Chapter 6 notes
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Date Created: 01/22/16
Chapter 6 Deviance and Social Control deviance: refers to any violation of norms, whether the infraction is as minor as driving over the speed limit, as serious as murder or as humorous as Chagnon’s encounter with the Yanomamo. It’s not the act itself, but the reactions to the act that makes something deviant. crime: the violation of rules that have been written into law. stigma: “blemishes” that discredit a person’s claim to a “normal” identity. social order: a group’s usual and customary social arrangements , on which its members depend and on which they base their lives. social control: a group’s formal and informal means of enforcing its norms negative sanction: an expression of disapproval for breaking a norm, ranging from a mild, informal reaction such as a frown to a formal reaction such as a fine or a prison sentence. positive sanction: an expression of approval for following a norm, ranging from a smile or a good grade in class to a material reward such as a prize. genetic predisposition: inborn tendencies (for example, a tendency to commit deviant acts). street crime: crimes such as mugging, rape, and burglary. personality disorders: the view that a personality disturbance of some sort causes an individual to violate social norms. differential association: Edwin Sutherland’s term to indicate that people who associate with some groups learn an “excess of definitions” of deviance, increasing the likelihood that they will become deviant. control theory: the idea that two control systems inner controls and outer controlswork against our tendencies to deviant. Sociologist Walter Reckless (1973), developed control theory. he stressed we have two control systems that work against our motivations to deviate. inner controls: internalized morality conscience, religious principles, ideas of right and wrong, fear of punishment and desire to be a “good” person. outer controls: peoplesuch as family, friends, and the policethose who influence us not to deviate. degradation ceremony: a term coined by Harold Garfinkel to refer to a ritual whose goal is to remake someone’s self by stripping away that individuals self identity and stamping a new identity in its place. labeling theory: the view that the labels people are given affect their own and others’ perceptions of them, thus channeling their behavior into either deviance or conformity. techniques of neutralization: ways of thinking or rationalizing that help people deflect (or neutralize) societies norms. cultural goals: the objectives held out as legitimate or desirable for the members of a society to achieve. institutionalized means: approved term for the strain engendered when a society socializes large numbers of people to desire a cultural goal (such as a success), but withholds from some the approved means of reaching that goal; one adaptation to the strain is crime, the choice of an innovative means (one outside the approved system) to attain the cultural goal. illegitimate opportunity structure: opportunities for crimes that are woven into the texture of life. whitecollar crime: Edwin Sutherland’s term for crimes committed by people of respectable and high social status in the course of their occupations; for example, bribery of public officials , securities violations, embezzlement, false advertising, and price fixing. corporate crime: crimes committed by executives in order to benefit their corporation. criminal justice system: the system of police, courts, and prisons set up to deal with people who are accused of having committed a crime. recidivism rate: the percentage of released convicts who are rearrested. capital punishment: the death penalty. serial murder: the killing of several victims in three or more separate events. police discretion: the practice of the police, in the normal course of their duties, to either arrest or ticket someone for an offense or to overlook the matter. medicalization of deviance: to make deviance a medical matter, a symptom of some underlying illness that needs to be treated by physicians. medicalization: the transformation of a human condition into a matter to be treated by physicians.
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