Bio 1044 Week 1 and 2
Bio 1044 Week 1 and 2 1144
Popular in Biology II
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Biology
This 14 page Bundle was uploaded by Kaitlyn Notetaker on Friday January 22, 2016. The Bundle belongs to 1144 at Mississippi State University taught by Tom Holder in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 95 views. For similar materials see Biology II in Biology at Mississippi State University.
Reviews for Bio 1044 Week 1 and 2
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 01/22/16
Biology Notes Exam 1 Taxonomy & Systematics Chapter 26 Taxonomythe study of classifying and grouping organisms Used to group based solely on what we can see Named based on hierarchal groups Each level is called a taxon Carolous Linnaeus1753discovered taxonomybased on similarities between different organisms Binomial System of Nomenclature Twoworded scientific name Ex: homo sapien Advantage of naming systemcommunication made easier If you go to google and search for a white oak, many different things appear on your screen; if you search for it by Quercus alba, the same thing will appear every time. “artifical” Only humans understand this system and it is solely for our convenience. We use this naming system for morphological features only 5 Kingdom Concept Use to have plant and animal kingdoms only until the discovery of the microscope Simplest Kingdom is MoneraProkaryotic cells: lack nucleus, lack membranebound structures Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia are all Eukaryotic organisms: Nucleus and membranebound organelles Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic are real differences rather than artificial. They’re based on real things such as DNA rather than solely morphological features Example: Taxon HierarchyGray Wolf o Kingdom Animalia o Phylum Chordata o Class Mammalia o Order Carnivora o Family Canidae o Genus Canis o Species Canis lupus First is always a noun and the second is an adjective to describe that noun Goes from over 3 million different animals (Kingdom Animalia) to one animal (Species Canis lupus) Systematics the study of biological diversity and evolutionary relationships Looks at genetics and morphology Typically use a phylogenetic tree to determine how closely related they are based on evolutionary history Kingdom MoneraChapter 27 Use to think the only two domains were archaea and bacteria Prokaryotic cells: lack nucleus, lack membranebound organelles, lack sexual reproduction Sexual reproduction is one requirement for becoming a species but scientists needed something to call these Prokaryotes so therefore this group was made) Most abundant Fossils3.5 billion years (ancestral to eukaryotes) Archaea“almost nucleus” Still prokaryote but more developed than most in this kingdom Similar cytoplasm to eukaryotes Specialized membranes Some can live in hot springs, volcanoes, etc… (extreme environments) Bateria Proteobacteria “true bacteria” Cyanobacteria “blue greens” Produce food (capture sunlight) Transform N 2 All Monera Difficult to determine evolutionary relationship due to no sexual reproduction Eukaryotes True Nucleus Compartments Cell organelles formed by the internal membrane system Kingdom Protista Chapter 28 Earlies Eukaryotes Most live in moist environments and are microscopic 5 kingdom proposed DNA many separate groups Catchall group (if it does not fit in another kingdom, it is thrown in here) Algae “plantlike” (mostly) 10 groups Autotrophsself feedingphotosynthesis Some ingest Some do both Unicellular multicellular Protozoans “animallike” Heterotrophic “ingest” feeding Unicellular Multicellular Fungallike protists “fungilike” Saprotrophic “absorb feeding” Multicellular Most microscopic Kingdom FungiChapter 31 Includes Mushrooms, yeast, rust, etc… Might place largest living organism. (Most part of a mushroom is underneath the ground) A super organism is actually there; mushroom is mostly under the ground. They can’t determine how large it actually is which is why we cannot say it is the largest yet. Most of the body is in the soil or some other substrate. “Conspicuous” portion mushroom or mold or yeast smallest portion often associated with reproduction Very important recyclers of naturemessengers of decay Heterotrophic/Saprotrophicmost are referred to as saprotrophic. Only some are heterotrophic Body is called the myceliumcomposed of filaments called Hyphae “Fruiting bodies”aka mushroom. Called because they are the reproductive structures of the organism. Spores (not seeds)reproductive cellswind can blow these and they can dry out easily. Rhizomorphs water transporting filaments Cell wall with chitin Kingdom Animalia is the only kingdom that lacks a cell wall Kingdom PlantaeChapter 29 and 30 Over 300,000 species in this kingdom Multicellular and eukaryotic Most autotrophic“selffeeding”photosynthesis Photosynthesis gives us the oxygen we need Mostly terrestrialmost plants are rooted in the ground (some water plants are not rooted) Food storage compoundstarch Photosynthetic pigments Chlorophyll a + b and Bcarotene Chlorophyll a is the biggest one Advantage of different color pigments is that it can catch many different waves of lights CellWallMajor component is Cellulose (most abundant carbohydrate in the world)Most elaborate/enhanced cell wall of all kingdomsInternal support These 3 characteristics ^ are important in Plant Kingdom Land plants Kingdom plantae Based on evidence, ancestors are some form of algae (green) Earliest fossils we have in this kingdom is 400 million years before present Life on landmust get H 0 2rom soilMost important feature plants have is the roots 10 major groups of plants Phylum Hepatophytaliverworts6500 Phylum Anthocerophytahornworts100 Phylum Bryophytamosses12,000 Usually lump these three together due to similarities and called them Bryophytes (mosses and their allies) Phylum Lycopodiophytalycophytes1000 Phylum Pteridophytaferns and allies12,000 Usually together due to similarities and called pteridophytes (ferns and relatives) Phylum Cycadophytacycads300 Phylum Ginkgophytaginkgo1 Phylum Gnetophytagnetophytes300 Phylum Coniferophytaconebearing trees500 Collectively called gymnosperms (“naked seeds”)first group of seed plantsproduced exposed rather than enclosed Phylum Anthophytaflowering/fruiting plantabout 300,0009x more here than all the other groupsmost advanced DNA genetically Called angiosperms(“enclosed seeds”)enclosed with a fruit/vessel Bryophytesthe mosses and their allies Reproduce by spores (no seeds) Nonvascular lack conducting tissueonly cells to transport watermove food very slowlybecause they don’t have this, they are very small Smallest land plantssmallest is about ½ a meter Require external water for reproduction Pteridophytes fossil record (extensive)date back 300350 million years Smalllargest one is 10 meters most only 1 or 2 Reproduce by spores (no seeds) Vascular tissues (conducting) Xylemconduct H 02and minerals Phloemconduct food Because they have this, we can say they have “True roots, stems, and leaves Require external water for reproduction Gymnospermsconebearing trees (mostly) Not a very large group compared to the others Oldest organismBristlecone Pinebetween California and Nevadanot huge but can live a very long time Biggest Organism Giant Sequoiaabout 600+ tonsabout 120 meters tall Tallest Organism Redwoodgets up to 160+ meters Vascular tissuexylem and phloem “naked seeds”seeds are exposed Advanced character Within seed o Embryo o Stored food o Protective covering (integument) Although it has this, it is not enclosed Seeds have “survival value” (better than spores) Does not require external water for reproductionpollen tube delivers sperm to egg location Angiosperms“enclosed seeds with fruit/vessel90% of plant species is here Vascular tissuesmore advanced, most complex xylem and phloem Seed contains Embryo Stored food Protective coverings (2 integuments) Protective coverings and enclosed within fruit/vessel makes better “survival value” Only group of organisms that produce flowersattractive to attract pollen Fruitenclose/protect seed and assist with seed dispersal Over 300,000 species in this group Does not require external water for reproductionpollen tube delivers sperm to the location of the egg. Pollen tube replaces water and the swimming the sperm was previously required to do Kingdom Animalia Most complex and advanced of the 5 kingdoms Large group in the number of species 1.53 million different species Most of the species are insects Single ancestorflagellated protist? Some type of protozoan that was capable of swimmingenough DNA shared between the two to determine this 35 different animal phylums More similarity (genes shared) within animal genomes than other kingdoms More similarity between the simplest animal and a human than a moss and a rosebush, etc… Characteristics Multicellular Lack cell walls Sexual reproduction Mobile, small sperm Larger egg, usually immobile Cluster of special genes called Hox genesthese determine body axis during embryotic development (lay out the shape the organism will take on) Nervous tissuemostly Cell Junctions Anchoring Gap Tight No other group has more than one cell junction Protein binding cellsprovides more support Classification/Systematics Focus on Molecular genetics Development (embryotic) Morphology Body Plans: 4 features (morphological and developmental features) Body symmetry Number of tissue layersimportantproduce organs/organ systems Presence/Absence of a true body cavity Patterns of embryonic development We can commonly call any animal a Metazoan (multicellularity and animal) Parazoa (almost animals)sponges Eumetazoa (truly multicellular)all others 4 features Body symmetry: refers to the relative proportions of body halvesthe shape of the animals Phylum Porifera (sponges) Lack symmetry Eumetazoa Radial symmetry many lines can be passed through to produce equal images. Radial refers to the radius Bilateral symmetryOnly one line or cut produces equal images o Distinct head and tail ends (humans) Tissue layers number of tissue (germ) layers present Tissue an aggregation of functionally similar cells into a larger unit Metazoa Parazoa (Phylum Porifera) no organs or tissues Eumetazoa have one or more tissue types or organs o Number of tissues layers the more tissues, the more complex the organism is 2 patterns dealing with tissue layers Animals that exhibit radial symmetry are called diploblastic (2 embryonic germ/tissue layers) o Endoderminner layer o Ectodermouter layer Animals that exhibit bilateral symmetry exhibit triploblastic (3 germ layers) greatly increases the complexity of the organism o Endoderm o Ectoderm o Mesoderm (middle) Tissue layers develop during early developmental period known as gastrulation Figure 32.6 in the book Body CavityBilateral animals only Nonexistent in Phylum Porifera Coeloma fluidfilled body cavity in animals Advanced animals have a true Coelom (the body cavity is completely lined with mesoderm or mesoderm derived tissue) Acoelomate“without coelom” (no body cavity) o What they do have is not surrounded by mesoderm tissue (not true) o Ex. Flatworms (Phylum Platyhelminthes) o Not completely surrounded by mesoderm or mesoderm derived tissue very thin amount Pseudocoelomate“false coelom”body cavity is present and well developed but not completely lined mesoderm or mesoderm derived tissue o Ex: Roundworm (Phylum Nematoda) Eucoelomate“true coelom” completely lined with mesoderm or mesoderm derived tissue o Advanced Metazoa Ex: Earthworm (Phylum Annelida) Embryonic Development Cleavagedivision of cellsdivide but no increase in size, cells get smaller 2 mechanisms (pathways) we can group animals by what happens at the beginning of gastrulation Protostomes “1 opening” becomes the mouth Deuterostomes “2 opening” 1 becomes the mouth, 2 the anus o “stome” refers to opening o The first opening for both is called the blastopore Deuterostomes “2 opening becomes the anus”advanced group Protostomes o Mollusca o Annellida o Arthropoda Deuterostomes o Echinodermata o Chordata Other methods that we have used to Classify animals Skeleton Exoskeleton most invertebratesprotective/supportive structure is on the outside of the animal EndoskeletonvertebratesEchinoderms-protective/supportive structure is on the inside NotochordPhylum Chordataadvanced feature Chordata named due to the Notochord Metamerismsegmentationrepetition of body parts Advanced feature Segmented worms Human spine Jointed appendages Cephalization“head end” of the bodylocalization of sensory structures “brain” Molecular Views of Animal Diversity New techniques DNA Ribosomal RNA mtDNA Advantages: DNA analysis is testable Similarities between traditional 4 features and molecular phylogeny DNA tells us that Metazoa share common ancestorProtist DNA tells us that there is a true split between Parazoa and Eumetazoa DNA tells us that there is a true split between radial and bilateral symmetry DNA tells us that Echinodormata and Chrodata are closely related Differences between traditional 4 features and molecular phylogeny Protostomessplit into 2 (lines) clades (molecular) Body Cavity may not be great character splitting the groups InvertebratesChapter 3233 Fossils dating back to 1.2 billion years “without backbone” (vertebral column) 95% of living animal species Phylum Porifera (sponges) Lack tissues (or organs) Multicellular? Different cell types with different functions Over 8,00 species (mostly marine) “pores”filter2H 0/food Reproductionhermaphroditism produce eggs and sperm has both male and female sex organs Some sexual reproduction Some asexual reproductionbreak off from parent and grow into new sponge Phylum Cnidaria and Phylum Ctenophora (grouped because very closely related; moreso than any other animal Phylum Cnidaria includes jellyfish, corals and anemones 9000 species Phylum Ctenophra include comb jellies (small and don’t have stinging) 100 species Both diploblastic (2 germ layers) Endoderm Ectoderm o Not very complex Both mostly marine Both mesogleagelatinous coating on the outside of the animals body some external protecting and insulation Both exhibit nerve netLack braininterconnected nerve cellsweakly developed Both have one opening Both Gastrovascular cavity opening comes out to gather food and then release waste Protostomes Phylum Platyhelminthesflatworms, flukes, tapeworms Many parasites 20,000 species Triploblastic (3 germ layers) Endo Ecto Meso Protosomes Organs and Organ Systems (simple) Enhanced nerve net 2 cerebral gangliamass of nervous tissue in the head (NO BRAIN) function similar 1 opening and gastrovascular cavity Reproduction asexual and sexual (hermaphrodites) Most asexual where body is split Phylum Rotifera (rotifers) Corona (crown) Most fresh water Brain (simple) 2,000 species Pseudocoelom Alimentary canaldigestive tube (mouth anus) Triploblastic Protostomes Reproductionasexual and sexual (Parthenogenesis) ParthenogenesisEgg develops without fertilization from the sperm Phylum Mollusca snails, slugs, oysters, squid, octopus, clams 106,000 species Protostomes Eucoelomate 3 “part” body (mostly) Foot Visceral mass internal organs, etc… Mantle (inside “shell”) Reproduction mostly sexual (egg and sperm released) released thousands but only certain ones get fertilized Terrestrial (land) males inserts sperm into female (still doesn’t guarantee fertilization) Phylum Annelid segmented/ringed worms 15,000 species Segmentation Eucoelomate Enhanced digestive system Enhanced nervous system Reproduction asexual and sexual (hermaphrodite) Protostomes Phylum NematodaRoundworms Primarily in soil or in digestive track or higher animals 20,000 species Pseudocoelomate Cuticle shell that they shed Ecdysis (shedding) o Successful parasite because this shedding protects them from digestive enzymes Complete digestive tract Protostomes Phylum Arthropodaall insects, spider, crustaceans, ticks 1.75 million species Over half of animal species are in this phylum and most are the insects Segmented appendages (in joints not as complex as ours) Exoskeleton Hardened cuticle that has protein and chitin (hardened protein) Ecdysis (shedding) most likely shed their outer shell Protostomes Enhanced brain and nervous system Complex digestive system Eucoelomate Phylum Echinodermatasea stars, urchins, sea cucumbers st nd Deuterostomes (1 opening is the anus, 2 is the mouth) 7,500 species No brain, simple nervous system Autotomy the breaking off of body parts Reproduction sexual Endoskeletonseries of plates Since it can snap off appendages, great defense mechanism Phylum Chordata Deuterostomes Endoskeleton Few invertebrates; Most vertebrates 4 Critical Innovations of Chordate Body Design (features)have to be found at some point of development (life history) Notochordcartilage rod o Skeletal support (dorsal axis) o Replaced by jointed backbone (vertebral column) o Remnants of notochord in discs between vertebrae Dorsal hollow nerve cord o Expanded at anterior endbrain o Enclosed/supported/protected by vertebral column and/or notochord o Earlier groups with ventral nerve cord Pharyngeal slits o Pharynxback portion of the mouth cavity o H 2 enters mouth and out the slits (gills) Postanal tail Only some fish exhibit these 4 as adults Humans o Notochord replaced by a series of bony elements (vertebrae)discs o Nerve Cord hollow dorsal (spinal cord and brain) Largest brain capacity o Pharyngeal slits embryonic development 1 retained as Eustachian tubes pair o Postanal tail embryonic development 1 vertebrae retained as tailbone (coccyx) Phylum Chordata include both vertebrates and invertebrates Subphylum Urochordatatunicates 3000 species Marine Invertebrates Filter feeders Adults Dorsal hollow nerve cord Pharyngeal slits Embryo Gills slits Tail Notochord Dorsal nerve cord Subphylum Cephalochordatalancelets 25 species Marine Invertebrates Filter feeders All ages Dorsal, hollow nerve cord Notochord Postanal tail Gills Subphylum Vertebrata“backboned” Vertebral columnbony elements or cartilage elements Endoskeleton most calcified“bone” Cranium bone or hardened cartilage (skull) increases in size with vertebrate evolution Hox genes2 clusters more complexity in development Neural Crest cellsrise in embryonic development “migrate”layout for nervous system Classes of Subphylum Vertebrata Class Myxinihagfishes Marine 30 species Jawless Nearly blind Slime Skeletonskull, notochord o Weakest/simplest skeleton o Usually not a complete skull o Retain notochord through lifetime Lack vertebrae? They don’t lack it; it’s just very weakly developed Class Cephalospidomorphi “jawless” fisheslampreys Closely related to hagfish but share characteristics with higher fishes Lack jaws Lack appendages(fins) Slime 40 species Marine and fresh H 02 Many parasitic, some filter feeders Retain notochord for life Cartilaginous vertebral column Class Chondrichthyes “cartilaginous fishes” Welldeveloped jaws Paired appendages (ins) Notochord in adults Cartilaginous vertebral column Mostly marine Over 850 species Sharks, skates, and rays Class Osteichthyes “bony fishes” Over 24,000 species Bony skeleton and vertebrae (in most) Some with notochord and cartilaginous vertebrae into adulthood Jaws Paired appendages (fins) Very successful group in fresh H 2 and marine Class Amphibia“living a double life” st 1 terrestrial vertebrate group Most split life between aquatic and terrestrial stages o Aquatic larvae o Terrestrial adult Most lay eggs in water (or moist areas) Not completely separated from water; most reproductively tied to water o They may live on land but they still need moist areas 1 tetrapod 4 legs (limbs) Includes o Frogs, salamanders, toads 4,000 species Thin, moist skin Lungsvery small Class Reptilia Includes o Turtles, crocodilians, lizards, snakes, and dinosaurs Over 8,000 species Thicker skin and scales Enhanced kidneysgoal is to conserve water Larger brain Larger limbs and musclesbetter at locomotion Reptiles can get completely away from water (besides drinking) o Don’t have to be near pools of it Amniotic eggnot laid in water, not reproductively tied to 2 0 instead of just a coat of jelly, they have some form of casing o Advanced, shelled egg with 3 internal membranes Outermost ring is a shell with a shell membrane nd 2 ring (internal membrane #1)Chorionallows for gas exchange within that egg Lower left sac is called the allantoisembryotic waste bladder Amnion sac encloses the embryo“indoor pond” fluid Reproductive modes: 3 patterns o Oviparous“egg laying” outside of the body (fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and 3 mammals) o Ovoviviparous“livebearing” with retention of eggs but no maternal connection When time frame is up, the “egg” is released and the young immediately emerges (fishes, reptiles) o Viviparous“livebearing” with retained eggs and a maternal connection (placenta) (about 20 reptiles and all but 3 mammals) o Reptiles are the only group that exhibit all 3 forms Class Avesbirds Over 9,000 species2 largest class Found in most regions Most fly Evolved from small dinosaurs Fossils 150 million years before present Feathersmain feature o Insulation o Breeding behaviors o Pushes air for flight Also have scales Lightweight skeleton Air sacsgas exchange and lungs. Great need for oxygen High metabolism (food) Highest food requirement by size of all vertebrates Organ reduction o Almost all females only have one productive ovary Modified forelimbs=wings Endothermic“internal temperatures”high tempscan live almost anywhere because they can trap heat o Everything else besides birds and mammals are considered ectothermic“external temperature”body temperature is primarily determined by the outside temperature [fishes, amphibians, reptiles] Oviparouseggs layers o Nothing to indicate that birds could give birth to live young
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'