Information Processing Theory/ Chapter2 Notes
Information Processing Theory/ Chapter2 Notes EDF 3020
Popular in Educational Psychology
Popular in Education and Teacher Studies
This 5 page Bundle was uploaded by Megan Kauffeld on Friday January 22, 2016. The Bundle belongs to EDF 3020 at Clemson University taught by Meihua Qian in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Educational Psychology in Education and Teacher Studies at Clemson University.
Reviews for Information Processing Theory/ Chapter2 Notes
Can you just teach this course please? lol :)
-Elaina Bailey Sr.
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 01/22/16
Information Processing Theory Thursday, January 14, 7:56 AM • Information Processing Theory (ONE OF THREE MAJOR THEORIES) ○ Sensory Registers (First Major Component) ○ Attention ○ Perception ○ Working Memory (Second Major Component) ○ Encoding ○ Long Term Memory (Third Major Component) ○ Retrieval • Sensory Registers ○ The repository (memory) for sensory input. § See (Eyes) § Hear (Ears) § Taste (Mouth) § Smell (Nose) § Touch (Hands/Body) ○ Infinitely big ○ Last 1-‐4 seconds unless further processed ○ EX. The picture exorcise • Attention ○ The process of selectinginformation from the sensory registers for further processing. ○ How do we select information? ○ EX. Red Car Picture ○ What attracts our attention? § Size § Intensity § Movement § Novelty § Incongruity § Emotion § Personal Significance • Perception ○ Giving meaning to what we have paid attention to. ○ Affected by § Past Experiences and Expectations § "Hardwiring" § Personal Significance • Perception ○ Giving meaning to what we have paid attention to. ○ Affected by § Past Experiences and Expectations § "Hardwiring" • Working Memory ○ Conscious thought, processing space. ○ How much room is there? § About 7 pieces of information □ Chunking □ EX. 572-‐634-‐981 ○ How long does it last? § About 20 seconds ○ How can we make information stay longer? § Maintenance Rehearsal § Example? ○ Multi-‐tasking § Actually switching back and forth § Wastes time: U of Michigan study: solve math and identify shapes at the same time = took 50% more time than doing them sequentially. § Dangerous: 4 time more likely to die in a car accident if talking on the phone. Hands free phone the solution? ○ Automaticity § Practicing until it takes up less processing space. § EX. Drive a car, ride a bike • Cognitive Load § Germane Load § Intrinsic Load § Extraneous Load ○ The goal is to reduce extraneous and intrinsic load in order to maximize room for germane load. • Extraneous Load ○ Generated by the manner in which information is presented to learners, i.e. the design of the instructional materials. ○ 'other things' that are on the student's mind (hunger, outside noises, etc.) ○ EX. Show a triangle to the students, don't just recite the definition. • Intrinsic Load ○ The inherent difficulty associated with instructional materials and required prior knowledge ○ EX. Must know how to multiple, divide, and find prime factors in order to reduce a fraction. • Germane Load • Intrinsic Load The inherent difficulty associated with instructional materials and ○ required prior knowledge ○ EX. Must know how to multiple, divide, and find prime factors in order to reduce a fraction. • Germane Load ○ Load devoted to processing, construction, and automaticity. ○ Need to redirect learners' attention to cognitive processes that are directly relevant to solving the problem. • Long Term Memory ○ Capacity: § Unlimited Duration: ○ § Permanent? § Forgetting: □ Decay □ Interference □ Failure to retrieve • Types of Knowledge in LTM ○ Encoding: storing information in LTM ○ Three types of knowledge encoded: ○ Explicit/Declarative knowledge: Memories which can be consciously recalled such as facts, knowledge, and experiences. § Semantic: facts, rules, strategies (Fourth of July) § Episodic: events or personal experiences (Going to Dentist) § What are some examples of declarative knowledge in your fields? ○ Three types of knowledge encoded: ○ Declarative knowledge ○ Procedural knowledge: § Knowledge governing of how to do things § What are some examples of procedural knowledge in your fields? (Basketball, ) ○ Metacognitive knowledge § Knowledge of our cognitive processing capabilities § Awareness of those processes inaction § What is a personal example of metacognitive knowledge? • Schema ○ A schema is a set of information (can contain both semantic and episodic) that includes concepts, relationships, and procedures. ○ Acts as a guide for what to expect (prediction), for making decisions and problem solving. ○ Piaget (develop mentalist) said we are HARDWIRED to create schemata. ○ Continually changing: § Differentiation that includes concepts, relationships, and procedures. ○ Acts as a guide for what to expect (prediction), for making decisions and problem solving. ○ Piaget (develop mentalist) said we are HARDWIRED to create schemata. ○ Continually changing: § Differentiation □ The category "dog" is differentiated into collie, beagle, poodle, etc. § Integration □ Dog, cat, cow, and horse are integrated into the concept of "mammal" § Generalization □ The ability to generalize from past experiences to present situations § Adaptation □ Assimilation -‐using an exiting schema □ Accommodation -‐adding to an existing schema, creating a new schema ○ Call up your "going to a wedding" schema ○ Since this is an episodic schema, it is called a SCRIPT. • Self-‐constructed Theori-‐uses Explicit knowledge ○ General understanding and belief systems that help us make sense of the world. ○ Often combine many schemata ○ Used to make predictions and solve problems • Enhancing Encoding into Long Term Memory ○ Making it meaningful/ hooks § Hooking to prior knowledge § The more hooks the better Organization ○ § Making connections among the various pieces of new information § VERY helpful if the organization is known ahead of time § Examples: □ Concept maps □ Outlines □ Frames/Tables ○ Visual Imagery § Paired visual associations § Pegwords ○ Elaboration § Adding additional ideas to new information based on what one already knows □ Can be useful as a memory TOOL □ Examples: § Pegwords ○ Elaboration § Adding additional ideas to new information based on what one already knows □ Can be useful as a memory TOOL □ Examples: ® Analogies ® Mnemonics • Factors Affecting Retrieval ○ Retrieval cues ○ Multiple connections (meaning) ○ Frequent use of knowledge ○ Automaticity (requires practice) • What do we retrieve? ○ We retrieve a RECONSTRUCTION ○ Example: Two friends come up with two different versions of a story • Forgetting ○ Failure to retrieve ○ Reconstruction error (Confabulation) ○ Interference ○ Decay ○ Failure to store/ Confirmation bias § We tend to pay attention to and remember that which supports what we think is true, and ignore evidence to the contrary.
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'