×

### Let's log you in.

or

Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!

×

### Create a StudySoup account

#### Be part of our community, it's free to join!

or

##### By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

## notes to survive semester

by: rebecca goodrich

1412

1

26

# notes to survive semester ENGR103

Marketplace > University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa > ENGR103 > notes to survive semester
rebecca goodrich
UA

### Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

×
Unlock Preview

### Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

## About this Document

notes to survive semester
COURSE
Engineering 103: Intro to Engineering Analysis
PROF.
TYPE
Bundle
PAGES
26
WORDS
CONCEPTS
ENGR
KARMA
75 ?

## Popular in Department

This 26 page Bundle was uploaded by rebecca goodrich on Friday January 22, 2016. The Bundle belongs to ENGR103 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 1412 views.

×

## Reviews for notes to survive semester

×

×

### What is Karma?

#### You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 01/22/16
Moment in force - a sudo vector- has magnitude and dierection - M+o=Fd Torque= Force * a distance Torque =r x F= |F||r|cos theta (cross product) Component solution with scalar notation- principle of moments - calculate components of F - Calculate perpendicular distances dx and dy - Solve M=-fx/dx+Fy/dy - Direction is negative Z by right hand rule or clockwise if using scalar notaion Vec Know how placing objects (which either float, or sink, or some combination of the two), in water will  affect the overall water level. Note the role of the density of the object, and how the objects could be  stacked. A cube made of brass (B = 6.70 × 10 10N/m ) is taken by submarine 5 2 from the surface where the pressure is 1.01 × 14 N/m to the deepest part of the ocean at a depth of 1.10 × 10 m, where it is exposed to a pressure is 1.25 × 10 N/m . What is the percent decrease in volume as a result of this movement? a) 0.41 % b) 0.30 % c) 0.19 % d) 0.11 % e) This cannot be calculated without knowing the initial dimensions of the cube. In a graduated cylinder, 10.0 cm of oil (ρ = 0.850 g/cm ) floats on top 3 of 20.0 cm of water (ρ = 1.00 g/cm ). What is the pressure at a height of 10.0 cm from the bottom of the cylinder? Fluid Mechanics - Involve fluids at rest and in motion - Types include both liquids and gases - Branches o Fluid statics­ Fluids at rest  Fluids at a dam (sometimes) o Fluid Kinematics­ Velocities and streamlines  ­ Jets and cars o Fluid Dynamics­ velocity and acceleration forces  As the jet is taking off­­how the fluids act o Classical hydrodynamics  Very math based - Applies to all engineering disciplines o Aerospace­ wind tunnels (gas) o Civil – dams o Chemical­ medicine/ blood circulation o Electrical­ design of control for fluid applications o Mechanicals­ Wind turbines, Hydraulic Systems o Computer Science­ fluid mechanics are computationally intensive - Fluid definition: o A fluid is both a liquid and a gas meaning it has the properties of a  liquid or a gas  Ex: takes the shape of it’s container (L and G); has a fixed  volume (L)… o Randomly arranged molecules held together by weak cohesive  forces o Fluids flow under minimum stress and continue to flow as long as  stress is present  - Properties o Density  ρ (Rho)­ Mass per unit volume = m/V  common units= kg/m^3 ; g/cm^3 ; 1bm/ft^3 ; slug/ft^3 o Specific weight­ (γ) gamma=weight per unit volume  N/m^3; lbf/ft^3  Relationship of specific weight o Specific gravity­ no units o Bulk modulus  K (kPa, psi)  K=­ ΔP/(ΔV/V) - Statics o Hydrostatic pressure  The deeper you go the more pressure you feel  The weight of a fluid pressing down o Total pressure Solids­ Molecules arranged in crystals Liquids­ Incompressible - volume assume it to be constant Gas­ very compressible - expands to fill a containment volume (no free surface) - Vapor – gas that is near the liquid phase - ENGR 103 Lecture 19 Resistance- the ability of an object to restrict or resist the flow of electrons in an electrical circuit - measured in ohms (Ω) Resistor- the circuit element responsible for restricting the flow of electrons - absorb energy from the electrons and dissipate it as heat - since there is a transfer of energy through a resistor, this means a difference in energy levels occur across the resistor constituting a voltage Ohms’s Law - Math: V = IR= 1 volt is equal to 1 ohm multiplied by the current (I) o Also one ohm= 1 volt divided by 1 Amp (I) - Passive sign convention must always be applied ; there for resistance is always positive - Circuit elements can be connected together in either a series or parallel way Series: elements in a series form a connection from end to end (like a train) - N number of Resistors in series can be combined to create a single equivalent resistance o Req Series= R1+R2+R3+…+RN - The current through each resistor is the Same o Iseries= I1=I2=I3=..,=IN - The total voltage drop across the equivalent resistance is equal to the sum of all individual resistor voltage drops o V series= V1+V2+V3…+VN Parallel Resistance= elements connect across each other like rungs of a ladder. - N number of resistors in parallel can be combined to create a single equivalent resistance o 1/ Req par. = 1/R1+1/R2+…+1/RN - Voltage across each resistor is the same o VPar= V1=V2=V3=…=VN - The total current passint through the equivalent resistance = sum of individual resistor currents o Itotal= I1+I2+I3+…+IN o ENGR 103- 004 Lecture 24 3D Vectors Position 2D vectors= r= (x -X )iH(yT-y )j=Hr T TH Expressing 3D vectors Cartesian= v= v i+v j+v k x y z Always use right hand coordinate system Polar = v=|v|(cos θxi + cos θyj+ cos θzk) Unit vector= v= (v i+v j+v k)/ 2 2 2 x y z √ vxi +vy j +vzk Direction cosines satisfy cos^2θx+ cos^2θy +cos^2θz=1 ENGR 103 Notes 9/21 Heat engines Heat flows from hot to cold 1 law of thermodynamics Q in +out out - W outs useful work - Qoutis wasted energy so why do we have it ? o IT keeps the flow from high energy to low energy; without Qout there is no work, and the system isn’t functional because there is no temperature difference 2nd law of thermodynamics - Energy conversions naturally occur in one direction from higher quantity to lower quantity - 2nd law of thermodynamics Heat engines - a device that converts heat to work Thermal energy reservoir - a body with a very large thermal capacity; it can supply or receive large amount s of thermal energy without experiencing any change in temperature - Common thermal energy reservoirs o large bodies of water Efficiency- an engineering quantity that is used to measure the performance of a system (usually as a percent) n= desiredoutput requiredinput For a heat engine= nth= Wout/Qin Qin = Qout+Wout arrow Wout= Qin-Qout Qin−Qout Qout Nth= = 1- Qin Qin Qout TL For an ideal heat engine: Qin = TH Karno efficiency= maximum efficiency= 1-TL/TH - when using equation we need to have the Temperature converted to K or R - (Absolute temperature systems not relative) (TL= the “sink” the low temperature of the system) (TH= the “source” the high temperature of the system) Why can’t a heat engine be 100% efficient- because the low can never be 0, and the high can never be infinity. Power Power = Energy per unit time = P= E/t - SI unit is 1 Watt = 1 Joule per second - 1W=1J/s Problem 1. 1) Find gravitational Work= Wg = m g z a. M= 75, z =15 ft= 4.572, g= 9.81 m/s^2 b. Wg = 3,363.8 J 2) Find Power output Required: P= E/t a. E=Wg=3,363.8J and t= 30.1s b. Pout= 111.76W 3) Find power input required= Pout=n*Pinput Problem 2 1) n= desired out/ required in= PWout/PQin= 4MW/9MW=0.4444= 44.4% Qin=Qout+Wout t Problem 3 1. Given a. Qin= 25MW b. Source= 400 C c. Qout= 15 MW d. Sink= 30 C 2. Power out ? 3. Solution a. 400C= K+273 i. K= 127 b. 30C=K+273 i. K= -147 c. Pwout=pqin-pqout= 25-15=10…. ENGR 103- Lecture 21 KCL KVL Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law (KVL) - A loop is any closed path in an electrical circuit - The algebraic sum of all voltage drops in any and all loops are zero Resistors in series can be combined into a single equivalent resistance Voltage in series are added together to get total Current in series is constant Kirchhoff’s Current Law - the algebraic sum of all currents entering the node is zero Resistors in parallel can be combined into a single equivalent resistance Voltage in parallel is constant Individual Currents are added together to get total Simple circuits- most of the time- little or no extra info is given ENGR 103­004 Day 27 Dot Product Position vector= (xi+yj+zk) Unit vector= if mag of v = m then (x/m i+y/m j+ z/m k) Force vecor= f(x/m i+y/m j+ z/m k) Dot product= A . B = |A| |B| cos θ = AxBx +AyBy+AzBz 0< θ< 180 0< θ< 90 then A . B = positive  θ = 90 then A . B = 0  90< θ< 180 then A . B = negative  A . B= B . A S (A.B)= (sA).B = A. (sB) (A+B).C= (A.C)+(B.C) - ENGR 103-004 Lecture 25 Vector Addition and Subtraction Properties - if there are two angles and one is facing the opposite direction, then choose one to be positive and the other two be negative, then add the two together. -Vector subtraction is vector addition, just with one number being negative - vector addition using the cartesion components 1. choose your coordinate plane 2. separate vectors into x and y components 3. add all the x components 4. add all the y- direction components For the parallelogram method (R) the resulting vector= F1 +F2 ENGR 103-004 Lecture 23 Vectors Scalar- a quantity characterized by one number (magnitude) - Ex. Length, mass, time, temp, speed, density, volume, energy, work, resistance Vector- a quantity with both magnitude (size) and direction - Ex. Force, pressure, stress, velocity, acceleration, momentum, impulse - Position vector- location relative to coordinate plane - Displacement- change in location relative to coordinate system - Velocity- speed in a defined direction (speed + direction) - Weight (force of gravity)- mass in a gravitational field - Magnetic Force= strength of field and direction - Vector nomenclature - - - Write the unit vector in the direction of OA = - 2 ways of expressing a vector o Cartesian Form  Vector is described as the sum of its vector components (x,y,z)= <i,j,k>  o Polar Form  Vector is described by is magnitude and angle formed with the x- axis   Vector components   Trig= SohCahToa  Sin θ= opposite side/hypotenuse  Cos θ= adjacent side/hypotenuse  Tan θ= opposite side/hypotenuse  Magnitude of the vector = side (x or y) * trig angle between  X- component= R(magnitude)*cos θ  Y- component= R(magnitude)*sin θ  Conversions between nomenclature - Unit vector= dimensionless vector that has a unit magnitude (vector=1) Engr 103 Freebody diagram Newton’s first law - an object in motion stays in motion, an object at rest stays at rest - sum of F in x direction+ sum of F in y direction = 0 - Sum of Fx= 0 - Sum of Fy=0 - Newton’s second law F= ma Newton’s third law - for every reaction there is an equal and opposite reaction - statics- a ball rests on the ground: the ball’s Force of gravity is down at the same magnitude of Force normal up. - Dynamics Free body diagram- - isolate a body/ combination of bodies - identify all external forces acting on the body o no external forces o direction is important - replace physical contacts with equivalent forces ENGR 103 Vectors- Cross product Day 28 Vector Cross product is used to find a) the direction perpendicular to a plane with 2 vectors (direction normal) and b) the moment produced by a force (torque). Cross product between Vectors A and B = A x B= (|A||B|sinθ)u Θ= the angle between lines of vectors A and B. (0 < θ < 180) u= unit vector normal (perpendicular) to the plane containing A and B the cross product results in the creation of a new vector the cross product is also called the vector product A x B= -B x A S(Axb) = (sA)xB=Ax(sb) (A+B)xC=(AxC)+(BxC) Determine the direction perpendicular to a plane (Normal Direction) (Direction C) with C = AxB The unit vector u = C/ |C| Fluid Mechanics - Involve fluids at rest and in motion - Types include both liquids and gases - Branches o Fluid statics­ Fluids at rest  Fluids at a dam (sometimes) o Fluid Kinematics­ Velocities and streamlines  ­ Jets and cars o Fluid Dynamics­ velocity and acceleration forces  As the jet is taking off­­how the fluids act o Classical hydrodynamics  Very math based - Applies to all engineering disciplines o Aerospace­ wind tunnels (gas) o Civil – dams o Chemical­ medicine/ blood circulation o Electrical­ design of control for fluid applications o Mechanicals­ Wind turbines, Hydraulic Systems o Computer Science­ fluid mechanics are computationally intensive - Fluid definition: o A fluid is both a liquid and a gas meaning it has the properties of a  liquid or a gas  Ex: takes the shape of it’s container (L and G); has a fixed  volume (L)… o Randomly arranged molecules held together by weak cohesive  forces o Fluids flow under minimum stress and continue to flow as long as  stress is present  - Properties o Density  ρ (Rho)­ Mass per unit volume = m/V  common units= kg/m^3 ; g/cm^3 ; 1bm/ft^3 ; slug/ft^3 o Specific weight­ (γ) gamma=weight per unit volume  N/m^3; lbf/ft^3  Relationship of specific weight o Specific gravity­ no units o Bulk modulus  K (kPa, psi)  K=­ ΔP/(ΔV/V) - Statics o Hydrostatic pressure  The deeper you go the more pressure you feel  The weight of a fluid pressing down o Total pressure Solids­ Molecules arranged in crystals Liquids­ Incompressible - volume assume it to be constant Gas­ very compressible - expands to fill a containment volume (no free surface) - Vapor – gas that is near the liquid phase - Experiment 9.1 Part A What is the role of fluorescein and rhodamine B in Experiment 9? Answer in one word. Sensitizers Experiment 9.2 Part A Find the MSDS's on the Internet for 30% hydrogen peroxide, dichloromethane, and oxalyl  chloride. What hazards do they represent? ANSWER: Essay answers are limited to about 500 words (3800 characters maximum, including  spaces). 3785 Character(s) remaining 30% Hydrogen Peroxide­ Strong oxidizer. Contact with other material may cause  a fire. Harmful if inhaled. Corrosive. Causes eye and skins burns. May cause  severe respiratory tract irritation with possible burns. May cause severe digestive tract irritation with possible burns.  Dichloromethane­ Harmful if swallowed or inhaled. May be harmful by skin  contact. Eye and skin irritant. Readily absorbed through through the skin.  Asphyxiant. Causes CNS depression. Possibly carcinogenic in humans. Possible mutagen. Experimental reproductive effects. Oxalyl chloride­ lachtymator, corrosive, posion by ingestion, and possible cancer  hazard. Experiment 9.3 Part A What parts of Experiment 9 require the use of a hood? ANSWER: Essay answers are limited to about 500 words (3800 characters maximum, including  spaces). 3785 Character(s) remaining All parts that utilize oxalyl chloride require the use of a hood.    Experiment 9.5 Part A When performing today’s experiment, your lab partner decides to add all the reagents into one  beaker instead of two separate beakers. After adding everything together and waiting a significant amount of time, you see no reaction occur. What was the problem? ANSWER: Essay answers are limited to about 500 words (3800 characters maximum, including  spaces). 3785 Character(s) remaining   The reaction was occurring as you were adding your reagents, resulting in little or no  chemiluminescence. The reaction couldnt take place, as opposed to combining two  seperate beakers containing halves and having a strong luminscence. I would guess that the surface area of the reactants (which are supposed to be mixed) are  completely separated from each other. So that would mean the reactants that are actually touching are non­reactive. Experiment 9.7 ­ Copy Part A Explain when quenching occurs in a chemiluminescence reaction. ANSWER: Essay answers are limited to about 500 words (3800 characters maximum, including  spaces). 3785 Character(s) remaining   1. Chemical reactions using synthetic compounds and usually involving a highly  oxidized species such as a peroxide are commonly termed chemiluminescent  reactions. 2. Light­emitting reactions arising from a living organism, such as the firefly or  jellyfish, are commonly termed bioluminescent reactions. 3. Light­emitting reactions which take place by the use of electrical current are  designated electrochemiluminescent reactions. When electronically excited molecules return to a lower energy state, they emit a  radiation. This radiation is known as Chemiluminiscence. Sometimes the excited molecule does not give out radiation. It returns to a lower energy  state/ loses energy by colliding with another molecule. Such a loss of energy occurs  without the emission of radiation. This process is known as Quenching. The collision is  known as quenching collision.

×

×

### BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.

×

### You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

## Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

#### "I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Kyle Maynard Purdue

#### "When you're taking detailed notes and trying to help everyone else out in the class, it really helps you learn and understand the material...plus I made \$280 on my first study guide!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

Forbes

#### "Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over \$1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!
×

### Refund Policy

#### STUDYSOUP CANCELLATION POLICY

All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email support@studysoup.com

#### STUDYSOUP REFUND POLICY

StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here: support@studysoup.com

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to support@studysoup.com

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.