Chapter 7 note
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Date Created: 01/22/16
Chapter 7 Global Stratification social stratification: the vision of large numbers of people into layers according to their relative property, power, and prestige; applies to both nations and to people within a nation, society or other group. slavery: a form of social stratification in which some people own other people. bonded labor (indentured service): a contractual system in which someone sells his or her body (services) for a specified period of time in an arrangement very close to slavery, except that it is entered into voluntarily. ideology: beliefs about the way things ought to be that justify social arrangement caste system: a form of social stratification in which people’s statuses are lifelong conditions determined by birth. endogamy: the practice of marrying within one’s own group. apartheid: the separation of racialethnic groups as was practiced in South Africa estate stratification system: the stratification system of medieval Europe, consisting of three groups or estates; the nobility, clergy, and commoners. class system: a form of social stratification based primarily on the possession of money or material possessions. social mobility: movement up or down the social class ladder means of production: the tools, factories, land, and investment capital used to produce wealth. bourgeoisie: Marx’s term for captialists, those who own the means of production. proletariat: Marx’s term for the exploited class, the mass of workers who do not own the means of production. class consciousness: Marx’s term for awareness of a common identity based on one’s position in the means of production. false class consciousness: Marx’s term to refer to workers identifying with the interest of capitalists. meritocracy: a form of social stratification in which all positions are awarded on the basis of merit. divine right of kings: the idea that the king’s authority comes from God; in an interesting gender bender, also applies to queen. colonialism: the process by which one nation takes over another nation, usually for the purpose of exploiting its labor and natural resources. world system theory: how economic and political connections developed and now tie the world’s countries together. globalization of capitalism: capitalism (investing to make profits within a rational system) becoming the globe’s dominant economic system. culture of poverty: the assumption that the values and behaviors of the poor make them fundamentally different from other people, that these factors are largely responsible for their poverty and that parents perpetuate poverty across generations by passing these characteristics to their children. neocolonialism: economic and political dominance of the most industrialized nations over the least industrialized nations. multinational coporations: companies that operate across national boundaries; also called transnational corporations.
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