Class Notes for Entire Semester!
Class Notes for Entire Semester! ANTH 110 - 007
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ANTH 110 - 007
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ANTH 110 - 007
verified elite notetaker
ECN 222 - 005
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verified elite notetaker
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Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr
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Exam: 09/28 Rachel Klein Intro, Evolution, Natural Selection I. Anthropology a. Four subfields: cultural, linguistic, biological, and archeological b. Culture- learned, shared ideas; same outlook/perspective on world i. Affects all 4 areas ii. Enculturation- process of forming a culture iii. Strategies that humans use to adapt to their natural environment: 1. Technologies, housing types, religion, gender roles, subsistence patterns (how you get food), clothing, values, marriage/family iv. Biocultural Evolution 1. Biology makes culture possible 2. Developing culture further influences direction of biological evolution 3. Biocultural interactions anatomical, biological, behavioral changes 4. Ex) tools dependent on cranial capacity, hand dexterity, tools more meat = more protein brain/body growth biology affected c. What is anthropology? i. “Field of inquiry that studies human culture and evolutionary aspects of human biology” – what it means to be human II. Cultural- behaviors and ideas a. Goal: seek to know about peoples b. Scientific approach: participant observation (fieldwork) i. Immerse yourself in culture, participating, hold back slightly- what makes this different from other social sciences ii. Participating + observing = better sense of culture, greater insight c. Ethnography: detailed descriptive studies of human societies, result of studies III. Linguistics- communication a. Goal: study the origin of language and speech b. Words in a language- c. How language reflects culture: amount of words per culture i. Example- white stuff falling from the sky: snow, sleet, flurries, blizzard; not important part of culture- some cultures have 100s of synonyms for it- important to their culture show how it affects culture (ex- money) d. Slang and dialect- reflect emphasis within different cultures e. Regional variation IV. Archaeology- stuff a. Considers material culture- comes from artifacts left behind b. Reconstruct past; interpret significance of the artifacts c. Scientific approach: excavation (field work) 1 Exam: 09/28 Rachel Klein Intro, Evolution, Natural Selection i. Animal skeletons, tools, weapons, resources, artwork, pottery, etc. d. Historic (100-150 yrs.) or prehistoric V. Biological (physical)- history of “us” a. Social sciences (cultural and archeology) + biological sciences (genetics, evolution, human biology) = physical and biological anthropology b. Broken up into: primate, skeletal, human variation, paleoanthropology c. Shows i. How human populations vary (skin color, hair color, etc.) ii. How past populations have evolved iii. That modern human populations are evolving VI. Evolution a. Evolution: change in genetic makeup of a population from one generation to next b. Microevolution: genetic alterations within populations (mutations, gene flow, genetic drift, and natural selection) c. Macroevolution: genetic change resulting in the appearance of a new species- happens over MANY generations VII. Charles Darwin (1809-1882) a. At Edinburgh and Cambridge, exposed to Larmack and others b. On the Origin of Species by means of Natural Selection, 1859 c. Species could change- weren’t fixed i. Evolved from other species through mechanism of natural selection VIII. Alfred Russell Wallace (1823-1913) a. On the tendency of varieties to depart indefinitely from the original type b. Went on multi-year voyage, collect selections of plants/animals- naturalist i. Began to notice similarities/differences among animals ii. Waited several decades to write on it IX. “Story of Evolution” a. Europe in 1800s- no one believed in evolution, extinction, etc. b. Very strict social hierarchy system- then people realized Earth wasn’t center & more worldly exploration (?) X. Early influences of Wallace and Darwin: a. John Ray (1627-1705) i. Introduced definition of species, reproductively isolated meaning that certain animals can reproduce only with certain animals, and genus b. Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778) i. Developed taxonomy, system of classification; binomial nomenclature 2 Exam: 09/28 Rachel Klein Intro, Evolution, Natural Selection ii. Didn’t go over well- humans considered to be so far above animals/plants- this sort of equalized them c. Georges-Louis Leclerc Comte de Buffon (1707-1788) i. Recognized there was a link between living creatures & environment- began to show selection d. Baron Georges Cuvier (1769-1832) i. Catastrophism: theory that allowed understanding/acceptance of fossil; tremendous catastrophe end of survival of that species- current living creatures result of following genesis e. Erasmus Darwin (1731-1802) i. Life began in ocean, all species descend from common ancestor ii. Time + competition + environment (Buffon) variance iii. Grandfather of Charles f. Charles Lyell (1797-1875) i. Deep time; antiquity ii. Climate, plants, animals, land- change over time; underlying influences same iii. Wind, water erosion, local flooding, frost, decomposition, volcanoes, earthquakes, glaciers what we see today iv. Uniformitarianism- uniform processes over time, natural processes that bring about nature of landscape have always been at work v. But this would take a lot of time idea that earth is extremely old g. Jean-Baptise Lamarck (1744-1829) i. Theory of Acquired Characteristics or Use/Disuse 1. Use: passed on; disuse: not passed on ii. Animals accommodate to environmental changes iii. Changes made in one lifetime are passed on to offspring (only genetics) iv. More of an educated guess than a study, factual; still revolutionary v. Lamarck’s Giraffes: when no leaves were in lower parts of trees, giraffes would stretch to reach higher into trees for food- their necks would grow; “fluids” in system allow neck to elongate, this process happens several times over life- pass longer neck to offspring 1. Problem: sex cells aren’t affected by neck stretching h. Thomas Malthus i. An Essay of the Principle of Population ii. He’s an economist who wrote about population size iii. What limits population growth 1. Tendency for population to grow 2. Held back my limited resources XI. Natural Selection 3 Exam: 09/28 Rachel Klein Intro, Evolution, Natural Selection environment uses selective force individuals make up a population •Why we that vary in inherited characteristics need genetic variation some individuals have higher reproductive success than others •Allele changes in genetic proportions of frequency individuals in population a. Reference pages: pg. 40, 41 b. Only traits that can be passed one from one generation to the next XII. DNA a. Remember: genetic variation = natural selection, mutation, gene flow, genetic drift b. Gene: segment of DNA that produces a protein c. mt DNA: mitochondrial DNA, comes completely from mother d. Nuclear DNA: mother + father e. Watson & Crick, Wilkins, and Franklin- structure of DNA f. Structure of DNA i. 2 chains of nucleotides consisting of a sugar, phosphate, & nitrogenous base ii. Allows for replication (which promotes growth) g. Two main forms of reproduction/replication (page 53 vocab) i. Mitosis: body cells (somatic), makes 2 identical copies ii. Meiosis: sex cells, produces gametes with ½ number of chromosomes, not genetically identical, critical for species survival h. Main function: directs protein synthesis i. Protein is major structural components of tissue 1. Collagen in connective tissue (blood, cartilage, bone, fats) 2. Hemoglobin ii. Occurs at ribosome iii. Converts genetic code into proteins 1. DNA mRNA and goes to ribosome (photocopy of DNA) 2. Codon in mRNA meets anticodons in tRNA (TAC AUG) a. Amino acids released = proteins b. Polypeptide chain formed c. Page 50- table of amino acids; page 57- breaks down process i. Anthropological perspective of DNA 4 Exam: 09/28 Rachel Klein Intro, Evolution, Natural Selection i. Use sequence variations to look at where genes come from/inheritance ii. Can identify human populations and track migrations, estimate whether populations intermixed (hundreds of thousands of years ago) j. 3 Types of Genes i. Structural: attribute to person’s shape/size; produce proteins responsible for morphology/traits ii. Regulatory: regulate big changes, power switch for some other genes; control timing of development, critical for development (e.g. puberty) iii. Homeobox: only turned on in utero, embryological development k. Cell = 23 pairs of chromosomes = “coiled material” histones = DNA molecules i. Autosome, first 22; sex cell, last 1 (XX, XY) ii. Karyotype XIII. Mendelian Genetics: Laws of Inheritance a. 4,5000+ human traits are known to be inherited = simple/discrete/Mendelian traits i. Found on one spot on one chromosome; seen on karyotype ii. Since one spot = not lots of variation iii. Ex of Mendelian is rolled tongue iv. Ex of not Mendelian is height, several different options b. Genetic locus- specific place c. Two alleles: alternate form of gene; one from each sex cell d. Three genotypes: homozygous dominant, homozygous recessive, heterozygous e. Two phenotypes: physical, outward features f. Punnett square (Tt x Tt) g. Mendel’s peas: seed shape, seed color, pod shape, pod color, flower color, etc. h. Mendel’s Postulates: two basic laws of inheritance i. Law of Segregation: during formation of gametes (meiosis), paired alleles separate/segregate randomly so that each sex cell receives one or the other with equal likelihood; two alleles separate into different gametes during meiosis such that each gamete has only one of the pair ii. Law of Independent Assortment: during gamete formation (meiosis), segregating pairs of alleles sort independently of each other i. Polygenic Inheritance- not Mendelian (pg. 83) i. Continuous traits, produced by a network of genes; more complex ii. Governed by alleles at two or more loci iii. Each locus has some influence on phenotype 5 Exam: 09/28 Rachel Klein Intro, Evolution, Natural Selection iv. Skin color, eye color, height, etc. v. Graph: standard deviation, majority along mean vi. Can also be affected by environment 1. Ex) high cholesterol; not limited to conditions/diseases j. Codominance- not Mendelian i. Variations on standard inheritance patterns for MENDELIAN traits ii. 2 alleles have interaction; one does not hide action of the other (heterozyg) iii. Example: ABO blood group, 3 alleles exist, you only have 2, genotype does not equal blood type. AB is codominant iv. Heterozygote does not equal dominant trait; unique phenotype k. Incomplete Dominance- not Mendelian i. Heterozygote is intermediate phenotype ii. Heterozygote does not equal dominant trait iii. Example: color of dragon plant, Red and White make Pink offspring iv. Example: hair “form,” wavy hair = heterozygous, curly and straight dominant l. Sex Linked Traits i. ** Males are hemizygous because they cannot have two alleles for some genes, they have an X and a Y with different loci ii. Carrier Female = X X crossed with Unaffected male =XY. Son has it with X Y = hemizygous while female with X Y is carrier. XIV. How environment can work with variation a. Phenotypic Variation i. Produced by a number of mechanisms: internal + external ii. Genes are hard coded work with your environment iii. Phenotype = result of physiology (like a software) interacting w environment iv. Explains the physical differences between identical twins b. Genetic Drift (micro-evolutionary force) i. In genetic pool, mutation “faucet” is acting on pool- so is natural selection “leak on bottom of pool.” Idea: stable situation with variation coming in/out. Take away the “leak” and there’s tons of new variation: not all is helpful. New population breaks off and changes allele frequency of population. Smaller population = same ancestry. Also aren’t multiple copies of genes, so if one person holding one gene dies, it’s all gone; can work other way. ii. Greater impact when population i2 small 2 iii. Formula for allele frequency: P +2pq+q =1 1. Change in allele frequency = E, frequency of dominant allele = p, frequency of recessive allele = q 6 Exam: 09/28 Rachel Klein Intro, Evolution, Natural Selection 2. P is frequency od homozygous dominant 3. 2pq is number of heterozygous 2 4. Q is frequency of homozygous recessive 5. Formula came from Hardy and Weinberg 6. Allows us to see microevolution iv. What effects change of genetic drift? 1. Population size and varied parental population 2. Experiences “bottlenecking” event- population& variation decrease 3. The Serial Founders Effect- makes population less diverse; example: Amish only breed with each other 4. More variation between populations = less variation within pop. 5. Speciation = process of new species; aka. Macroevolution, occurs through time and isolation 7 TEST WEDNESDAY 10/21 Rachel Klein Primates I. Primatology a. Def: Study of anatomical similarities between species; study of primate behaviors b. Primate Adaptation i. Primate’s anatomical traits evolved as adaptations to environment c. What pushed evolution of primates? 3 theories i. Arboreal Hypothesis- adapted to tree-dwelling lifestyle ii. Visual Predation Hypothesis- being able to see predators iii. Angiosperm Radiation Hypothesis- availability of plant based resources- eating/diet II. Evolutionary Trends a. Characterize the order, Primates b. These trends are expressed along a continuum and are not equally expressed in every species: allows an ape to be distinguished from a tiny, rat monkey c. Locomotor Trends i. Generalized skeleton 1. Quadrupeds vs. bipedalism ii. Manual facility of hands: grasping capabilities 1. Opposability (bending in thumb) vs. prehensility (grasping) iii. Pentadactyl (5 digits), nails, tactile acuity 1. Nails as opposed to claws 2. Tactile pads on the other side of digits iv. Tendency to erect posture 1. All primates do to some degree 2. During sitting, leaping, standing, walking v. Clavicular retention 1. Keeps shoulder to the side (in all primates) 2. Helps with shoulder mobility d. Dietary and Dental Trends i. Generalized dental pattern 1. 4 basic types: incisors, canines, premolars, molars 2. Ratio = incisors: canines: premolars: molars ii. Often times omnivorous, depends on whether or not teeth are specialized to be something more specific; omnivory is a generalized condition iii. Occlusal: the surface of a tooth that comes in contact with food 1. Really big on molar, smaller on premolars, canines, and incisors iv. Many primates are omnivorous e. Sensory Trends i. Touch: already covered in locomotor ii. Smell 1 TEST WEDNESDAY 10/21 Rachel Klein Primates 1. Reduced (compared to mammals), but does vary 2. Shortened snout- changes structure of skull, face more underneath brain- more variation in movement of eyeball: more visual sensation 3. Like a trade off- less smell for better sight 4. Less smell = more sight; vice versa iii. Sight 1. Enhanced in primates 2. Vision areas of brain more developed a. Overlapping field of view = binocular stereoscopic 3. Primates have binocular stereoscopic vision 4. Present in comparison of skulls 5. 3 types of sight: Trichromatic- apes and old world monkeys, Dichromatic, Monochromatic in nocturnal (pg. 132) a. Estrus (old world monkeys): change in color in females that signifies fertility (during ovulation) b. Colored vision also helps with food 6. Skulls: forward facing eyes & postorbital bar (hold/protect eyes) a. Postorbital closure: solid bone behind eyeball III. Social Life History a. All life stages extended i. Fetal through life span b. K selection: long period of infant dependency called altrical i. In comparison to precocial ii. Dependency on learned behavior iii. Parents are very invested in kids, fewer offspring = higher probability survival iv. Primarily single offspring per birth CLASSIFICATION I. Suborders of Primates: Haplorrhines and Strepsirhines a. Haplorrhines- “simple nose” i. Tarsiers, new world monkeys, old world monkeys, apes ii. “Loose” upper lip iii. Uterine supply different (blood during uterine development) iv. Postorbital closure v. Use social system to work instead of having innate features: grooming vi. Sexual dimorphism: males are bigger than females (anthropides) b. Strepsirhines – “bent nose” i. Lemurs and Lorises ii. Rhinarium: wet nose, helps smell better iii. “Mounted” upper lip to gum line 2 TEST WEDNESDAY 10/21 Rachel Klein Primates iv. Tapetum lucidum present to help with night vision (mirror behind eyes) v. Uterine supply different (blood during uterine development) vi. Postorbital bar vii. Metopic suture (f) and unfused symphysis (c)- bone structure; left and right forehead and left and right “chin” viii. Toothcomb- helps with combing mantles, incisors stick out ix. Grooming claw- can also work as comb II. Infraorder of Streps: Lemurs a. Super family: lemurs i. Found only on island od Madagascar, extinct everywhere else ii. Large lemurs (size of cats) are diurnal; eat vegetables, fruit, leaves, buds, and bark 1. Example: ring tailed lemurs, live in groups iii. Smaller lemurs are nocturnal and insectivorous (eat insects) b. Super family: lorises; GIANT EYES i. In tropical forests and woodlands of India, Sri Lanka, SE Asia, & Africa ii. Nocturnal, arboreal quadrupeds (size legs = arms), insectivorous, some eat fruit leaves gums or slugs iii. Solitary social group III. Infraorder of Haplorrhines: Tarsiers a. Found in SE Asia, insectivorous b. Nocturnal, leapers and climbers, highly specialized, closely related to monkeys and apes; giant eyes (bigger than brain) c. Tarsels: unique bones in ankles (hence name) IV. Infraorder of Haplorrhines: Anthropides (monkeys) a. Parvorder of Anthropides: Platyrhini (New World Monkey) i. Tropical South America ii. See nostrils; flattered iii. Have extra pre-molar (3) iv. Some have prehensile tail (grasping) b. Parvorder of Anthropides: Catarhine (Old World Monkey) i. Africa, India ii. Downward nostrils iii. 2 premolars iv. Non-grasping tails v. Ischial callosities: callus on part of backside that is near ischium like bottom of feet; allows for easier sitting in hot Savannah vi. 2 groups: arboreal: leaf-eaters, columbines and cheek- pouched monkey V. Superfamily of Catarhini: Hominoids (apes and humans) a. Distinguishing physical characteristics: larger body size, absence of tail, short trunk 3 TEST WEDNESDAY 10/21 Rachel Klein Primates b. More complex behavior, more complex brain, increased period of development c. Hominidae: greater apes i. Gorillas (Africa) 1. Dominant gorillas have a silverback 2. Knuckle-walking quadrupeds 3. Uni-male social groups, several females ii. Chimpanzees and Bonobos (Africa) called Hominae 1. Multi-male, multi-female social groups 2. Humans are also hominae iii. Orangutans (SE Asia) 1. Solitary social group (like lorises); dominant male for single mothers with children- don’t live together d. Hylobats: lesser apes i. Gibbons and Siamangs (SE Asia) 1. Least like humans 2. Monogamous social groups: nuclear family (mom, dad, kids) Chapter 7 I. Primate Behavior a. Factors that influence social structure: diet, distribution of resources, life history traits, gestation, lifespan, disperse, philopatric b. Uni-male group c. Solitary group d. Multi-male, multi-female e. Monogamous f. Poly-andry g. Trade off: by yourself- easier to find food and in charge of yourself, in group- protection and reproduction easier 4 Rachel Klein Geologic Time and Emergence of Primates GEOLOGIC TIME I. Eons a. Hadean: 4.5-4.1 Ga- first life appears b. Archean: 4.0-2.5 Ga- cellular life appears, continents stabilize c. Proterozoic: 2.5-0.65 Ga- multicellular life appears d. Phanerozoic: 500 Ma- present- terrestrial life appears II. Eras a. Paleozoic- all life firms exist in the oceans, insects and plants move onto land, earliest tetrapods move on land; 350 mya b. Mesozoic- age of the dinosaurs, 208 mya c. Cenozoic- starts with extinction of dinosaurs, 65 mya III. Continental Drift/Plate Tectonics a. Earth’s structure is covered by crustal fractures that are driven by delineate plates b. These plates are mobile- driven by internal processes of the Earth c. 7 supercontinents- form when continents converge; Pangea d. As continents change- so do land formations, weather, etc. Huge impact IV. 5 Major Extinctions of Life on Earth a. Ordovician- 50% families disappeared, water time b. Devonian- 30% families disappeared c. Permian- 60% families disappeared d. Triassic-35% families disappeared (mainly reptiles) e. Cretaceous- 50% families disappeared; 98-65 mya V. Periods a. Tertiary: 66-2.5 mya i. Dinosaurs have mostly disappeared ii. Mammals undergo huge expansion (adaptive radiation) – almost no predator iii. First primate fossils ~55 mya iv. Earth is extremely worm and forested v. Ocean circulation went East to West b. Quaternary: 2.5 mya – Now i. Ocean circulation goes North to South ii. Earth enters ice ages iii. Origin of genus Homo VI. Cenozoic Epochs- in order & significance a. Paleocene: divergence of first primates from grandorder Eurachonta; likely in Asia i. Molecular clock points to primate emergence 80-70 mya ii. Spread across Northern Hemisphere iii. First primate-like fossils around 55 mya iv. Example: Plesiadapiformes (sister to primates) 1. Europe and North America 1 Rachel Klein Geologic Time and Emergence of Primates 2. Squirrel like, large rodent-like incisors, no post-orbital structure, premolar and molar morphology primate-like; phylogeny unclear b. Eocene- split of Primates into adapoids and omomyoids i. Western North America and Western Europe connected by heavily forested land bridge at beginning of Eocene ii. Subtropical forests as far north as English Channel iii. Continental Drift begins to isolate Eurasian and North American populations iv. Eocene Radiation: massive radiation of land animals v. First tarsier and anthropoid fossils vi. Beginning of Primates of Modern Aspect (POMA) 1. Arboreal, frugivorous, vision > olfacation 2. Adapids: lemur-like, probably frugivorous/foliviorous, diurnal, large 3. Omomyids: haplorrhine-like, insectivorous/gumivorous, nocturnal, small c. Oligocene: divergence of catarrhines and platyrrhines i. Indian subcontinent collides with Asia ii. South America and Australia separate from Antarctica iii. Antarctica begins to glaciate and overall climate starts to cool iv. Large rafting events from Africa to South America v. Oligocene Radiation: cattarhines begin to diverge 1. Dental differences, proto-cercopithecines, hominoids eat more diversely, quadrupeds, arboreal, vi. Divergence of the Haplorrhines 1. Large movement of primates into North Africa 2. Eosimiids (early Anthropoids) diverge from Tarsiers about 45 mya 3. Anthropoid fossils found about 37 mya in Fayum Depression in Egypt a. Used to be wet and forest rather than desert 4. Playthrrhines and Catarrhines diverge after 35 mya vii. Apidium: 36-32 mya 1. First clear anthropoid ancestor 2. Existed prior to playthrrhine/catarrhine split (ancestor to both?) 3. Fused mandible, dental formula (2:1:3:3), large canines, post-orbital closure viii. Propliopithecus: 35-33 mya 1. Likely ancestor of catarrhines 2. Dental formula (2:1:2:3), molars have Y-5 pattern, fused mandible, diurnal, reduced canine size d. Miocene: divergence of cercopitheocoids and hominoids; 23-5.3 mya i. Continents roughly in current positions 2 Rachel Klein Geologic Time and Emergence of Primates ii. Arabia and Eurasian continent contact around 15 mya iii. Southern Eurasia becomes cooler and drier iv. Large faunal (animal) exchanges happen between Africa and Eurasia v. Proconsul: 20-17 mya 1. LCA of cercopitheocoids and hominoids 2. 3 species 3. Size: gibbon to orangutan; larger brain; ape-like dentition; monkey-like limbs; possibly lacking tails; eyes anteriorly placed (binocular) vi. Morotopithecus: 20-18 mya 1. East Central Africa 2. Existed before/near divergence of Great/Lesser Apes 3. Cranium similar to Procosul, post-cranium is ape-like, size of female chimp, short stiff waist (orthograde posture), derived scapular (shoulder blades) vii. Late Miocene Radaition: 17-16 mya 1. Rise of the apes 2. Wide-scale movement of hominoids out of Africa into Eurasia 3. Othrograde posture, thick enamel, non-interlocking canines, suspensory behavior viii. Hominoids of Modern Aspect (HOMA) 1. Dyropithecus: 12-8 mya a. Proconsul-like cranium, ape-like body: inflexible lumbar region, posteriorly placed scapulae, long arms, free rotation of arms in shoulder joint; brachiation and orthograde posture 2. Ouranopithecus: 11-9 mya a. Chimp-size, thick tooth enamel, no honing complex, strong sexual dimorphism, adapted to woodland environment, teeth suited for abrasive vegetation i. Honing complex: gap with canine; sharpening ix. Victoriapithecus: 15 mya 1. Southeast Africa 2. Sister taxon to Colobinae and Cercopithecinae 3. Shares some features with apes; eventually led to cercopithecines 4. Brain is small but complex; dental: 2:1:2:3; molars have distal transverse lophs- bilophodont (compared to Y-5) x. Sivapithecus: 12.7-8.5 mya 1. 2-4 orangutan-sized species, Pakistan-Indian border, thick tooth enamel (not direct line to orangutans) 3 Rachel Klein Geologic Time and Emergence of Primates 2. Relationship to Pongo unclear: face appears pongid, limbs are monkey-like xi. Miocene climate change 1. Miocene cooling happened 14-10 mya 2. Caused by: Antarctic glaciation, African collision with Eurasia, or formation of Himalayas 3. Resulted in: aridification, loss of forest, forest fragmentation, increase in grasslands/woodlands 4. Hominini and Panini diverge shortly after xii. Led to Bipedalism (not sure how) 1. Possibly developed before hominini/panini split; hominini is bipedal 2. First bipeds were likely semi-arboreal 3. Lots of diversity in early Hominini- including bipedal locomotion xiii. Sahelanthropus: 7-6 mya 1. Lived at or before divergence of Panini and Hominini 2. Placement of foramen magnum indicated habitual orthograde 3. Small brains (like apes) and small canines (like homo) 4. No post-cranium, so locomotion speculative xiv. Orroin tugenensis: 6.1-5.7 mya 1. Long, curved fingers = tree climbing 2. Low, rounded molars and small canines 3. Proximal femur similar to bipeds Australopithecus (not chimp) 4. Femur shape indicates habitual bipedal locomotion 5. Orrion’s femur shape may be ancestral while extanat Great Apes share derived forms 6. Bipedal apes may have been widespread and diverse xv. Ardipithecus kadabba: 5.8-5.2 mya 1. Bipedal, chimp-size, small canines, curved fingers (tree climbing), lived in mixed/grassland environment, probably ate fibrous food xvi. Late Miocene Radaition: 17-16 mya 1. Rise of the apes 2. Wide-scale movement of hominoids out of Africa into Eurasia 3. Othrograde posture, thick enamel, non-interlocking canines, suspensory behavior e. Pliocene: divergence of Panine and Hominini f. Plesitocene: origin of genus Homo HOMININ ORIGINS IN AFRICA I. Background Information 4 Rachel Klein Geologic Time and Emergence of Primates a. Paleoanthropology: reconstructing the anatomy and behavior of ancestors i. Study artifacts and bones b. Necessary steps to interpretations: site, excavate/recover fossils, find something, give it a number, clean prepare study describe fossils, compare with other fossils chronologically, compare fossil variation with known ranges of variation in closely related groups of living primates and analyze ancestral and derived characteristics, assign taxonomic names to fossil material II. Early Hominins a. Pre-australopiths: (7) 6+-4.4 mya i. Sahelanthropus 7-6 mya, Chad ii. Orrorin 6 mya, Kenya iii. Ardipthecus 5.8-4.4 mya, Ethiopia 1. Opposable toe, bipedal, same pelvis as human, most likely arboreal bipedal, long fingers, curved finger bones, long hands b. Australopiths: 4.2-1.2 mya i. Characteristics: bipedal, relatively small brains, large teeth- esp. in back with thick to very thick enamel on molars ii. Australopithecus (genus) 1. Afarensis (Lucy; E. Africa) 2. Africanus (S. Africa 440 cm cranial capacity, big- toothed, bipedal 3. Sediba- S. Africa 4. Anamensis- E. African, ancestor of afarensis, big molars, sharpening k-9, thick enamel iii. Paranthropus (genus) 1. Robustus- S. Africa 2. Boisei- E. Africa 3. Gethiopicus- more massive face = chewing; not height-sagittal crest c. Early Homo: 2-1.4 mya III. Miocene Hominins a. Overview of Human Evolution i. By 4 mya, much evidence of well adapted genus ii. More derived forms include several species from East and South Africa b. Later “Derived” Australopiths = Genus: Paranthropus i. Characteristics: broad cheekbones, large teeth, flatter face, sagittal crest, powerful chewing, diet emphasizing rough vegetables c. Autrolipithicus Sediba; 1.9 mya i. Found 9-year-old boy and 30-year-old female in South Africa 5 Rachel Klein Geologic Time and Emergence of Primates ii. Characteristics: not as narrow of brows and not as much facial protruding IV. Homo genus a. Appeared 2.5-2.0 mya b. First hominoid to definitively make/use stone tools = larger brain size, dexterity i. 2 species are extremely species; commonly known as early homos ii. H. habilis and H. rudolfensis iii. Oldowan: first stone tool culture by early Homo 1. 2+ mya; Afar region in Ethiopia; precussion method 2. Used “pebble tools” 3. Simple flakes off of unmodified cores, mostly basalt 4. Cut marks (flakes) remove meat, cobbles break things open, flakes c. Into Pilocene/Pleistocene Era (1.8 mya) i. Major adaptive shift in hominoids; maybe due to environmental/climate shifts ii. Evidence of African resident with larger body and brain size iii. Homo erectus and Homo ergaster iv. More complex tools v. Also found outside Africa d. Later Homo was first hominoid to expand out of Africa i. Eastern and Middle Eastern species are Neanderthals ii. Several geographical and temporal species prior to sapiens KYA = V. Homo in Africa thousan a. In East Africa 1.8 mya d years b. Turkana boy- close to human with size of head, height, ago and proportions c. Homo erectus i. Body size close to ours, sexual dimorphism, thick (actual thicker bones) ii. Brain at least 25% larger than previous ancestors iii. Cranial shape: heavily built, big brows, nuchal torus (bulge where neck meets skull), sagittal keel (top of head a little larger), broad below ears iv. Culture 1. Advanced tool technology replaced Olduwan, known as Acheulian 2. Allowed them to eat different food- better food, more protein 3. Promoting that there is a lot of variation throughout different geographical areas 6 Rachel Klein Geologic Time and Emergence of Primates 4. May or may not have used fire VI. Homo in Asia a. Java 1.6 mya – 2.5kya b. China 600-400kya i. Zhoukoudian material ii. Peking man 410-670kya, more like H. erectus c. Indonesia 1-1.6mya i. Traits of African H. erectus but more pronounced, only tops of skulls VII. Homo in Europe a. Dmanisi 1.8mya i. Found in Georgia, 2 well preserved crania, 1990s ii. 1000 stone tool fragments- olduwan ~weird because this was early homo iii. Long low vault, wide base, sagittal thickening like African forms, less robust browride, less projecting lower face, more like early Homo iv. Could be proof of earlier African “Exodus” more like early Homo than erectus b. Ceprano 900kya c. Gran dolina 850kya VIII. Middle Pleistocene; 780,000 – 125,000 years ago a. Interglacial: dramatically change landscapes all over globe, even where there wasn’t ice; the glaciers melted i. Increased rainfall in Africa ii. Impacted migratory patterns iii. Changed Eurasia continent to allow more movement during interglacial b. Time period in between H. erectus and H. sapien c. Homo heidelbergensis i. May have: started fires, had portable shelters, made/used spears ii. Caries a traumatic defect Neanderthals iii. Mauer mandible = no chin iv. Derived traits: widest part of head gravitates upwards, more vertical nose, thinner vault (thinner bone), larger brain 1. New to H. heidelbergensis, seen in later groups v. Primitive traits: supraorbital torus (giant brow), low vault, large face, low forehead 1. Like H. erectus vi. Culture/tools 1. Acheulean tools (also seen with H. erectus) 2. New technique to produce tool; compatible to those of erectus but means of production are different- 7 Rachel Klein Geologic Time and Emergence of Primates much more efficient production at this time- less waste; diverse tools vii. In Europe and parts of Africa IX. Upper Pleistocene; 130,000 – 30,000 years ago a. Neanderthals i. Unique individuals in Europe and Middle East ii. Likely descendants of H. heidelbergensis iii. Body structure/skeletal 1. Round head = maximum heat preservation = climatic adaptation (during glacial times); holds true for post-crania as well: arms, legs, torsos- short and stocky (relative to modern humans) 2. Hunchbacked concept = sick/deformed; was just the first skeleton found, incorrect conception 3. Large arching brow ridge, occipital bun (rounded shape to back of head), projecting mid-face (helps warm/moisten air before reaches lungs) iv. Culture/behavior 1. Intentional burials and grave goods; symbolic items = animal bones (antlers), stone tools, flowers; flexed burial 2. Care for injured- some were found that were so diseased they couldn’t have survived on their own, must have been cared for 3. Speech possible- hyoid bone anatomy that would have allowed for communication/speech (their hyoid identical to our hyoid) 4. Subsistence strategies for getting food- skilled hunters a. Injuries and tools indicate definitely hunters 5. Non-masticatory teeth use a. Using teeth as tools 6. Patrilocal group: 3 males, 3 females, 5 kids, 1 baby a. Found in site in Spain b. Males are related 7. Mousterian stone tool culture: flaked tools and cave residences b. Neanderthal DNA Research i. Neanderthals and modern Homo sapiens share DNA- up to 5% same DNA ii. Evidence that some Neanderthals were redheaded and likely light skin iii. Possible that 2 species interbred iv. Happened after H. sapien left Africa c. Portuguese Kid 8 Rachel Klein Geologic Time and Emergence of Primates i. Neanderthal Modern Human Hybrid ii. 4-year-old child buried with red ocher (paint) and pierced shell iii. Teeth and lower jaw represent modern human anatomy iv. Lack of chin, limb proportions, and muscle insertions similar to Neanderthals v. Suggests interbreeding d. So what happened to Neanderthals? i. Possibilities: became one with modern humans (interbreeding), humans killed off Neanderthals, dramatic change in climate ending ice age – supported modern humans more than Neanderthals (they were adapted to cold weather) ii. Modern humans had more rich brain, better tools (fish, launch spears) X. Homo Sapien a. First H. sapien: Omo 1 i. Dated to 200,000 years ago ii. Early modern human from Ethiopia, Africa iii. The chin and vertical forehead represent modern human iv. Then there was a migration to South Africa by 120,000- 80,000 years ago b. The Middle East i. Skhul cave (5) and Qafzeh cave (9) both in Middle East ii. Anatomically modern- vault height, forehead, lack of prognathism iii. Average age 110,000 years ago c. Europe i. Cro-Magnon ~30,000 years ago ii. High forehead, bulging parietals (widest part of head same as ours), prominent chin iii. Painted cave ceilings and had extremely exquisite tools d. Australia i. Lake Mungo: earliest year is unclear – 30,000 years ago e. Asia i. Potentially still H. erectus XI. Phylogeny of Genus Homo a. Early Homo: H. habilis and H. rudolfensis i. One of these 2 is ancestor to later homo, other one died off b. H. erectus i. Dispersal out of Africa, first group of Hominins outside Africa ii. Likely gave rise to … c. H. heidelbergensis 9 Rachel Klein Geologic Time and Emergence of Primates i. Positioned group as being ancestral to Neanderthals and modern humans d. H. sapien and Neanderthals The Origin and Dispersal of Modern Humans I. Introduction a. Questions to consider: i. When did H. sapiens first appear? 200,000 years ago ii. Where did that happen; Is it for certain? E. Africa (Omo 1) iii. At what pace did evolution/dispersal happen? iv. How did the dispersal take place? b. Significance of forehead and chin of modern humans: function and protection of developed brain II. Theories on the Peopling of the World (pg. 284) a. Model 1: Regional Continuity; Multi-regional Evolution i. Suggests that in different regions of the world (Europe, Africa, Asia), older populations (H. erectus) evolved into pre-modern humans and then into H. sapiens ii. Happened in multiple regions, but important to know there was constant gene flow among the regions to insure that there is 1 species not 3 iii. Kind of a contradictory approach to saying that H. sapiens were first out of Africa; not a very valid model b. Model 2: Out-of-Africa; Complete Replacement i. Suggests that H. erectus went out of Africa quickly and set up in different parts of world; then “Archaic H. sapiens” go and replace H. erectus in different regions; then H. sapien in Africa go out of Africa and completely replace population in world ii. Several migrations out of Africa iii. Neanderthals would’ve been in the second migration but we know now that many modern humans have Neanderthal DNA- makes this model invalid c. Model 3: Mostly out of Africa; Partial Replacement; Relethford i. Proposes 2 diasporas 1. H. erectus moved throughout world 2. H. sapiens evolved in Africa and then moved out through Old World having significant gene flow between regions ii. Supports recent DNA/molecular findings iii. Suggests that initial changes happened in Africa and then migrated into the rest of the Old World with interbreeding/genetic replacement III. What about Homo sapiens beyond Old World? a. Australia ~50,000 years ago 10 Rachel Klein Geologic Time and Emergence of Primates i. There were times when Australia was connected to New Guinea 1. Land was exposed to glaciers because sea levels were low ii. Was only 50 miles to Southeast Asia iii. Possible that there was construction of log/reed rafts around 40,000 years ago b. New World ~15,000 years ago i. Route through “gap” in glaciers over the land bridge (sea levels were low) connecting Asia and Canada; most valid theory 1. Biological evidence: early Native Americans resembled people from Western Asian people called Ainu ii. Theory that there was a coastal migration- sea levels were lower than today, but hard to find evidence of this since it’s underwater now iii. Possible that there was crossing from Europe- stone tools on Eastern coast of America are similar to Western coast of Europe c. All happened in roughly 50,000 years: populations were growing, competition for resources, encouraged groups to move to find new resources/areas IV. Adaptive Significance: Modern Human Biology a. Brought about modern variations seen in H. sapiens today b. Look at history of our species to see variation in modern times i. Skin color, eye color, blood types c. Adaptation i. Genetic- people adapt to different environments ii. Cultural- different things that Hominins have done that allowed them to be successful: TOOLS; vaccinations: being able to withstand infectious diseases gives advantage; use of sunscreen; vitamin D fortified milk iii. Physiologic- plasticity allows this to happen; example: altitude, ability to adapt to higher/lower altitude, staying there longer will result in physiological adaptation, coming back will allow body to readapt to lower altitude d. Homeostasis- a condition of stability within a biological system, maintained by the interaction of physiological mechanisms that compensate for changes i. Stress- body’s response to any factor that threatens its ability to maintain homeostasis ii. Acclimatization- physiological responses to change in the environment 11 Rachel Klein Geologic Time and Emergence of Primates 1. Responses may be temporary or permanent- depends on what stress is and how long stress occurs 2. Under genetic influence- acclimatization is subject to natural selection and genetic drift 3. Bergmann’s and Allen’s Rules: surface area of body to mass ratio differs in geographic region, less surface area = less heat loss a. N. Kenya now have body similar to earlier inhabitants of E. Africa b. Canadian Inuits are shorter and stockier e. Adaptive Significance of Human Variation i. Result of adaptations to environmental conditions- short term and long term ii. Ancient Egyptians classified based on skin color; Linnaeus classified 4 categories with behavioral and intellectual qualities; Blumenbach classified 5 races based on more than skin color f. Skin Color- variation in skin color in 22 human populations, dots indicate the mean skin reflectance- we see that skin color is continuous i. SOLAR RADIATION- in epidermis everyone has same numbers of melanocytes but not everyone needs the melanocytes to make melanin 12
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