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Bio 1044 Week 1 and 2

by: Kaitlyn Notetaker

Bio 1044 Week 1 and 2 1144

Marketplace > Mississippi State University > Biology > 1144 > Bio 1044 Week 1 and 2
Kaitlyn Notetaker
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These notes cover most of what will be on our first exam on February 2nd. I'm posting early incase y'all want to get a headstart and I will post the last of it on Tuesday. If there is anything that...
Biology II
Tom Holder
bio II
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This 14 page Bundle was uploaded by Kaitlyn Notetaker on Friday January 22, 2016. The Bundle belongs to 1144 at Mississippi State University taught by Tom Holder in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 95 views. For similar materials see Biology II in Biology at Mississippi State University.


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Date Created: 01/22/16
Biology Notes Exam 1  Taxonomy & Systematics Chapter 26  Taxonomy­the study of classifying and grouping organisms  Used to group based solely on what we can see  Named based on hierarchal groups  Each level is called a taxon  Carolous Linnaeus­1753­discovered taxonomy­based on similarities  between different organisms  Binomial System of Nomenclature  Two­worded scientific name   Ex: homo sapien  Advantage of naming system­communication made easier  If you go to google and search for a white oak, many different  things appear on your screen; if you search for it by Quercus alba, the same thing will appear every time.  “artifical” Only humans understand this system and it is solely for our  convenience. We use this naming system for morphological features only  5 Kingdom Concept  Use to have plant and animal kingdoms only until the discovery of the  microscope  Simplest Kingdom is Monera­Prokaryotic cells: lack nucleus, lack  membrane­bound structures  Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia are all Eukaryotic organisms:  Nucleus and membrane­bound organelles  Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic are real differences rather than artificial.  They’re based on real things such as DNA rather than solely  morphological features  Example:  Taxon Hierarchy­Gray Wolf o Kingdom Animalia o Phylum Chordata o Class Mammalia o Order Carnivora o Family Canidae o Genus Canis o Species Canis lupus  First is always a noun and the second is an  adjective to describe that noun  Goes from over 3 million different animals  (Kingdom Animalia) to one animal (Species Canis  lupus)  Systematics­ the study of biological diversity and evolutionary relationships  Looks at genetics and morphology  Typically use a phylogenetic tree to determine how closely related they  are based on evolutionary history  Kingdom Monera­Chapter 27  Use to think the only two domains were archaea and bacteria  Prokaryotic cells: lack nucleus, lack membrane­bound organelles, lack sexual  reproduction  Sexual reproduction is one requirement for becoming a species but  scientists needed something to call these Prokaryotes so therefore this  group was made)  Most abundant   Fossils­3.5 billion years (ancestral to eukaryotes)  Archaea­“almost nucleus” Still prokaryote but more developed than most in this  kingdom  Similar cytoplasm to eukaryotes  Specialized membranes  Some can live in hot springs, volcanoes, etc… (extreme environments)  Bateria  Proteobacteria­ “true bacteria”  Cyanobacteria­ “blue greens”  Produce food (capture sunlight)  Transform N 2  All Monera  Difficult to determine evolutionary relationship due to no sexual  reproduction  Eukaryotes  True Nucleus  Compartments­ Cell organelles formed by the internal membrane system  Kingdom Protista Chapter 28­ Earlies Eukaryotes  Most live in moist environments and are microscopic  5  kingdom proposed  DNA­ many separate groups  Catch­all group (if it does not fit in another kingdom, it is thrown in here)  Algae­ “plant­like” (mostly)  10 groups  Autotrophs­self feeding­photosynthesis  Some ingest  Some do both  Unicellular  multicellular   Protozoans­ “animal­like”  Heterotrophic­ “ingest” feeding  Unicellular  Multicellular   Fungal­like protists­ “fungi­like”  Saprotrophic­ “absorb feeding”  Multicellular   Most microscopic  Kingdom Fungi­Chapter 31­ Includes Mushrooms, yeast, rust, etc…  Might place largest living organism. (Most part of a mushroom is underneath the  ground) A super organism is actually there; mushroom is mostly under the  ground. They can’t determine how large it actually is which is why we cannot say  it is the largest yet.  Most of the body is in the soil or some other substrate.  “Conspicuous” portion­ mushroom or mold or yeast­ smallest portion often  associated with reproduction  Very important recyclers of nature­messengers of decay  Heterotrophic/Saprotrophic­most are referred to as saprotrophic. Only some are  heterotrophic  Body is called the mycelium­composed of filaments called Hyphae  “Fruiting bodies”­aka mushroom. Called because they are the reproductive  structures of the organism.  Spores (not seeds)­reproductive cells­wind can blow these and they can dry out  easily.  Rhizomorphs­ water transporting filaments  Cell wall with chitin  Kingdom Animalia is the only kingdom that lacks a cell wall  Kingdom Plantae­Chapter 29 and 30  Over 300,000 species in this kingdom  Multicellular and eukaryotic   Most autotrophic­“self­feeding”­photosynthesis  Photosynthesis gives us the oxygen we need  Mostly terrestrial­most plants are rooted in the ground (some water plants are not rooted)  Food storage compound­starch  Photosynthetic pigments  Chlorophyll a + b and B­carotene  Chlorophyll a is the biggest one  Advantage of different color pigments is that it can catch many  different waves of lights  Cell­Wall­Major component is Cellulose (most abundant carbohydrate in the  world)­Most elaborate/enhanced cell wall of all kingdoms­Internal support  These 3 characteristics ^ are important in Plant Kingdom  Land plants­ Kingdom plantae  Based on evidence, ancestors are some form of algae (green)  Earliest fossils we have in this kingdom is 400 million years before present  Life on land­must get H 0 2rom soil­Most important feature plants have is the  roots  10 major groups of plants  Phylum Hepatophyta­liverworts­6500   Phylum Anthocerophyta­hornworts­100  Phylum Bryophyta­mosses­12,000  Usually lump these three together due to similarities and called  them Bryophytes (mosses and their allies)  Phylum Lycopodiophyta­lycophytes­1000  Phylum Pteridophyta­ferns and allies­12,000  Usually together due to similarities and called pteridophytes (ferns and relatives)  Phylum Cycadophyta­cycads­300  Phylum Ginkgophyta­ginkgo­1  Phylum Gnetophyta­gnetophytes­300  Phylum Coniferophyta­cone­bearing trees­500  Collectively called gymnosperms (“naked seeds”)­first group of  seed plants­produced exposed rather than enclosed   Phylum Anthophyta­flowering/fruiting plant­about 300,000­9x more here  than all the other groups­most advanced DNA genetically  Called angiosperms­(“enclosed seeds”)­enclosed with a  fruit/vessel  Bryophytes­the mosses and their allies  Reproduce by spores (no seeds)  Non­vascular­ lack conducting tissue­only cells to transport water­move food very slowly­because they don’t have this, they are very small  Smallest land plants­smallest is about ½ a meter  Require external water for reproduction  Pteridophytes­ fossil record (extensive)­date back 300­350 million years  Small­largest one is 10 meters­ most only 1 or 2  Reproduce by spores (no seeds)  Vascular tissues (conducting)  Xylem­conduct H 02and minerals  Phloem­conduct food   Because they have this, we can say they have “True roots, stems, and leaves  Require external water for reproduction  Gymnosperms­cone­bearing trees (mostly)  Not a very large group compared to the others  Oldest organism­Bristlecone Pine­between California and Nevada­not huge but  can live a very long time  Biggest Organism­ Giant Sequoia­about 600+ tons­about 120 meters tall  Tallest Organism­ Redwood­gets up to 160+ meters  Vascular tissue­xylem and phloem  “naked seeds”­seeds are exposed  Advanced character  Within seed o Embryo o Stored food o Protective covering (integument)  Although it has this, it is not enclosed  Seeds have “survival value” (better than spores)  Does not require external water for reproduction­pollen tube delivers sperm to  egg location  Angiosperms­“enclosed seeds with fruit/vessel­90% of plant species is here  Vascular tissues­more advanced, most complex xylem and phloem  Seed contains  Embryo  Stored food  Protective coverings (2 integuments)  Protective coverings and enclosed within fruit/vessel makes better “survival  value”  Only group of organisms that produce flowers­attractive to attract pollen  Fruit­enclose/protect seed and assist with seed dispersal   Over 300,000 species in this group  Does not require external water for reproduction­pollen tube delivers sperm to  the location of the egg. Pollen tube replaces water and the swimming the sperm  was previously required to do  Kingdom Animalia  Most complex and advanced of the 5 kingdoms  Large group in the number of species 1.5­3 million different species  Most of the species are insects  Single ancestor­flagellated protist? Some type of protozoan that was capable of  swimming­enough DNA shared between the two to determine this  35 different animal phylums  More similarity (genes shared) within animal genomes than other kingdoms  More similarity between the simplest animal and a human than a moss  and a rosebush, etc…  Characteristics   Multicellular  Lack cell walls  Sexual reproduction  Mobile, small sperm  Larger egg, usually immobile  Cluster of special genes called Hox genes­these determine body axis  during embryotic development (lay out the shape the organism will take  on)  Nervous tissue­mostly  Cell Junctions  Anchoring  Gap   Tight  No other group has more than one cell junction  Protein binding cells­provides more support  Classification/Systematics  Focus on   Molecular genetics  Development (embryotic)  Morphology  Body Plans: 4 features (morphological and developmental features)  Body symmetry   Number of tissue layers­important­produce organs/organ systems  Presence/Absence of a true body cavity  Patterns of embryonic development  We can commonly call any animal a Metazoan (multicellularity and animal)  Parazoa (almost animals)­sponges  Eumetazoa (truly multicellular)­all others  4 features   Body symmetry: refers to the relative proportions of body halves­the shape of the animals  Phylum Porifera (sponges)­ Lack symmetry   Eumetazoa  Radial symmetry­ many lines can be passed through to produce  equal images. Radial refers to the radius   Bilateral symmetry­Only one line or cut produces equal images o Distinct head and tail ends (humans)  Tissue layers­ number of tissue (germ) layers present  Tissue­ an aggregation of functionally similar cells into a larger unit   Metazoa  Parazoa (Phylum Porifera)­ no organs or tissues  Eumetazoa­ have one or more tissue types or organs  o Number of tissues layers­ the more tissues, the more  complex the organism is  2 patterns dealing with tissue layers  Animals that exhibit radial symmetry are  called diploblastic (2 embryonic germ/tissue  layers) o Endoderm­inner layer o Ectoderm­outer layer  Animals that exhibit bilateral symmetry  exhibit triploblastic (3 germ layers)­ greatly  increases the complexity of the organism o Endoderm o Ectoderm o Mesoderm (middle)  Tissue layers develop during early developmental period known as  gastrulation   Figure 32.6 in the book  Body Cavity­Bilateral animals only  Non­existent in Phylum Porifera  Coelom­a fluid­filled body cavity in animals  Advanced animals have a true Coelom (the body cavity is  completely lined with mesoderm or mesoderm derived tissue)  Acoelomate­“without coelom” (no body cavity) o What they do have is not surrounded by mesoderm tissue  (not true) o Ex. Flatworms (Phylum Platyhelminthes) o Not completely surrounded by mesoderm or mesoderm  derived tissue­ very thin amount   Pseudocoelomate­“false coelom”­body cavity is present and well  developed but not completely lined mesoderm or mesoderm  derived tissue  o Ex: Roundworm (Phylum Nematoda)  Eucoelomate­“true coelom”­ completely lined with mesoderm or  mesoderm derived tissue o Advanced Metazoa  Ex: Earthworm (Phylum Annelida)  Embryonic Development  Cleavage­division of cells­divide but no increase in size, cells get smaller  2 mechanisms (pathways)­ we can group animals by what happens at the beginning of gastrulation  Protostomes­ “1  opening” becomes the mouth  Deuterostomes­ “2  opening” 1  becomes the mouth, 2  the anus o “stome” refers to opening  o The first opening for both is called the blastopore  Deuterostomes­ “2  opening becomes the anus”­advanced group  Protostomes o Mollusca o Annellida  o Arthropoda   Deuterostomes o Echinodermata o Chordata   Other methods that we have used to Classify animals  Skeleton  Exoskeleton­ most invertebrates­protective/supportive structure is on the  outside of the animal  Endoskeleton­vertebrates­Echinoderms-protective/supportive structure  is on the inside  Notochord­Phylum Chordata­advanced feature  Chordata named due to the Notochord   Metamerism­segmentation­repetition of body parts  Advanced feature  Segmented worms  Human spine  Jointed appendages   Cephalization­“head end” of the body­localization of sensory structures “brain”  Molecular Views of Animal Diversity   New techniques   DNA  Ribosomal RNA  mtDNA   Advantages:  DNA analysis is testable   Similarities between traditional 4 features and molecular phylogeny  DNA tells us that Metazoa share common ancestor­Protist   DNA tells us that there is a true split between Parazoa and Eumetazoa  DNA tells us that there is a true split between radial and bilateral symmetry  DNA tells us that Echinodormata and Chrodata are closely related  Differences between traditional 4 features and molecular phylogeny  Protostomes­split into 2 (lines) clades (molecular)  Body Cavity­ may not be great character splitting the groups  Invertebrates­Chapter 32­33  Fossils dating back to 1.2 billion years   “without backbone” (vertebral column)  95% of living animal species   Phylum Porifera (sponges)  Lack tissues (or organs)  Multicellular?  Different cell types with different functions  Over 8,00 species (mostly marine)  “pores”­filter2H 0/food  Reproduction­hermaphroditism­ produce eggs and sperm­ has both male  and female sex organs  Some sexual reproduction  Some asexual reproduction­break off from parent and grow into  new sponge  Phylum Cnidaria and Phylum Ctenophora (grouped because very closely related; moreso than any other animal  Phylum Cnidaria includes jellyfish, corals and anemones  9000 species  Phylum Ctenophra include comb jellies (small and don’t have stinging)  100 species  Both diploblastic (2 germ layers)  Endoderm  Ectoderm o Not very complex  Both mostly marine  Both mesoglea­gelatinous coating on the outside of the animals body­ some external protecting and insulation   Both exhibit nerve net­Lack brain­interconnected nerve cells­weakly  developed   Both have one opening  Both Gastrovascular cavity­ opening comes out to gather food and then  release waste  Protostomes   Phylum Platyhelminthes­flatworms, flukes, tapeworms  Many parasites   20,000 species   Triploblastic (3 germ layers)  Endo  Ecto  Meso  Protosomes   Organs and Organ Systems (simple)  Enhanced nerve net  2 cerebral ganglia­mass of nervous tissue in the head (NO  BRAIN)­ function similar   1 opening and gastrovascular cavity  Reproduction­ asexual and sexual (hermaphrodites)  Most asexual where body is split   Phylum Rotifera (rotifers)  Corona (crown)  Most fresh water  Brain (simple)  2,000 species  Pseudocoelom  Alimentary canal­digestive tube (mouth  anus)  Triploblastic   Protostomes   Reproduction­asexual and sexual (Parthenogenesis)  Parthenogenesis­Egg develops without fertilization from the sperm  Phylum Mollusca­ snails, slugs, oysters, squid, octopus, clams  106,000 species  Protostomes  Eucoelomate  3 “part” body (mostly)  Foot  Visceral mass­ internal organs, etc…  Mantle (inside “shell”)   Reproduction­ mostly sexual­ (egg and sperm released)­ released  thousands but only certain ones get fertilized   Terrestrial (land)­ males inserts sperm into female (still doesn’t  guarantee fertilization)  Phylum Annelid­ segmented/ringed worms  15,000 species  Segmentation  Eucoelomate  Enhanced digestive system  Enhanced nervous system  Reproduction­ asexual and sexual (hermaphrodite)  Protostomes  Phylum Nematoda­Roundworms   Primarily in soil or in digestive track or higher animals  20,000 species  Pseudocoelomate   Cuticle­ shell that they shed  Ecdysis (shedding) o Successful parasite because this shedding protects them  from digestive enzymes  Complete digestive tract  Protostomes  Phylum Arthropoda­all insects, spider, crustaceans, ticks  1.75 million species   Over half of animal species are in this phylum and most are the  insects  Segmented appendages (in joints not as complex as ours)  Exoskeleton  Hardened cuticle that has protein and chitin (hardened protein)  Ecdysis (shedding)­ most likely shed their outer shell  Protostomes  Enhanced brain and nervous system  Complex digestive system  Eucoelomate  Phylum Echinodermata­sea stars, urchins, sea cucumbers st nd  Deuterostomes (1  opening is the anus, 2  is the mouth)  7,500 species  No brain, simple nervous system  Autotomy­ the breaking off of body parts  Reproduction­ sexual  Endoskeleton­series of plates   Since it can snap off appendages, great defense mechanism   Phylum Chordata  Deuterostomes   Endoskeleton  Few invertebrates; Most vertebrates   4 Critical Innovations of Chordate Body Design (features)­have to be  found at some point of development (life history)  Notochord­cartilage rod o Skeletal support (dorsal axis) o Replaced by jointed backbone (vertebral column) o Remnants of notochord in discs between vertebrae  Dorsal hollow nerve cord o Expanded at anterior end­brain  o Enclosed/supported/protected by vertebral column and/or  notochord o Earlier groups with ventral nerve cord  Pharyngeal slits o Pharynx­back portion of the mouth cavity o H 2 enters mouth and out the slits (gills)  Postanal tail  Only some fish exhibit these 4 as adults   Humans o Notochord  replaced by a series of bony elements  (vertebrae)­discs o Nerve Cord  hollow dorsal (spinal cord and brain)  Largest brain capacity  o Pharyngeal slits embryonic development  1 retained as Eustachian tubes pair o Postanal tail  embryonic development   1 vertebrae retained as tailbone (coccyx)  Phylum Chordata include both vertebrates and invertebrates   Subphylum Urochordata­tunicates   3000 species  Marine  Invertebrates  Filter feeders  Adults  Dorsal hollow nerve cord  Pharyngeal slits  Embryo  Gills slits  Tail  Notochord  Dorsal nerve cord  Subphylum Cephalochordata­lancelets  25 species  Marine  Invertebrates   Filter feeders  All ages  Dorsal, hollow nerve cord  Notochord   Postanal tail  Gills  Subphylum Vertebrata­“backboned”  Vertebral column­bony elements or cartilage elements  Endoskeleton­ most calcified­“bone”  Cranium­ bone or hardened cartilage (skull) increases in size with  vertebrate evolution  Hox genes­2 clusters more complexity in development   Neural Crest cells­rise in embryonic development “migrate”­layout for  nervous system  Classes of Subphylum Vertebrata  Class Myxini­hagfishes   Marine  30 species  Jawless  Nearly blind  Slime  Skeleton­skull, notochord o Weakest/simplest skeleton o Usually not a complete skull o Retain notochord through lifetime  Lack vertebrae? They don’t lack it; it’s just very weakly developed   Class Cephalospidomorphi­ “jawless” fishes­lampreys   Closely related to hagfish but share characteristics with higher  fishes  Lack jaws  Lack appendages(fins)  Slime  40 species  Marine and fresh H 02  Many parasitic, some filter feeders  Retain notochord for life  Cartilaginous vertebral column  Class Chondrichthyes­ “cartilaginous fishes”  Well­developed jaws  Paired appendages (ins)  Notochord in adults  Cartilaginous vertebral column  Mostly marine  Over 850 species  Sharks, skates, and rays  Class Osteichthyes­ “bony fishes”  Over 24,000 species   Bony skeleton and vertebrae (in most)  Some with notochord and cartilaginous vertebrae into adulthood  Jaws  Paired appendages (fins)  Very successful group in fresh H 2 and marine   Class Amphibia­“living a double life” st  1  terrestrial vertebrate group  Most split life between aquatic and terrestrial stages o Aquatic  larvae o Terrestrial  adult   Most lay eggs in water (or moist areas)  Not completely separated from water; most reproductively tied to  water o They may live on land but they still need moist areas  1  tetrapod  4 legs (limbs)  Includes o Frogs, salamanders, toads  4,000 species  Thin, moist skin  Lungs­very small  Class Reptilia  Includes o Turtles, crocodilians, lizards, snakes, and dinosaurs   Over 8,000 species  Thicker skin and scales  Enhanced kidneys­goal is to conserve water  Larger brain  Larger limbs and muscles­better at locomotion  Reptiles can get completely away from water (besides drinking) o Don’t have to be near pools of it   Amniotic egg­not laid in water, not reproductively tied to 2 0­ instead of just a coat of jelly, they have some form of casing  o Advanced, shelled egg with 3 internal membranes   Outermost ring is a shell with a shell membrane nd  2  ring (internal membrane #1)­Chorion­allows for  gas exchange within that egg  Lower left sac is called the allantois­embryotic  waste bladder  Amnion sac encloses the embryo­“indoor pond”­ fluid  Reproductive modes: 3 patterns o Oviparous­“egg laying” outside of the body (fishes,  amphibians, reptiles, birds, and 3 mammals) o Ovoviviparous­“live­bearing” with retention of eggs but no  maternal connection  When time frame is up, the “egg” is released and  the young immediately emerges (fishes, reptiles) o Viviparous­“live­bearing” with retained eggs and a maternal connection (placenta)  (about 20 reptiles and all but 3 mammals) o Reptiles are the only group that exhibit all 3 forms  Class Aves­birds   Over 9,000 species­2  largest class  Found in most regions  Most fly  Evolved from small dinosaurs   Fossils­ 150 million years before present   Feathers­main feature o Insulation  o Breeding behaviors  o Pushes air for flight  Also have scales   Light­weight skeleton  Air sacs­gas exchange­ and lungs. Great need for oxygen  High metabolism (food) Highest food requirement by size of all  vertebrates   Organ reduction o Almost all females only have one productive ovary  Modified forelimbs=wings  Endothermic­“internal temperatures”­high temps­can live almost  anywhere because they can trap heat  o Everything else besides birds and mammals are  considered ectothermic­“external temperature”­body  temperature is primarily determined by the outside  temperature [fishes, amphibians, reptiles]  Oviparous­eggs layers o Nothing to indicate that birds could give birth to live young 


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