STC623 Crisis management all PPT knowledge
STC623 Crisis management all PPT knowledge STC623
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Date REVIEW OF STC 623/423 1. CHAPTER 1 Defining crisis communication A. A definition of crisis communication i. Surprise, threat & short response time ii. Negative outcomes iii. Unexpected, nonroutine event iv. Uncertainty v. Also hides opportunity B. Working definition of organizational crisis i. A specific, unexpected, and nonroutine event or series of events that create high levels of uncertainty and simultaneously present an organization with both opportunities for and threats to its high-priority goals. C. Crisis type i. Organizational crisis 1. Perceptual 2. Unpredictable but not unexpected ii. Disaster iii. Intentional crises 1. Terrorism 2. Sabotage 3. Workplace violence 4. Poor employee relationships 5. Poor risk management 6. Hostile takeovers 7. Unethical leadership iv. Unintentional crises 1. Natural disaster 2. Disease outbreaks 3. Unforeseeable technical interactions 4. Product failure 5. Downturns in the economy D. Disasters, emergencies, crisis, and risk i. Crisis most often relates to organizations experiencing high consequence events. ii. Communities often experience disasters like tornadoes and hurricanes. iii. Emergencies are on a much smaller scale compared to crisis and disasters. iv. Risk and crisis are separate in the working definition but we need to understand they are closely connected. 1. Risk is a natural part of like, but crisis can often be avoided. 2. Poor risk communication can cause a crisis E. Crisis management framework i. Identifiable life cycle ii. Staged approach: precrisis, crisis, postcrisis iii. Ongoing process iv. Must be integrated into the normal operations of an organization F. Importance of crisis management i. Value of reputations ii. Stakeholder activism iii. Communication technologies iv. Broader view of crises v. Negligent failure to plan G. The significance of crisis in a global environment i. Consumers are dependent on more organizations than ever before. ii. The incidents on one continent can create a crisis an ocean away as we move closer to a truly global society. iii. Our world is more complex, interconnected, centralized, and efficient than ever before, so is the frequency and forms of crises. 2. EFFECTS OF THE ONLINE WORLD ON CRISIS COMMUNICATION& CRISIS MANAGEMENT A. The online environment i. Evolutionary step in crisis communication, rather than a revolution ii. Web. 2.0 iii. Social media (interactivity) 1. Participation 2 2. Openness 3. Conversation 4. Communities 5. Connectedness B. Refining the conceptualization of crisis i. Traditional crisis ii. Social media 1. Organizational misuse 2. Challenges 3. Dissatisfied customers C. Precrisis 1. Listening: scanning for crisis warning signs 2. Paracrisis: resembles a crisis because it threatens the organization’s reputation and related assets. 3. Social media increases the visibility and number of paracrises because the Internet can highlight the stakeholder concerns that drive paracrises. ii. Issue management 1. Environmental scanning a. Identify future issues b. Research & analyze each issue c. Consider response options d. Develop action plan e. Implement plan f. Evaluate effectiveness of the response iii. Risk management 1. Risk: future oreiented; messages of reducing likelihood; based on what is currently known; long term; technical experts, scientists; personal scope; mediated communication campaigns; controlled and structured D. Crisis response i. Media selection be driven by target audience ii. Basic rules when using online crisis communication channels: 1. Be present 2. Be where the action is 3. Be there before the crisis 4. Be polite iii. Deliver updates and specific follow-up questions 3 iv. Determine how long to keep special crisis web pages v. Regular corporate blogs and social network pages vi. Social media provides channels for reaching stakeholders 3. EFFECT OF THE ONLINE WORLD ON CRISIS COMMUNICATION AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT A. Social-mediated crisis communication model 1. Influential social media creators affect blog followers to address follower’s motivations for informational and emotional needs 2. Use of social media during crisis to share or obtain insider information 3. Traditional media- information needs with higher perceived credibility 4. Participants seek out traditional media coverage for the news they notice in social media ii. Effect of crisis information source and form on information seeking 1. Participants were more likely to use the same type of media in which they heard about the crisis to seek information, except in the case of interpersonal communication 2. When the crisis information came from the organization, participants were not likely to look for more information iii. Tips for crisis managers: 1. Be seen 2. Go where the action is 3. Engagement vs intimidation 4. Listen more than talking 5. Transparent 4. PROACTIVE MANAGEMENT A. Proactive management functions and crisis management i. Issue management 1. An issue is a type of problem whose resolution can impact the organization 2. Issues management tries to lessen the negative impact of an issue and is a systematic approach intended to shape how an issue develops and is resolved. 4 3. Managing an issue involves a. Attempts to shape how the issue is resolved b. Changing the organization 4. Some issues can develop into crises, making issues management relevant to crisis scanning. 5. A crisis or ineffective crisis management can spawn an issue, creating the need for issues management 6. Jones and Chase issues management model: a. issue identificati on evaluation issue analysis issue issue change action strategy program otpion ii. Reputation management 1. It is an evaluation stakeholders make about an organization (favorable vs. unfavorable 2. Reputation management involves efforts designed to influence stakeholder evaluations of an organization. a. Reputations are formed as stakeholders evaluate organizations based on direct and indirect interactions. 3. In some respects, a reputation is a reflection of the organization-stakeholder relationship. a. Stakeholders: any persons are groups that have an interest, right, claim, or ownership in an organization (primary, secondary) 5 i. Typical primary: investors, customers, suppliers, the government ii. Typical secondary: media, activist groups, competitors b. Both primary and secondary stakeholders can create a crisis for an organization c. CSR i. CSR: the management of actions designed to affect an organization’s impacts on society ii. Society impacts: worker rights, sustainability, human rights, eradication of disease, etc. d. Seven dimension of RepTrak i. Leadership, performance, products and services, innovation, citizenship, workplace, and governance ii. CSR is a part of citizenship, workplace, and governance iii. Risk management 1. Risk management represents attempts to reduce the vulnerabilities faced by an organization. 2. Risk assessment attempts to identify risk factors or weaknesses and to assess the probability that a weakness will be exploited or developed into a crisis. a. Once identified-decision about risk aversion: i. Cost ii. Ignoring risk can be more costly 3. Risk assessment has more of an internal focus. 4. Using inherently safer practices is one among a variety of approaches for eliminating or reducing risk iv. Interrelationship between the proactive management functions 1. 6 reputation crisi s issues risk managent managnte B. The crisis prevention process i. Identify the source to scan 1. External focus: issues and reputation management; internal focus: risk management 2. Environment scanning 3. Potential crisis sources to monitor: a. Traditional b. Online 4. Reputation sources: a. Consumer generate media: websites, blogs, and discussion groups b. Stakeholder comments sent to the organization ii. Collect the information 1. Frequently used collection tools: content analysis, interviews, surveys, focus groups, informal contacts 2. Organizations need to solicit information from stakeholders for the crisis team to construct a stakeholder map that lists all stakeholders iii. Analyze the information 1. Build threat assessment analysis around two factors: a. Likelihood: issues, risks reputation b. Impact 7 2. Stakeholder salience, their importance to the organization, can be converted into likelihood and impact scores. a. Stakeholder salience is a function of power, legitimacy, and willingness 3. Performance gap: organizational actions do not match stakeholder expectations. iv. The overall process 1. Crisis threat: likelihood x organizational impact x stakeholder impact 2. The crisis sensing mechanism: knowledge management a. Locating the source of crisis risk information b. Funneling the information to a central location c. Making sure the information is analyzed-converted to knowledge v. Take prevention action: 1. Crisis managers must determine what actions to take on the serious threats a. One option is to monitor the threat if it does not pose an immediate danger 2. If a threat is serious enough, action is taken to diffuse it a. Actions create changes that eliminate or reduce the likelihood of a warning sign becoming a crisis b. Actions are taken to manage issues, to reduce risks, and to build or maintain reputations. vi. Evaluate the effectiveness of the threat reduction 1. Compare the actual resolution of the issue to the intended or desired one 2. The evaluation of risk management is an ongoing concern. 3. Success in closing an expectation gaps is determined by whether stakeholders perceive the organization as meeting expectations, 5. CRISIS PREPARATION A. Diagnosing vulnerabilities i. Vulnerabilities are typically assessed using a combination of likelihood of occurrence and severity of damage. ii. Likelihood& impact iii. Focus on crises with the highest vulnerability scores 8 iv. Crisis types 1. Operational disruption from disasters 2. Workplace violence 3. Rumors 4. Unexpected loss of key leadership 5. Malevolence 6. Challenges 7. Technical-error accidents 8. Technical- error product harm 9. Human-error accidents 10. Human-error product harm 11. Organizational misdeeds. B. Selecting and training a crisis management team i. the crisis management team (CMT) is a cross-functional group of people in the organization who have been designated to handle any crises and is a core element of crisis preparation. ii. CMT is responsible for 1. Creating the CMP 2. Enacting it 3. Dealing with any problems not covered in it iii. Development of an effective CMT is essential to the crisis management process. iv. Functional areas 1. Certain knowledge bases, skills, and organizational power sources are required 2. the composition of the CMT should reflect the nature of the crisis 3. The CMT may not be the best place for a CEO during crisis v. Group decision making 1. Crisis management is a group decision-making process a. The intuitive method is derived from naturalistic decision making, how people use experience to make real-world decisions. b. Rule-based decision making involves finding a rule that can be applied to events in the crisis c. Analytical decision making is focused on identifying and evaluating options. 2. Four critical vigilant functions to aid decision making process 9 a. Conducting problem analysis b. Evaluating alternative choices c. Understanding the important positive aspects of an alternative choice d. Understanding the important negative aspects of an alternative choice vi. Working as a team vii. Enacting the crisis management plan viii. Listening ix. Training options for crisis management 1. Orientation seminar: an overview of the process 2. Drill: a supervised exercise that tests one crisis management function 3. Tabletop: a guided analysis of a crisis situation; does not have time pressures of a real crisis 4. functional exercise: a simulated interactive exercise (year recommended) 5. full-scale exercise: the simulation of a real crisis as closely as possible (few years) x. improvisation’s relationship to crisis team training: what crisis team members need is training that emphasizes the general approach to crisis management—skills that can be employed in any crisis. xi. Special considerations: 1. Coordination with external agencies 2. The need for a virtual team C. The spokesperson’s role 1 Manage the accuracy and consistency of the messages coming from the organization 1. Each organization should have a pool of spokespersons 2. The spokesperson must be able to work with the media by listening and responding to questions 3. Crisis experts continually recommend spokesperson have media training. 4. Start your own video D. Developing a crisis management plan i. Help reduce response time ii. Help create an organized and efficient response 10 iii. Creates a system that can save lives, reduce organization’s exposure to risks iv. Better late than never. v. Three basic components: Documentation, contact information, remainders. E. Reviewing the crisis communication system i. Mass notification system: typically involves employees, but can also include community members who need to ben given safety information about evacuation or shelter-in-pace 1. Automated message system 2. Social media channels are Not designed to be used as mass notification systems, but better used as a supplemental system. ii. Crisis control center: a place for the CMT to meet and discuss the crisis, an information collection center, and a place for briefing the media 1. Scenario-planning room 2. Stocked with food and drinks 3. Mobile/virtual crisis communication centers iii. Intranets and internet 1. An intranet are custom-made for crisis and allows immediate access to data about the organization 2. The Internet offers multiple channels with different applications for crisis communication a. Websites: allows outside stakeholders to access organizational information i. The use of dark website: a section of a website or a completely separate website that has content but no active links. When a crisis hits, the CMT can activate the link, and the dark site becomes accessible. b. Email c. Social media F. Stakeholder and preparation i. Stakeholders should be part of the prevention thinking and process 1. Employees and customers ii. The most common tasks required for community stakeholders are the emergency measures of evaluation and shelter- in- pace iii. Special steps for community preparation 1. Explain the dangers to the community 11 2. Run checks on warning system 3. Assess whether the community has the ability to respond 6. CRISIS RECOGNITION A. Selling the crisis i. All problems within organizations are framed in some way ii. Crises vary along three dimensions 1. Perceived salience: varies with the value of the possible loss and the probability of the loss 2. Immediacy: the time pressure involved with the crisis 3. Uncertainty: the amount of ambiguity associated with a problem iii. Expertise of the dominant coalition 1. Crisis managers must be sensitive to the expertise of the dominant coalition when framing a crisis. iv. Persuasiveness of the presentation 1. People are persuaded by three basic factors: a. Credibility b. Emotion c. Reason v. Organizing the persuasive effort 1. Theory tells crisis managers what factors to consider when trying to sell a crisis or crisis threat and how to organize their efforts vi. Resistance to crises 1. Challenges and rumors are two crisis types about which contrasting interpretations abound. 2. Crisis interpretations are socially co-created by primary stakeholders, secondary stakeholders, and the organization. a. Enactment: how people in organizations make sense of events. (key to the entire model) b. Selection：guides how the managers respond to the event c. Retention：explains what information the managers store for future use. vii. Crisis and information needs 1. Crises as information processing and knowledge management 12 a. Complementary perspectives because information processing is how knowledge is created b. Situation awareness: describes the point at which the crisis team feels it has enough information and knowledge to make a decision 2. The crisis begins with a trigger event or someone convincing management that a crisis exists a. The CMT’s first task is to determine what they need to know about the crisis, what they already know, and what they do not know. b. The CMT then must try to reduce what they do not know by collecting crisis-relevant information. viii. Information gathering & processing 1. Information gathering: a. An organized search b. Prioritize the needed information because information needs are not equal c. Links to organization members and external stakeholders become valuable when a crisis team requires information, because these links are the source for the requisite information. 2. Information processing: the known a. Raw information is a starting point b. Making sense out of information ix. Information-processing problems 1. Serial reproduction errors/ serial transmission effect 2. The mum effect 3. Message overload 4. Information acquisition biases 5. Group decision making errors x. Information processing mechanisms 1. Structural elements a. Focus on how to collect information b. CMT must develop connection (networking) they can use to collect crisis-related information- crisis knowledge map i. Internal stakeholder network ii. External stakeholder network c. The next step is to evaluate and process the information into knowledge 13 d. Decide whether any follow-up information is needed and whether the received information is sufficient. i. Clarity, timeliness, depth e. Procedural elements: how to prevent or reduce processing errors i. A priority system to combat information overload by using selective criteria to establish the perceived importance of information 1. Immediate 2. Routine 3. Miscellaneous ii. Data splitting to combat information acquisition bias iii. An open communication system to combat the MUM effect iv. Vigilance and the devil’s advocate technique to combat group decision making errors v. Training: helps to reduce stress and promote team dynamics that mitigate stress. 7. MEDIA TRAINING WORKSHOP A. Why media training? i. To develop a healthy respect for the media ii. To maintain control during media interviews iii. To deliver precise, positive messages B. Why on-camera training? i. TV remains main source of information for 57% -80% of all Americans ii. Emotions are obvious iii. Cameras, lights, etc. can be intimidating C. Communication goals i. Use TV time preciously 1. Average sound bit is 8-12 seconds 2. Keep entire answer to 45 seconds or less ii. Key message at the beginning of the answer 1. Don’t “bury” your lead D. Interview preparation 14 i. Be positive. Be willing to discuss any topic ii. Talk with the reporter about the content of the interview – before the interview iii. Do your homework on the reporter. iv. Get out from behind the desk! natural light is best! v. Don’t underestimate the intelligence of the reporter vi. Don’t forget to prepare for the inevitable “landmines.” vii. Do take a few minutes at the conclusion of the interview to have the reporter to repeat the main points. Gives your insight into the story. E. The interview i. Reinforce the topic 1. If the reporter is not knowledgeable, plant ideas. 2. If the reporter is wrong, firmly, but politely correct the individual. ii. Avoid information overload. Keep it simple. iii. No jargon. iv. It’s ok to pause and think. Ask the reporter to repeat the question- it helps define the issue and gives you time to think. v. Never say “No comment.” vi. If you don’t know the answer, it’s ok to say that. Offer to get the information and follow up. vii. Don’t show too much or too little emotion viii. Be prepared, but spontaneous. ix. Be honest and accurate F. Bridging from questions to answers i. Compliment and thank the reporter 1. “That’s a good question, and I can best answer it by telling you . . .” 2. “Thanks for asking that question. I know I didn’t address it earlier, but I’d like to do so now.” ii. Acknowledge the questioner’s viewpoint. 1. “I appreciate your point of view . . .” 2. “You have some very good points. Let me explain my thoughts on that topic.” iii. Redirecting the interview 1. “the real issue here is… 2. “The key point I want to make is . . .” 15 iv. The key is to bridge to an answer that makes you feel comfortable. Take key phrases or words in their question to redirect your answer. G. Positive language i. Empower Miami families ii. Family-focused policies iii. Simplified process iv. Making a difference v. Proactive vi. Opportunity vii. Accountability viii. Prevention ix. Maximize available resources x. Using resources efficiently and effectively xi. Partnerships/collaboration xii. Effectively allocating resources xiii. Seek stability xiv. To ensure the stability and success of programs H. Negative language i. Understaffed ii. Overworked iii. Not enough sources iv. “No comment” 1. The information on this matter is developing. I will be happy to answer your questions when the situation becomes more clear.” v. “you will have to talk to our lawyers/legal department.” 1. “If I could answer that question, I would.” vi. “That’s confidential” 1. “In order to protect the individual, that information is unavailable.” 2. “Because of an ongoing legal or criminal situation, that information is unavailable.” 3. Speak in proactive terms. Discuss what is being done to resolve the problem/issue. I. Post interview i. Make sure the microphone and camera are turned off. ii. Tape the story and critique yourself. iii. If the reporter did a nice job, tell him/her. 16 iv. Give reporter story ideas, but avoid exclusives. v. Remember information about the reporter for the next interview. vi. The only time you have contact with the press should not be when you are returning their calls. vii. Call them with good, positive, success 1. What are some programs that you feel are underutilized? 2. Put a positive “human face” on an issue that is in the news. J. Crisis management i. A crisis is a situation that, left unattended, will jeopardize the organization’s ability to do business normally. ii. Anything abnormal results in decisions that managers are not used to making. K. Crisis constants i. People learn about crises from personal networks. ii. Crises are interpreted in terms of personal risk or risk to people important to them. iii. Amount of mass media coverage indicates the significance of crisis to a global public. L. Planning for a crisis i. Identify potential crises ii. Develop crisis plans iii. Appoint a crisis team iv. Select spokesperson M. Rumor management i. Crisis team must make sure that all publics have updated information to diminish the possibility of rumors. ii. Rumors tend to develop when a high-level spokesperson is not available. This frustrates the media and makes them seek lower- level and less-informed sources. N. Final thoughts i. There is an editing process. The entire message is important! Relevant, important, focused, positive. ii. Be prepared for that crisis day. Need to be organized BEFORE a crisis hits. 8. CRISIS RESPONSE A. Form of the crisis response 17 i. Needs to be quick consistent open. ii. Responding quickly 1. Risks of responding quickly with potential inaccuracy 2. Silence is a passive response and reflects uncertainty and passivity— should NOT attempt to create 3. Stealing thunder illustrates the benefits of a quick response 4. It’s OK to post information online with incomplete story iii. Consistency: speaking with one voice means coordinating the efforts of the official spokespersons and discouraging other organizational members from becoming unofficial spokespersons. iv. Openness: 1. Availability to the media 2. Willingness to disclose information 3. Honesty B. A strategic focus in crisis communication i. Objectives: what crisis communication hopes to accomplish 1. Objectives guide strategy and represent the desired outcomes a. The top objective for crisis communication should be to prevent harm to stakeholders b. Organization-related outcomes include the protection of reputation, market share, stock price, sales and word of mouth. 2. The target audience for crisis response strategies a. Two broad target audiences: victims and nonvictims i. Victims: people insured (physical harm, psychological harm, property damage, financial loss) in some way by the crisis ii. Nonvictimes: 1. Potential victims: not harmed by the crisis event but potential could’ve been 2. Voyeur: watching the crisis to see how the organization responds but are not at risk of being harmed iii. Crisis communication theory 1. Situation crisis communication theory 2. Crisis types by level of crisis responsiblity 18 3. instructing adjusting reputation information information management •telling •helping •how stakeholders stakeholders stakeholders what to do cope perceive the dto protect psychologica organization themsleves lly with the in crisis physically in crisis the crisis 4. the perception of crisis is based upon a crisis type, and the crisis type is “how the crisis is being framed.” a. Organization: crisis managers need to create a frame that will provoke the most desirable response from top management b. News media: people seek information about the crisis and evaluate the cause of the event and the organizational responsibility for the crisis based on media coverage of the crisis. c. 19 d. very little attribution of crisisattribution of crisis atresponsibilityrisis responsibility responsibility victim cluster accidental preventable cluster cluster •natural •challenges •human disasters •technical error accidents •rumors error •workplac accidents •human e violence • technical error •malevole erro product product harm harm nce •organizatio nal misdeeds b. crisis response strategies by posture i. denial posture 1. attacking the accuser 2. denial 3. scapegoating: some other person or group outside the organization is blamed for the crisis. ii. diminishment posture 1. excusing: minimize organization’s responsibility 2. justification: minimize the perceived damage associated with the crisis. iii. Rebuilding posture 1. Compensation 2. Apology iv. Bolstering posture 1. Reminding: past good works 2. Ingratiation: praise stakeholders 3. Victimage: explains how it too is a victim of the crisis 20 4. denail diminish rebuilding attacking •excusing •compensati accuser on •justification denial •apology scapagoati ng 5. very little low strong attribution of attribution of attribution of crisis crisis crisis responsibility responsibility responsibility 6. intensifiers: a. crisis history b. prior reputation c. effects: i. Velcro effect ii. Halo effect 7. Other crisis communication theories (image restoration theory) a. An attack has i. The accused is held responsible for an action ii. The act is considered offensive b. Denial: reject fault or shift blame c. Evasion of responsibility: i. Provocation: respond to act of another ii. Defeasibility: lack of information or ability iii. Accident: offense was a mishap iv. Good intention: meant well in act d. Reducing offensiveness: 21 i. Bolstering: stressing the good traits ii. Minimizing: act not serious iii. Differentiation: act less offensive iv. Transcendence: more important considerations v. Attack accuser: reduce credibility of accuser e. Corrective action: plan to solve or prevent problem f. Mortification: apologize for act v. Other crisis communication theories: discourse renewal 1. Theoretical elements: a. Organizational learning b. Ethical communication c. Prospective rather than retrospective vision following the crisis d. Effective organizational rhetoric c. Crisis response strategies i. Evaluating reputational threat 1. Three factors: crisis type, history, prior reputation 2. Two step process a. Determine the crisis type b. Assessing the reputational threat to modify the initial assessment based on crisis history and prior reputation 3. Effects of credibility and prior reputation on crisis response strategies a. Credibility: expertise & trustworthiness i. Expertise: organization’s knowledge about the subject ii. Trustworthiness: organization’s goodwill toward or concern for its stakeholders b. Two common refrains: an organization must i. Establish control during a crisis ii. Show compassion during a crisis d. Social media considerations i. The delivery channel decision is more complex ii. Consider WHO is at risk iii. Social media is audience driven. iv. Multiple voices 22 v. Social media monitoring remains essential during crises e. Follow-up communication i. Communication should continue throughout the crisis life cycle. ii. Follow-up communication also involves delivering any promised information and updating stakeholders about new developments 1. stakeholders know how the recovery effort is progressing 2. announce the cause of the crisis as soon as it is known 3. inform stakeholders of any action taken to prevent a repeat of the crisis iii. three final points about follow-up communication 1. the spokesperson and crisis team should continue to field and respond to inquiries through the crisis 2. the spokesperson should continue to express compassion in the follow-up communication 3. employee assistance programs should continue to monitoring and treating negative reactions to the traumatic event. 9. CRISES IN VARIOUS SECTOR A. Why nations need crisis communication? i. Country reputation is “all about having a good name in the world of nations.” ii. It refers to “collective judgment of a foreign country’s image and character that are used to predict or explain its future behavior.” B. Why country reputation is important? i. “Image cultivation is a form of international public relations in which the target audiences are outside the country itself, such as other governments, MNCs, and international actors ... (NGOs)” (Curtin & Gaither, 2007, p. 24) ii. “A positive national image is seen as an economic benefit that generate tourism, creates cordial relations with other governments, and increases the country’s chances of receiving aids” 23 C. Country-of-origin effect i. the “close interconnections between the image of a nation and its economy” ii. the COO has a strong effect in consumers’ home country perceptions in particular D. Inverses Country-of-origin effect i. Rather than looking at how national reputation affects perceptions of products, it measures how brand image affects country image ii. A product that is evaluated highly can help the image of the country. The study found that for smaller, less-known countries (Austria and Estonia), beliefs about a brand led to beliefs about the country's innovation and overall image E. Government’s use of crisis communication i. How different is nation image restoration compared to political, corporate, or entertainment image restoration? 1. Political image restoration are less likely to use mortification (羞羞) because it came with reputational repercussions 羞羞弹羞 F. Nonprofit organizations and its crisis communication i. Most non profit organizations were concerned with theft or loss of record/ any information ii. Lack of crisis communication plan 10. COMPARATIVE CULTURAL METRICS A. Why is this important in crisis communication? i. Communication patters & relationship building ii. “Although they concern interpersonal communication and relationships, organizational efforts ... are a sum of the many individual exchanges involved” B. Characteristics of high- vs. low-context cultures 24 i. high context cultures low context cultures • convert and • overt and explicit implicit • mesages plainly • messages decoded internalized • details verbalized • much nonverbal • reactions on the coding surface • reactions reserved • flexible ingroups • disctinct ingroups and outgroups and outgroups • fragile • strong interpersonal interpersonal bonds bonds • commitment low • commitment high • time highly • time open and organized flexible ii. Hofstede’s cultural dimensions: 1. Individualism vs. collectivism 2. Power distance 3. Uncertainty avoidance 4. Masculinity vs. femininity a. The degree to which a culture values achievement and assertiveness or nurturing and social support 5. Long-term orientation 6. Relationship vs. task orientation 7. Chronemics a. Monochromic: time control b. Polychromic: relationship valued 8. Proxemics: the preferred structure of our personal space in various settings a. Categorization of circumstances i. Four levels of spatial territory 1. Intimate 2. Personal 25 3. Social 4. public 9. haptics: the degree of touching a. where it is appropriate to touch someone and who can touch whom 10. occulesics a. use of eye movement 11. LEGAL& ETHICAL CONCERNS OF CRISIS MANAGEMENT A. Ethics i. Ethics concern basic judgments of right and wrong, good and bad, and desirable and undesirable. 1. Ethics are the values, standards, principles, or guidelines we use for making judgments. 2. Ethical issues and questions arise whenever a situation of a decision has the potential to affect another person. ii. In many cases of unethical conduct leading to a crisis, there is a debate about who is responsible and who should be held accountable. iii. Ethical judgment helps inform our behaviors and choices iv. In most cases, ethical judgments are more comprehensive when they take into account situational factors, different values, competing loyalties, and complex duties and obligations. B. Corporations as moral agents i. The question of moral agency is important in determining who will be held responsible for unethical behavior ii. Can an organization act in a moral or immoral way? Different arguments: iii. In many cases of unethical conduct leading to a crisis, there is a debate about who is responsible and who should be held accountable. 1. This occurs because the causes of crisis are often uncertain and unclear, especially at the early stages, and because organizations and individuals want to avoid responsibility. C. Types of ethics i. Deontology (duty-based ethics) 26 1. Whether the motives behind certain actions are right or wrong instead of focusing on whether the results of the action are right or wrong 2. Always acting in good faith and adheres to the Golden Rule to treat others the way you want to be treated by them 3. Teleology (result-oriented ethics) a. Deals with the consequences of an action b. greatest happiness theory c. adheres to the theory that the end always justifies the means d. actions should be chosen which lead to more positive and fewer negative consequences D. values & crisis i. Values are the larger positions we have learned and that inform our attitudes, beliefs, and ultimately, ethical judgments. 1. they are more specific ought tos, shoulds, ideals, norms, and goals that exist throughout any society, culture, or community. ii. Not everyone agrees that the same set of values is most important. 1. Competing value view: before a decision can be made, these values need to be discussed, debated, and sorted out. iii. Crises often create the need to balance competing values 1. Values that are important during times of normalcy and stability may not be as critical during a crisis situation iv. In many cases, short-term concerns about budgets need to be set aside so that the immediate needs of victims can be addressed. v. Crises often create the need to balance competing values. vi. Three ethical standards: responsibility and accountability, access to information, and ethic of humanistic care. 1. Responsibility % accountability a. Organizations that embrace ethics early in a crisis are more likely to be able to move quickly toward renewal than those that get caught up in protracted debates about blame and responsibility. 2. Access to information a. Fundamental values of communication: free speech and expression and the free flow of information. b. Any kind of deception is ethically questionable because it restricts the freedom of the person being deceived. 27 c. In some cases, organizations try to avoid providing information because it is too costly and complicated. d. Organizations sometimes withhold information or temporarily postpone its release for a variety of ethically justifiable reasons e. The perception that the organization has been open, honest, and forthcoming with all relevant information may reduce the seriousness of a crisis and ultimately help the organization’s image 3. humanism & care a. A humanistic orientation requires that organizations be sensitive to the harm that may be caused by their operations. b. Many relief agencies and various religious based relief agencies undertake caring and humanistic responses to large-scale crises. E. The role of values in a crisis response i. During crises, it’s very important to take time and think about the ethical implications. 1. Thinking carefully about whom the stakeholders potentially impacted, what their values are, how they might be impacted, and what duties and obligations the organization has to these stakeholders 2. Each stakeholder group will have its own values that may compete with other values ii. One effective approach when it is not clear how to respond is to consider the organization’s own core values iii. Another effective approach is called virtue ethics. iv. A reservoir of goodwill is a general public perception that the organization has been responsible, trustworthy, ethical, and so on. F. Opportunities : i. Organizations are better able to generate productive crisis response if they are willing to accept responsibility for any actions they may have taken to cause the crisis. ii. Organizations that are open and honest before and during crises are better prepared to manage and recover from the events. iii. Organizations that make humanism and care priorities before crisis are better prepared for enacting these values after they have occurred. 28 iv. Organizations are better prepared to avoid or manage crises if they have identified, discussed, and instituted core values. G. Ten guidelines for reducing legal risks in crisis management i. View legal counsel as a resource ii. Analyze legal and other trends iii. Learn from others’ mistakes iv. Be prepared to manage the public disclosure of compliance information v. Respond to marketplace rumors vi. Avoid litigation through communication vii. Anticipate litigation in the development of company documents viii. Choose spokespersons trained in both law and public relations ix. Work with legal counsel to institute a compliance program x. Promote ethical behavior within the organization. H. PR vs. Legal strategies in organizational crisis decisions i. Public relations strategy ii. Legal strategy iii. Mixed strategy iv. Diversionary strategy 1. No one is fooled, but the issue is gently put to rest 2. Not generally advocated by ethical, responsible members of either the law or PR profession v. Legal strategy dominats the organizational decision-making process in crisis situations involving charges of sexual harassment 1. Shortsighted and costly 2. Needs more collaborative approach to crisis communication 29 30
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