Chapters 4,7,8,10, 12 Notes
Chapters 4,7,8,10, 12 Notes
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MIS 02334 Exam 3 Review Sheet Chapter 7 Hub, switch, router: Hub: Devices used to connect network components, sending a packet of data to all other connected devices; Switch: Used to filter and forward data to a specified destination on the network, more intelligence than a hub; Router: Device used to route packets of data through different networks, ensuring that data sent gets to the correct address Packet switching: Method of slicing digital messages into parcels (packets), sending packets along different communication paths as they become available, and then reassembling packets at destination. Packet switching does not require a dedicated circuit – more efficient use of network’s communications capacity TCP/IP: Common worldwide standard that is basis for Internet; provides a universally agreed-on method for breaking up digital messages into packets, routing them to the proper address, and then reassembling them into coherent messages TCP Performs packetizing; Breaks the data into smaller packets; Numbers them; Ensures each packet is reliably delivered; Puts them in the proper order at the destination; TCP software only needs to be active at the sender and the receiver, IP Performs routing and addressing; Addresses each packet with the source and destination address; Routes the message to the final destination; IP software is used at each intervening computer through which the message passes Types of networks (LANs, CANs, WANs, MANs) Local-area networks (LANs) Up to 500 meters (half a mile); Typically connect computers in an office, one building, or several buildings in close proximity; Can link to WANs and the Internet Campus-area networks (CANs); Up to 1000 meters (a mile); Typically connect computers on a college campus or corporate facility Metropolitan-area networks (MANs); A network that spans a metropolitan area, usually a city and its major suburbs Wide-area networks (WANs); Span large geographical distances; Typically used to connect two or more LANs; Most universal and powerful WAN is the Internet Key benefits and drawbacks of the three physical transmission media What is the Internet? The largest implementation of client/server computing IP address, Domain Name System (DNS): IP Address Each domain (rowan.edu) is associated with one or more IP addresses, which serves as a destination address; Any device on a network must have its own unique address; Format: written as 4 numbers (from 0-255) separated by periods. Example: 126.96.36.199 Domain Name System (DNS) Provides a service analogous to an address book lookup; Special DNS servers on the internet are dedicated to performing the translation from a domain name to an IP address and vice versa. IPv6, Interent2 IPv6: IPv6 a new version of the IP addressing schema which uses 128-bit addresses, or more than a quadrillion unique addresses; Internet2 A consortia representing 200 universities, private business, and government agencies working on a new, robust, high-bandwidth version of the Internet that focuses on: more effective routing practices, different levels of service depending on the type and importance of data advanced applications Voice over IP (VoIP): Uses the Internet Protocol (IP) to deliver voice information in digital form using packet switching; Allows you to send voice communications over the Internet and avoid the toll charges that you would normally receive from your long distance carrier Virtual private network (VPN): A secure connection between two points across the Internet to transmit corporate data. Provides a low-cost alternative to a private network. World Wide Web, HTML, HTTP: A system with universally accepted standards for storing, retrieving, formatting, and displaying information in a networked environment. HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) lets you specify the structure of a document, format text, add graphics, sound, and video, and save it all in a text file that any computer can read. Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) the set of standards used by web servers to process user requests for web pages. Web servers Software for locating and managing Web pages RSS (What is it and what benefits does a RSS service provide to its users?) (Really Simple Syndication): Syndicates Web content so aggregator software can pull content for use in another setting or viewing later RFID (definition and applications): An automatic identification method; Use tiny tags with embedded microchips containing data about an item and location; Tags transmit radio signals over short distances to special RFID readers, which send data over network to computer for processing; Active RFID: Tags have batteries, data can be rewritten, range is hundreds of feet, more expensive; Passive RFID: no batteries, range is shorter, also smaller, less expensive, powered by radio frequency energy Applications: Supply chain – most applications are here; Electronic toll collection; Exxon/Mobil Speedpass – wave key ring at reader instead of swiping card; Anti-theft car keys; Library book tracking; Livestock tracking Applications of wireless sensor networks: Networks of hundreds or thousands of interconnected wireless devices embedded into physical environment to provide measurements of many points over large spaces. Applications: used to monitor building security, detect hazardous substances in air, monitor environmental changes, traffic, or military activity Chapter 8 Viruses vs. worms: Worms: Independent computer programs that copy themselves from one computer to other computers over a network. Viruses: Rogue software programs that attach itself to other software programs or data files in order to be executed Trojan horses, spyware Trojan horses: Software program that appears to be benign but contains a second hidden function that may cause damage. Spyware: Software program that aids in gathering information about persons or organizations without their knowledge. Distributed denial-of-service attacks, botnets: DDOS: Use of numerous computers to launch a DoS Botnet: Networks of “zombie” PCs infected by malware without owners’ knowledge Phishing (definition; recognize a phishing email): Setting up fake Web sites or sending e-mail messages that look like legitimate businesses to ask users for confidential personal data. Risk assessment: Determines level of risk to firm if specific activity or process is not properly controlled Disaster recovery planning: Devises plans for restoration of disrupted services; focuses on technical issues involved in keeping systems up and running Business continuity planning: Focuses on restoring business operations after disaster; identifies critical business processes and determine action plans if systems go down Access control: Policies and procedures to prevent improper access to systems by unauthorized insiders and outsiders Firewall: Combination of hardware and software that prevents unauthorized users from accessing private networks Encryption: Encoding messages before they enter the network, and then decoding at the receiving end Secure sockets layer: Most common form of securing transactions between merchants and consumers; Built into Web browser software and web server software; Used to establish a secure negotiated session (client- server session in which URL of requested document, along with contents, is encrypted) Chapter 10 Information asymmetry: when one party has more information than the other Disintermediation: The removal of organizations or business process layers responsible for intermediary steps in a distribution channel; Internet increases disintermediation Digital goods: Goods that can be delivered over a digital network Costs associated with digital goods: The cost of producing the original unit: relatively high The cost of producing another unit: about zero, Storage cost: minimal, Delivery cost: very low; can be delivered at time of purchase Types of E-commerce: B2C, B2B, C2C: B2C:amazon, Netflix,Walmart, bestbuy, B2B: grainger,C2C: eBay, etsy Pure play vs. clicks-and-mortar: E-commerce revenue models: Click-through rate: less than 1 % M-commerce (definition and exemplary services and applications we covered in class): mobile Chapter 12 Girl Scout case (What were the information requirements for the solution? What alternative solutions did Girl Scout consider to solve the problem in the case?) The core problem-solving steps for developing new information systems (What activities are involved in each step?) Information requirements:who needs what information, where, when, and how. Unit testing vs. system testing: Unit: testing of individual programs; System: tests the performance of the system as a whole when individual programs are integrated Parallel conversion vs. direct conversion vs. phased conversion: Parallel: Running old system and new system together for a period of time; Direct: Replacing entire old system with new system on an appointed time; Phased: Introduce new system in stages Traditional systems development lifecycle: Oldest method; Phased approach with formal stages; Formal division of labor; Formal requirement documentation ; time consuming and expensive to use; “Waterfall” approach; Suitable for large complex systems; Not well suited for many small desktop systems Rapid application development (RAD): Creating workable systems in a very short period of time; more likely to use fast-cycle techniques Joint application design (JAD): End users and information systems; specialists working together on design; Accelerate the generation of information requirements and initial systems design Prototyping: Preliminary model built rapidly and inexpensively; Identify the user’s basic requirements; Develop an initial prototype; Use the prototype; Revise and enhance the prototype; Intense user involvement more likely to produce systems that fulfill user requirements; Especially useful in designing a user interface What are the alternative approaches for obtaining information systems? build in house, purchase application software packages, outsourcing Outsourcing vs. Offshoring: Outsourcing: sub-contracting a service to a third party company Offshoring (offshore outsourcing): outsourcing services to a third party in a foreign country Types of outsourcing: Information Technology Outsourcing (ITO), Business Process Outsourcing (BPO), Knowledge Process Outsourcing (KPO) Gantt chart vs. PERT chart: Gantt Chart visually represents the timing and duration of different tasks; It may also show other information, such as human resource requirements; PERT Chart depicts project tasks and their interrelationships Chapter 4 Definition of ethics Stakeholder theory vs. stockholder theory The five key technical trends responsible for current ethical concerns related to information technology Profiling Cookie Platform for Privacy Preferences Opt-in vs. Opt-out Intellectual property (definition) Copyright, trade secret, patent Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA)
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