POSC 326 8/25 - 9/23 notes - First weeks up until Exam 1
POSC 326 8/25 - 9/23 notes - First weeks up until Exam 1 Posc 100
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This 13 page Bundle was uploaded by Laura Pratt on Saturday January 23, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Posc 100 at California State University Long Beach taught by in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 66 views. For similar materials see Intro to american government in Political Science at California State University Long Beach.
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Date Created: 01/23/16
8.25.15 Democracy, because we vote? o What about the substance of Democracy? o Would people choose to live the way they do? (The 99% versus the 1%) Owen’s Valley – colonialism Growth machines American legislation – Council (Alec) o Power from federal level to the states 8.27.15 Imagined California o Dream and Western mythology Realities of Power and Inequality From “Failed state” to “recovery” o Necessary assumption – growth is necessary and good We are democratic – accept and don’t question this fact Countries that aren’t democratic have elections o Imagery of CA has persisted over time o Mythology – colonizing America – shining city on the hill Reconstructing the image – mythology of the wild west o Rebirth and renewal – religion o Reinforces individualism and industriousness o Doing/wanting to do the right thing – flaw is built into the structure Recognition that the image does not represent reality Western History – Patricia Limerick – not as utopian as we think it is o More reliant on government o As wealthy class increases – we conceal inequalities o Economic – political inequalities Abbott Kinney – Developer of Venice – wanted to transfer Italian Venice to California Jean Baudrilard o Copies without the real thing to start with o So caught up in this artificial world – everything is artificial “Gidget” – movie of 1950s = suburban eden o Imagery of California and beach lifestyle – beach blanket transformation o Goldwater girls Dress code – had to be in modest uniforms (Hilary Clinton) Herbert Marcuse o Onedimensional society So material obsess – have no capacity to critique what is around us People don’t see inequalities of the world so we are stuck in a one dimensional society Guy Debord – society of the spectacle Social Psychologist – definition of polices – Lasswell o “Who gets what, when, where, and how” o The wealthy and powerful – plutocracy (system by and for the wealth) o C. Wright Mills and the power elite California Dream might end – failed state o Can’t provide for the people o Police isn’t policing, violence, security, control of what’s going on o During recession – less services – comparative to prior – worse Hit CA hard because real estate is so important here o Finance insurance real estate Foreclosure on mass Spanos, Stockton – unemployment = 30% o During the recession – there were cutbacks on Calfire, education and highways 9.01.15 Continuities in California History o 1. Presence of Elite structures Political, cultural, economic Household income in 2013 Top 20% Next 20 20 20 Bottom 20% 51% 23%14.4%8.4% 3.2% ½ of all households take up 50% of salaries in this country Top 1% in US owns 34.6% of all assets (stocks, bonds, real estate) Top 20% controls 85% of everything o California is one of most unequal distribution of wealth Top 1% in CA control 25.3% of income (6/5 states and D.C.) Top 10% 54% of all income During bubble – 1% increased 189% while other 99% decreased 6% o Rich families – wealth is passed on corporate rather than to pass estate to family o 2. Rise/Consolidation lf corporate power During 1920s, LB, Huntington was the biggest oil producer in the world o 3. Dependence on cheap labor Mostly immigrant labor in history People become resentful of immigrant workers – “take work from Americans” o 4. Resource extraction and transforming environment Hydraulics during gold rush done by big corporations In 1850 alone, Sacramento’s population went from 1,000s of people to 44,000s of people In San Francisco Bay area life in the sea is not native o 5. Relationship between economics – state’s goal is to distribute wealth Robber Barrons: Stanford, Huntington, Crocker, Hopkings Railroad Homestead act in 1962, government subsidized land Reclamation act – taking and giving land – 1902 (AKA Newland Act) o Governments were to facilitate capitalism o Western Times and Water wars In 1910s, LA is taking H2O from Owen’s Valley Historical method o Relationship between history and theory o Does one start with theory to draw inferences from history? Or do you look at history to draw a theory from it? Walton argues history > theory Patterns of development o In order to draw inferences – compare areas – what kind of social arrangements do you have? (Capitalism, Socialism, etc.) o Are there phases? There are patterns of development to look at SP 32 and SP 350 o Walton ≠ MacroHisory o Story and narrative o Patterns and development o Piautes – Native American tribe o Transformation from agriculture to mining 9/3/2015 - Patters/Phases State Expansionary Progressive (19001903) Welfare (1930 (18601900) - To serve greatest Present) - Over time, number – - Welfare government Utilitarianism phases – institutions more spread from expectations west over of what time government - Went from will provide localized to expansion Society Pioneer Civil society National identity - Pioneer - Organization that - Old west – society – give society national don’t have form/content parties “western” support because of state Type of Fragmented class Community rebellion Social movements movement action - there are class divisions, but not as established as American east - Paiutes o Europeans come and Indian wars occur (18621865) o As land is taken away from Natives, they resisted, early settlers fought back against Indians and Fort Independence resulted (came to be on 4 of th July 1862) o As settlers came in increasing numbers, they fought back as much as they could Starved out the Indians so that they would surrender - JW Davidson – Fort Tejon o Consideration – mining – where people look to strike rich - Incorporating (Wage) labor o What happens next? o Incorporate them as wage labor – which is necessary to have production happening o Quick to blame the Indians by saying they are children and/or drunk - Paternalism o Paternal relationship between Native Americans and how the general population took care of them - Moral Economy o Comes from a peasant society in a precapitalist world o Before capitalism – had feudalism o Mode of production = rate of production o Relationship between worker and owner – Landowner/Peasant (closed relationship – had to pay obligation to landowner) Could never leave that obligation Localized Mostly based on agriculture Born peasant – stuck in situation Local people had to figure things out on their own There were rules for behavior – what society defined as acceptable versus unacceptable behavior E.P. Thompson – James C. Scott Public transcript Hidden transcript – codes that peasants use between them o Responsibility in feudalism – moral economy – no one should go hungry – merchants are expected to lower price so people can afford food Value system changed in capitalism – it is the complete opposite of these principles With the coming of capitalism, everything gets transformed – become a free agent as a worker Can go anywhere you want as long as you have the means Industrial – industrial revolution World economy via trade Even though there were governments in Feudalism (taxes, judicial system, military) but for the most part, government was not spoken of – didn’t affect your life on a daily basis o Highly ritualized actions – if you keep violating moral code Wife selling Tired of wife – sell her Rough music When you had someone having an affair and the community knew about it and disapproved of the behavior Older guy and too young girlfriend They would take out whatever made noise and would congregate and make noise around the building Riding the stang (stag) Used for series of violations Turn jacket inside out – take antlers and attach them to the person – stag would have a hunt o Peasant life in England One of the ultimate forms of reinforcement if all else fails – arson Symbolic act against property – burn down property 9/8/2015 - Transition from pioneer to civil society o Society lacks the institutional structures o Needs to define morality for the society o Luddism Luddites (1790s1810s) o Once governments and institutions take place, new kinds of arrangements arise (state is more powerful) o Anarchism (aka anarchosyndicalism or just syndicalism) Anarchists understand that there are some tasks that will have to be done – does not completely lack any structure If you do away with state system – selfgoverning mechanisms are much better for people Argue that in our nature is that we are empathetic human beings – not violent (the state has caused us to become violent harsh beings) o Definition of civil society – (Pg. 91) comprises the network of institutions beyond the family that are not, strictly speaking, part of the government or the formal economy. INPUTS OUTPUTS (Governin g ELECTION DEMANDS POLICIES SOCIET Y Economic Interests Seemed to be the reason that you have elections is just to have elections – just a mechanism – no more no less Groups in societies are just there to organize institutions (groups) Electoral mechanism itself does not describe a democracy Interest group politics (aka pluralism, polyarchy – rule of the many) o Pluralist theory posits that you go from civil society to interest groups o David Truman and Robert Dahl About the plurality of interests competing against each other o Pg. 43 – Paiute brass band – transition to “civil society” o Marxist theory – it is not purely competition within society, but there is an economic interest base - Dependent (uneven) development o In the matter of a year or two – mining was taken over by big corporations Pushed miners out They went to other side of Sierra Nevada They found the Comstock Lode – found silver o 1856 – Flores o Cerro Gordo Mine o Mortimer Belshaw o Victor Beaudry Instead of having free for all – the above two formed the Union Mining Company Build toll road from Cerro Gordo to Swasea to Keeler Wanted to export out towards L.A. o Remy Nadeau – all silver ends up in L.A. – this is the capital of money that the city of L.A. was built on (serves as economic foundation for LA) o It’s about developing a separate relationship between regions – form of colonialism – it is a colonial relationship (nothing but an independent form of development) - L.A. story 9/10/2015 - Dependent Development (cont.) o Pgs. 55 & 56 Essay topic Western development struggled on dependency…. Don’t care about the people who live there, but they care about the silver Colonization of Americas, power is concentrated outside the immediate area where the exploitation is taking place o American exceptionalism Critique on this view – Richard Hofstadter S.M. Lipset Walton is saying that Owen’s Valley is imperialism/colonization (the Indians were not barbaric, they were just children) Manifest Destiny (philosophy that we are preordained as a country that develops from east coast to west coast) o Primitive accumulation How it is that development plays out Marx – at the beginning of any capitalist development, someone or something has to accumulate more to set a foundation (e.g. property) and need to capitalize on it to make money First step of capitalism – seizure or theft of property or other resources Four stage model of how capitalism develops: 1. Primitive accumulation (Pre/proto capitalism; market behavior is part of accumulation), 2. Competitive capitalism, 3. Monopoly capital (businesses getting to big and corporations/entities are going to rule the world), 4. Late capitalism (commoditization of all aspects of society, art, literature, dance, etc.) – go back to primitive accumulation after the fourth stage Primitive accumulation in Owen’s valley – taking land away from Piautes When it comes to any natural resource – it is obliterated – no thought of its sustainability Extraction of resources has to do with labor as well – when people have been used up, the system disposes of them No consideration for people living outside the region – people get left behind too There are limits to how much outside influence can come in Changes come when pioneer society comes about What it means to behave well (moral values - L.A. Story (Water) o How quickly L.A. developed after capital developed in 1880s o Did not have industrialization happening immediately – but it is the idea of capitalism spawning off quickly o As of 1880 census – the western part of U.S. was more urbanized than the eastern part – representative of uneven development o Development of capitalism o Crisis ecologic drought economic – first major depression of modern era – 1870s – too much power concentrated in big business – trusts 1937 – recession – economy receded but did not get back to depression level Charles Nordoff Wrote pamphlet on the health living of SoCal Real estate boomed in SoCal after Nordoff wrote this – 1880s people came in mass Water sources in California LA river San Gabriel Santa Ana SD river o All of this had to fixed in some way Zanja System – ditch system Wooden pipes were replaced by ceramic and metal pipes Ditches – street of houses and then behind there would be water flowing through for drinking and bathing 3 important characters o Fred Eaton Head city engineer, major of LA (18981900) Tried to find other areas to get water to LA with William Mulholland – saw that Owen’s mountain was getting water to Owen’s lake – eventually stealing water to get it to LA o William Mulholland Ditch digger, and then head of LA water system o Joseph Lippincott In charge of reclamation project of Owen’s valley (premise was that the federal government would lease land as long as there was promise to bring irrigation to the desert) 9.17.15 - Mono lake went down 46 feet from 19411981 - California seagulls – in Mono lake - Mono lake is like Owen’s lake – seawater – for purposes of drinking water, needs to be caught before it comes into the lake (from the Sierra Nevada’s directly because afterwards it is not usable) - Los Angeles is not the only city that was involved in having to bring water into the city (e.g. San Diego, the Bay area – it is a California problem) - Desalination plant in Santa Barbara (very expensive) and Northern San Diego county - Duplicity of what was going on in L.A. at the time Fred Eaton, William Mulholland, and Joseph Lippincott (Fred Newell is his boss – Lippincott – Reclamation service) o Los Angeles lake was all dried up and spring was not enough to water the city because the population was growing so quickly and what they found/could harness was not adequate o Lippincott had already (as part of the reclamation systems) had already been sent out to Owen’s valley to survey it – got in contact with Eaton and talked to Mulholland (chief engineer) and notified him that there was a lot of wasted water because it was a seawater lake o Lipincott told the L.A. guys that he would give them the data he had acquired from having surveyed it o Eaton bought Rickey Ranch (located in Long Valley) o Checkerboarding – buying properties around the property so that the value of the property you want goes down. o Eaton ends up with a lot of money for L.A. o 90% of Owen’s valley is owned by L.A. o 19191920 – drought in California o L.A. Aqueduct (1910s built) DWP o Colorado River Aqueduct (1930s built) MWD o California Aqueduct (1960s built) – State of California o Central Valley project (1930s built) – Fed (U.S.) Government o San Louise Reservoir 9.22.15 Pg. 5560 - Pioneer to civil society o Progressivism (18901910) “Hay day” Eaton was interested in serving public interest by buying land in Owen’s Valley and selling it back “Serving the public interest” Phrase attached to Progressivism – “greatest good for the greatest number” (Utilitarian) Where is the greatest number of people? In L.A. You are taking advantage of a few thousand people in Owen’s Valley Eaton goes to SF Los Angeles asks for bond (the idea was to build aqueduct, need money to build it) Mulholland ChinaTown – they are going to move the boundaries of the city to extend where the water/aqueduct is San Fernando Mission Land Company L.A. Examiner – Hertz (owner) – article came out about aqueduct – they are taking the water to make money, not help the people of Los Angeles Leslie Brand – founder of Glendale and put together missionland company Porter Ranch Irrigated the San Fernando valley after they had left overs from Los Angeles Element in progressive values that puts the power in the hands of a few powerful people Progressive Reforms Nonpartisan elections and direct democracy Part of old oligarchy Situation where old oligarchs are playing/participating in secret deals New Oligarchy Spreckles – not considering himself as a progressive but was still promoting the greatest good for the greatest number Late 1800s and early 1900s – capitalism had brought into the fold people who had just made an enormous amount of money in very little time New Oligarchs were not intending to democracize anything, but rather making money – is it democratic? As a byproduct maybe Railroad for Owen’s valley would have benefited them but it did not happen o Collective action Prior to the coming of mining interests, people had taken matters into their own hands (arson) To tell people how they needed to behave Pioneer society becomes civil society Government comes in – police, and other municipalities come into play Part of what democracy teaches one to do is play by the rules so when people have disputes or concerns, they sign petitions, take them to court, what happens when L.A. takes the water? Law suits are filed, etc. o Law suits against the aqueduct did not do anything to stop them o Since it did not work, they started writing letters to congress that they were not treated fairly and even to the president o P. 173 May 1924, L.A. starts pumping out more water (drought) and they start taking ground water to supply Los Angeles – first attack on aqueduct takes place (dynamite) Did not immediately change anything o What happens soon after the attack on the aqueduct? The idea that people are engaging in civil disobedience but without violence Civilization has come to Owen’s valley They went to Alabama gates and protested to demonstrate that they were going to take it over and shut a spigot to redirect water back to Owen’s valley o What happens next? They use dynamite again We are taught to follow rules by voting and protesting peacefully, but what happens when this doesn’t work? None of this works – need to engage in forms of civil disobedience (e.g. dynamite) Didn’t win per se, but raised awareness Only time we pay attention to ordinary people – attention and access to the system Symbolic action against property that matters – don’t want to hurt people but hurt property which draws attention to the cause Owen’s valley was able to make arrangements with L.A. later on o Organized development This is the rise of the welfare state Changed expectation of the state to find solutions and put it back together again With the coming of the Great Depression – government becomes responsible for organizing development that would be beneficial for Owen’s Valley Reorganization of economic activity in Owen’s Valley o 1. Reintroduction of Agriculture Had this land that they leased to have their cattle on their property In 1920s had 500 something farmers and by the 1930s and 1940s it was dominated by a few farmers in Owen’s Valley o 2. Rise of Tourism Having mostly to do with the rise of the automobile age 1910s 1% households had automobiles and by 1930s – 45% of households had cars People belied that if you were physically fit, you were sound of mind Hunting, fishing, etc. o 3. Rise of the movie industry Mostly cowboy western films, startrek films – in Alabama Hills The idea of dependent development has not gone away o 4. Rise of Internment camps in the 1940s Manzanar – North of LonePine Environmental movement - Shift to national context o Toward social movements
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