O/P/S Elements are represented by letters o Atoms – smallest part of an element that can enter into a chemical reaction and smallest part of an element that retains the chemical properties of that element Subatomic particles – do not have the same chemical properties as an element Beneath the atom o Electrons have no mass or weight have a negative electrical charge are found orbiting the nucleus of an atom control chemical bonding o Protons Have mass and weight – 1 atomic mass unit (amu) Have a positive charge Found in the nucleus of an atom o Neurons Have a weight of 1 amu Neutral charge Found in the nucleus of an atom o Atomic weight - # of protons + # of neutrons contained within an atom o Atomic number - # of protons in an atom o Electrical charge – comparison of # of protons and # of electrons in an atom Molecules and Compounds o Mixture – two or more atoms in a non-specific ratio o Compound – two or more atoms in a fixed ratio (H 2SO 4/H2O) o Molecule – smallest part of a compound that can enter into a chemical reaction Octet rule – refers to electrons found in orbital o 2 electrons in the inner most shell / 8 electrons in the remaining shells o Requires 8 electrons to be full and stable o Shells are full and stable when they contain 8 (2) electrons in the outermost shell Atoms can be stable and have an electrical charge or be stable and be neutral Atoms can be unstable and have an electrical charge or be unstable and be neutral Stability does not influence electrical charge o Each shell must be full before electrons are added to the next level If it doesn’t fulfill the octet rule – it is unstable Chemical bonds o Energy relationships between atoms controlled by electrons o Controlled by electrons and octet rule Ionic bonds o Ion – a charged particle that can be positive or negative o Transfer of electrons from one atom to another so that both atoms fulfill the octet rule In nature, everything wants to be stable and neutral Ionic bonds have moderate strength Covalent bonds o Sharing of electrons so that both atoms fulfill the octet rule Electrons are always shared in pairs (always) o The strongest type of chemical bonds o A single covalent bond shares one pair of electrons o A double covalent bond shares two pairs of electrons o A triple covalent bond shares three pairs of electrons Triple covalent bonds are the strongest, followed by double, followed by single Hydrogen bonds (weakest of the chemical bonds) o Electropositive region of one molecule is attracted to the electronegative region of another molecule Hydrogen bonds do not form between atoms Electropositive and electronegative are partial charges Inorganic molecules o Molecules that do not have Carbon Water o 60-70% of body weight o Universal solvent o Distributes heat well Polar vs nonpolar molecules o Polar molecules have an electrical charge (either positive or negative) Polar covalent molecules Ions o Nonpolar molecules do not have an electric charge Nonpolar covalent molecules Electrolytes o Substances that dissolve in water and release ions o E.g. salts Main electrolytes in body fluid Sodium ion – Na + Potassium ion – K + - Chloride ion – Cl Calcium ion – Ca 2+ 2+ Magnesium ion – Mg Acids o Release large numbers of H ions when added to water - + o E.g. HCl > Cl + H Bases/Alkali o Release large numbers of OH ions when added to water (therefore + lower H concentra+ion) - o E.g. NaOH > Na + OH Acids releases H and therefore decreases pH Bases remove H and therefore increases pH Organic Molecules o Carbohydrates Functions : energy/structure Formula : CH O2 Monosaccharides (e.g. glucose) Disaccharide (e.g. sucrose) Polysaccharides (e.g. starch, cellulose) o Lipids Fats (a group of lipid) Functions : energy/structure/hormones/insulation/vitamin absorption Structure of fats : glycerol + 3 fatty acids (saturated vs unsaturated) Saturated – solid at room temperature Unsaturated – don’t pact together – liquid at room temperature Not straight o Proteins Shape determines functions Function : energy/structure/enzymes Building blocks : Amino acids (20 different types) Primary Protein Structure o Sequence of amino acids Secondary Protein Structure o Folding of the polypeptide within local segments Tertiary Protein Structure o Folding of the secondary structure to give a complex 3D structure o Final level of structure for a single polypeptide protein Quaternary Protein Structure o Composed of 2 or more polypeptides o Nucleic Acids Building blocks : nucleotides Contain : sugar + phosphorous + nitrogenous base Functions : energy storage, information storage, and transfer ATP is the source of energy for cells DNA stores genetic info, RNA transfers it o Adenine o Thymine o Cytosine o Guanine DNA has A,T,G,C (double strand) RNA has A,U,G,C (single strand)
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