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Phi2630 Notes: 1/12-1/21

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by: Elizabeth Notetaker

Phi2630 Notes: 1/12-1/21 PHI2630

Elizabeth Notetaker
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These are all the notes from 1/12-1/21
Ethical Issues and Life Choices
Marcela Herdova
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"You can bet I'll be grabbing Elizabeth studyguide for finals. Couldn't have made it this week without your help!"
Turner Kautzer III

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This 4 page Bundle was uploaded by Elizabeth Notetaker on Saturday January 23, 2016. The Bundle belongs to PHI2630 at Florida State University taught by Marcela Herdova in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 219 views. For similar materials see Ethical Issues and Life Choices in PHIL-Philosophy at Florida State University.

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Date Created: 01/23/16
PHI2630: Reasoning Errors 1/12/16  Ethics: The role of ethics is to figure out which actions are right and which are wrong  from a moral standpoint.  NOT SUBJECTIVE  Ethical Views properly justified or supported:  Incorporate available evidence/empirical research  Based on arguments  Consistent (no contradictions)  NOT based on  Biases  Knew­jerk immediate reactions  Emotions  Hunches  Peer pressure, superstition, wishful thinking  Moral Dumbfounding: When our views on moral issues are based on gut/instinct  reactions (often disgust)  Without able to give reasons or arguments in support of our judgments  Emotions like disgust are in no way indicative whether something is moral or  immoral 1/14/16  What do the following statements have in common?  All appeal to what the majority of people believe and base what should happen/is  moral/justifiable on the majority opinion.  This is the fallacy of the Majority Belief. This is a fallacy­ ex. Slavery, women’s  rights, Sun orbits around the Earth.  The Fallacy of Common Practice: Proceeds from a statement about what most (Many)  people typically do to the conclusion that it is the right thing to do. (A)Most people lie to their friends, so that makes it an okay thing to do. (B)Many parents use physical punishment on their children, and so using physical  punishment by parents is justified. Not convinced this is a fallacy? Other examples are cigarette smoking, child labour, etc. MORALITY IS NOT DETERMINED BY MAJORITYOPINION/PRACTICE! Types of Fallacies/Reasoning Errors: Appeal to (False) Authority (video) Child told everything in the textbook is correct/ what the teacher says. Not true because written  sources could be wrong. Ex. Tom Cruise (actor) has very strong views on psychiatry medication (they shouldn’t be used  at all). It could be true that some of these medications might not be good for a person, but you  can’t say ALL are bad because Tom Cruise said so because he isn’t a trained doctor. You could  take his word on acting advice since that is his area of expertise.  Einstein “We should not wage wars” False Dilemma (video) “Either you let me do what I want or you’re a bad father” range of options in between that are  more reasonable.  Ex. Gun control: I support the use of gun control, or you want innocent kids to be dying. Its not  fair that one makes it either/or.  Either you are against gun control or you are for the government controlling our entire lives.  Slippery Slope (video) Commercial, super exaggerated, if you don’t get direct TV all these bad things will happen to  you and you’ll end up in a ditch. You proceed from something happening to lots of other bad  things happening and there is no relevant connection between all the things. All of these bad  things will follow if the first thing happens. Ex. Legalizing drugs, marijuana then everyone will use it and drop out of school/work, and then  coke and heorione and the whole country will be ruined.  Ex. Supreme court allows same sex marriage, then allow people to marry pets, siblings,  appliances etc. Arguments are wrong to claim that these things are related.   Ad Hominem / Ad Hominem  circumstantial  (video) SNL: other person is going to Iraq because he has someone in the oil industry that he wants to  meet with Attacking the person instead of the argument, focus on the person  Ex. Political debates, don’t engage in argument, just attack the person.  Or don’t attack the person but their circumstances/character (stereotypes/racist) Like not listening to a priest talking about abortion. Can’t just assume things.  Practice ­False Dilemma: you either support pres or you hate America ­The Fallacy of Majority Belief: Daniel is guilty because everyone thinks he is ­The Slippery Slope Belief: Bans on weapons..go after handguns..shotguns...hunting  rifles..citizens will be defenseless ­ Ad Hominem: Charles Darwin opposed to death penalty, we should get rid of it.  HF: Andrew HFC: Susan, arrested twice 1/19/16  More reasoning Errors/Fallacies  Conflation of Morality with Legality  Something is illegal? Its immoral!  Something is legal? Its moral  Something is immoral? It should be illegal!  Something is moral? It should be lega!  Most Hoc Ergo Propter Hoc  Friends: you show up; the fridge breaks so its your fault Ex. Because we introduce the death penalty, the crime rate fell (not accurate)  Mistaking Correlation for Causation  two things correlate, they happen to appear at the same time­ believe that one of the  things caused the other  Hasty Generalization Fallacy  Make a judgment from a small sample about an entire group Ex. Islam and ISIS­ only a tiny fraction caused terrorism problems  The Perfectionist Fallacy ­ Its not perfect so it doesn’t solve anything so its no good Ex. No point in having background checks on guns because this wont reduce the crime  rate and not prevent everyone from getting a gun Ex. There’s no point of giving money to charity because even if everyone does, there  wont be enough to feed every hungry person, etc.  Straw Man ­ Ignore the real argument ­ Create a pretend argument ­ Defeat the pretend argument ­ Claim victory over the real argument ­ Do a victory dance Ex. Assisted suicide   Reasoning Errors on Test #1  Some reasoning error questions. Demonstrate knowledge of these errors (explain  what they are), provide examples of these errors and identify reasoning errors  Learn/give right examples  Explain in a few sentences what the different fallacies are   Paper we did in class  Normative Ethics ­ The branch of ethics concerned with giving a general account of what is right and wrong. ­ A Normative theory will fill in this biconditional: An action A is right/wrong if and only if _______  Some leading moral theories  Consequentialism (Results­based ethical theory) ­ An action is right if and only if (and because) its consequences would be at least as good  as the consequences of any alternative action that the agents might instead perform (6­7) ­ We can determine rightness or wrongness of doing something solely by looking at the  consequences cause by the action. ­ This means that no type of action is inherently wrong­not even murder. 1/21/16  Consequentialism (Results­based ethical theory): an action is right just in case it has the best consequences ­ Value Based ­ Maximizing ­ Alternative actions ­ Comparative ­ Impartial ­ Short term AND long term consequences  One prominent version of consequentialism: Utilitarianism ­ Maximizing happiness and welfare ­ The rightness or wrongness of actions depends entirely on how they affect welfare or  happiness  Hedonistic Utilitarianism (Bentham, Mill): Pleasure is the only thing that is valuable  Universalism: the consequences for every being (including non­human animals) at  every time are relevant  Trolley Problems ­ Version 1­ Should Flanders pull the lever to switch the trolley to save the Griffins and  direct the train towards Homer instead?   Rule Consequentialism ­ An action is right if it is in accord with that set of rules the (near) universal acceptance of  which would make things go best ­ Act consequentialism and rule consequentialism might give us different results in the  same situation Ex. Stealing, making a promise to someone


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