World Regional Geography Unit 1 Bundled Notes
World Regional Geography Unit 1 Bundled Notes GEOG 10003
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Geography Notes Unit 1: Introduction: Activity space: the map we carry in our minds of the general layout of things Cartography: the making of maps Remote-sensing: special on-board scanners and television cameras Geographic information systems (GIS): geographers develop this with the use of remote sensing Scale: the representation of all or part of the earth’s surface at a certain level of detail Small-scale map: ratio between map and distance and real-world distance, expressed as a fraction is very small Operational scale: the scale at which social or natural processes operate or play out Geographic realms: continents – each of these realms possesses a particular combination of environmental, cultural, and organizational properties 3 Criteria for Geographic Realms: o 1) Physical and Human o 2) Functional-Geographic realms are the rest of the interaction of human societies and natural environments – a functional interaction. o 3) Historical There are 12 geographic realms. Oceans & Seas are the most common natural boundaries of the world’s realms Transition zones: where two geographic zones meet Two Varieties of Realms: o Monocentric realms: domination by a single major political entity EX: North American (U.S.), Middle America (Mexico), East Asia (China), South Asia (India), Russia, and the Austral Realm (Australia) o Polycentric realm: the appearance, functioning, and organization of the realm are dispersed among a number of more or less equally influential regions or countries. EX: Europe, North Africa/Southwest Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa, and the Pacific Realm Regional concept: to establish regions within geographic realms Criteria for Regions: o 1) Area: o 2) Boundaries: o 3) Location: Absolute location: geographers refer to this by providing the latitudinal or longitudinal extend of the region with respect to the Earth’s grid coordinates Relative location: its location with reference to other regions o 4) Homogeneity: sameness – can be cultural or natural Formal regions: when regions display a measurable and often visible internal homogeneity o 5) Regions as Systems: the way they work Spatial systems: formed by the areal extent of the activities that define them The city is the core of this region, and the surrounding zone of interaction is the city’s hinterland. Functional region: forged by a structured, urban-centered system of interaction Alfred Wegener o German scientist o Used spatial analysis to explain the apparent, jigsaw like fit of the landmasses. o Concluded that the landmasses on the map are actually pieces of a supercontinent that existed hundreds of millions of years ago (he called it Pangaea o His hypothesis of continental drift o Today we know that continents are “rafts” of relatively light rock that rest on slabs of heavier rock called tectonic plates whose movement is propelled by giant circulation cells in the red-hot magma below o Pacific Ring of Fire: one of earth’s oceans is almost completely encircled by active volcanoes and earthquake epic centers Pleistocene: the current epoch of this ice age, on average the coldest yet, is called this and has been going on for nearly 2 million years Cold phases of an ice age are called glaciations Warm phases, when the ice recedes poleward and mountain glaciers melt away are known as interglacials. o We are living in one today known as the Holocene. Weather: the immediate state of atmosphere Climate: defines the aggregate, total record of weather conditions at a place, or in a region, over the entire period during which records have been kept Climate Regions: o 1) Humid Equatorial (A) Climates High temperatures all year & heavy precipitation o 2) Dry (B) Climates Occur in lower and high latitudes Enormous daily temperature range Soils tend to be think and poorly developed o 3) Humid Temperate © Climates Mid-latitude climate areas lie just beyond the tropics of cancer and Capricorn Do not suffer climatic extremes or severity – but winters can be cold Fertile and productive soils o 4) Humid Cold (D) Climates Great annual temperature ranges Cold winters and relatively cool summers Some of the world’s most productive soils o 5) Cold Polar € and Highland (H) Climates Cold Polar – permanent ice and snow keep vegetation from gaining a foothold. Tunda H Climates – unclassified highlands – near artic climates above the tree line Population numbers by themselves do not define geographic realms or regions Population distribution: one way to present an overview of the location of people on the planet – every dot represents 100,000 people There is a technical difference between population distribution and population density (another way of showing where people live) o Density maps reveal the number of persons per unit area, requiring a different cartographic technique. Largest Population Clusters: (1)South Asia ; (2) East Asia ; (3) Europe Europe is among the world’s most highly urbanized and industrialized realms Urbanization: the percentage of the total population living in cities and towns. Cultural landscape: the distinctive attributes of a society imprinted on its portion of the world’s physical stage No geographic realm has just one single cultural landscape but they help to define realms and regions Language families: groups of languages with a shared but usually distant origin A World of States o The Modern State Sovereignity: a concept from international law that means tha the government of a state rules supreme within its borders Modern state is often described as based on the European state model with definitions of nationality and sovereignty Shaper of world-scale geographic regions: physical geography, population distribution, cultural geography, and political geography Economic geography: focuses on spatial aspects of the ways people make their living and deals with patterns of production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services. The concept of development is used to gauge a state’s economic, social, and institutional growth. Classification scheme of World bank divides countries into four categories based on the success of their economies: (1) high-income, (2) upper-middle income, (3) lower-middle income, (4) low-income Cartogram: a pseudomap of the world that shows countries areal size proportionate to the size of their national economies Global core: North America, Europe, Japan, and Australia Globalization: a geographical process in which spatial relations-economic, cultural, political-shift to ever broader scales Realms and Regions: o Europe: Teritorially small Politically still fragmented Economically unnited Disproportionately influential in global affairs o Russia: Territorially enormous Politically unified Has 5 regions Geography is a wide-ranging, multifaceted discipline. Regional geography: borrows information from many sources to create an overall image of our divided world. Systematic geography: (or topical geography) Chapter 1: Psyiography: the natural landscape with its array of landforms (such as mountains and plateaus) Four Broad Units of Landscape in Europe: o Central uplands: form the heart of Europe; region of hills/plateaus o Alpine Mountains: o Western Uplands: o North European Lowland Locational Advantages of Europe: o Its relative location is at the crossroads of the land hemisphere which creates maximum efficiency for contact with much of the rest of the world. Legacies of ancient Greece: formation of city-states: relatively small territories comprised of cities and their hinterlands that were ruled by elected governments. Romans guided/forced groups to produce particular goods or materials (called local functional specialization) – became famous for this Romans also spread their language – set the stage for the emergence of the Roman languages Early Modern Europe th o Europe’s Renaissance began in the 15 century o Opened up for mercantilism: the competitive accumulation of wealth chiefly in the form of gold and silver. o Agarian Revolution: cities thrived & expanded, and their growing markets created economic opportunities for farmers. This led to revolutionary changes in land ownership and agricultural methods. Modern Historical Geography o Industrial Revolution British at the center of this revolution Steam-driven engine, coal, power loom, iron smelters o Historians often point to the Peace (Treaty) of Westphalia in 1647 as a key step in the evolution of Europe’s state system. o Absolutist states: monarchs held all the power and the people had very few rights o Competing ideaologies of: liberalism, socialism, nationalism, facism (extreme nationalism that threw the realm into violent wars) o Nation-state: a state embodied by its culturally distinctive population Contemporary Europe o Most of Europe speaks languages that belong to the Indo-European language family o Lingua franca- common language o The European realm is best understood as an enormous functional region: an interdependent realm that is held together through highly developed spatial economic and political networks. o Regional complementarity: one area produces a surplus of a commodity required by another area. o Transferability: the area with which a commodity can be transported by producer to consumer o Metropolis: the central city plus its suburban ring European Unification o Centrifugal forces: used to identify and measure the strength of divergence and terrirotial fragmentation. o Centripetal forces: measured against centrifugal forces- the binding, unifying glue of the state or region. o Supernationalism: a voluntary assoiciation in economic, political, or cultural spheres of three or more independent states willing to yield some measure of sovereignty for their mutual benefit. o European Union: now has 27 members o Four Motors of Europe: (1) France’s southeastern Rhone-Alpes Region-centered in Lyon (2) Lombardy: in north central Italy, focused in Milan (3) Catalonia- Northeastern Spain, ancored by the cultural and manufacturing center of Barcelona (4) Baden-Wurttemberg: Southwestern Germany, headquartered in Stuttgart o Devolution: describes the powerful centrifugal forces whereby regions or peoples within a state, through negotiation or active rebellion, demand and gain political strength and sometimes autonomy at the expense of the center. o European Commission: the name of the EU’s administration based in Brussels o In 2004, 10 new members were added to the European Union o North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO): partially overlaps with the EU and includes many European countries. Different from the EU because NATO is primarily concerned with politics and security and not with economics NATO is led by the United States and provides the bulk of its military muscle Includes Canada and Turkey NATO’s main purpose is to provide security to its member-states in Europe plus the United States and Canada yet its most important military operation is in Afghanistan Europe has microstates: do not have attributes of “complete” states but are on the map as tiny yet separate entities nonetheless o Examples: Monaco, San Marino, Andorra, and Liechtenstein. The original Common Market of 1957 anchors the core realm for all of the European realm. 8 States form the Mainland Core of Europe: Germany, France, the three Benelux countries, Switzerland, Austria, and the Czech Republic o This region sometime referred to as Western Europe Past: East Germany (USSR communist) and West Germany (United States control) Germany today consists of 16 states France vs. Germany o France has one large city and a ton of smaller ones o Germany’s population seems to be more evenly distributed o France is larger in size o Germany is more highly urbanized overall France o Paris = extremely large – said to be because of its site (physical attributes of the place it occupies) and its situation (its location relative to surrounding areas) o Has one of the world’s most productive and diversified economies Primate City: one that is disproportionately large compared to all others in the urban system and exceptionally expressive of the nation’s culture (EX paris) Benelux o The Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg o Also called the Low Countries o Have access to seas, highly productive o Luxembourg has the world’s highest per capita gross national income o Netherlands: One of Europe’s oldest democracies Adding polders (inhabited land claimed from the sea lying behind dikes and below sea levels) to the national territory. Noted for the Randstad: roughly triangular urban core area anchored by Amsterdam, Rotterdam, and the Hague Called a conurbation: large urban areas when two or more cities merge spatially Amersterdam’s airport is recognized as Europe’s best o Belgium Capital = Brussels o Luxembourg In no country in Europe is support for the EU stronger than it is here The Alpine States o Switzerland, Austria, and the microstate Liechtenstein o Switzerland Leading state in the Alpine subregion of the Mainland Core Mountainous terrain and a landlocked location = barriers to economic development Hydroelectric power = developed highly specialized industries o Austria Home to Vienna, the Alpine Region’s largest city o Czech Republic Prague = primate city European Core Area o United Kingdom and Ireland (Britain included) o British Isles = islands around o England, Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland = United Kingdom o Mercantilism = competitive accumulation of wealth among countries o British hegemony (political dominance) o United Kingdom: Divided into 4 subregions England Home to London which is considered a world city Wales Scotland Northern Ireland Italy o A charter member of Europe’s Common Market o Organized into 20 internal regions o Often described as 2 countries: a progressive north and a stagnant south o Line that divides these is known as the Ancona Line Spain o Decentralized its administrative structure in response to devolutionary pressures o Followed the lead of Germany and France o Home of Catalonia – big exporter and industrial exporter o Government created Autonomous Communities for all of its 17 regions o Economically going through a rough patch Portugal o Occupies the southwestern corner of the Iberian Peninsula Malta o A small archipelago of three inhabited and two uninhabited islands Greece o Member of EU since 1981 o Turbulent modern history Cyprus The Balkans o This part of Europe has a volatile history – classic example of what geographers call a shatter belt – a zone of persistent splintering and fracturing. o Balkanization – the recurrent division and fragmentation of a region o Key state = Serbia (former Yugoslovia) o Croatia o Bosnia Ethnic cleansing practices o Macedonia o Montenegro o Kosovo o Albania The Discontinuous North o Sweden Largest country in terms of population and territory Pioneer in the development of nuclear power o Norway Does not have good conditions for agriculture Had the second lowest unemployment rate One of the richest countries in the world based on income per capita o Denmark Consists of Jutland Peninsula and several islands to the east at the gateway to the Baltic Sea Has long been a port that collects, stores, and transships large quantities of goods. This break-of-bulk function exists because many oceangoing vessel cannot enter the shallow Baltic Sea, making the city an entrepot where transfer facilities and activities prevail. Greenland and Faroe Islands o Finland o Estonia o Latvia o Lithuania o Iceland The Eastern Periphery o East-Central Europe Four States in this region – Poland, Slovakia, Hungary, and Slovenia Poland Most important Slovakia Concept of irredentism: a government’s support for ethnic or cultural cohorts in neighboring or more distant countries The Southeast: Romania and Bulgaria o Romania has some of Europe’s worst social indicators Europe’s Eastern Edge o Ukraine: territoritally largest in Europe Dnieper River o Moldova o Belarus o Turkey Chapter 2A: The Russian geographic realm consists of four political entities: the giant Russian state itself and three small countries in Transcaucasia, the mountainous area between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea. Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan Margins of the Russian realm in two prominent places are marked by transition zones. o There, geographic features of this realm spill over into neighboring realms, sometimes creating social and political problems for the adjacent countries affected. Physical Geography of the Russian Realm o The Ural Mountains divide Russia into two parts: The Russian plain to the west and Siberia to the east o Physiographic Regions The Russian Plain Lies west of the Ural Mountains Here lies Russia’s core area. Has also been dubbed the Eurasian heartland since it lies deep within the world’s greatest landmass Siberia The West Siberian Plain = the world’s largest unbroken lowland Yakutsk Basin Kamchatka and Sakhalin Russian realm makes contact with the Pacific Ring of Fire The Southern Perimeter Lake Baykal = the deepest lake of its kind in the world
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