Psych250 Exam One
Psych250 Exam One Psych250
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This 24 page Bundle was uploaded by Brooke Meyer on Sunday January 24, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Psych250 at University of North Dakota taught by Katlin Rhyner in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 74 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at University of North Dakota.
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Date Created: 01/24/16
Chapter 1: The Life-Span Perspective 01/19/2016 ▯ Development: The pattern of change that begins at conception and continues through the life span. Most development involves growth, although it also includes decline brought on by aging and dying ▯ The Importance of Studying Life-Span Development Life-span perspective: The perspective that development is lifelong, multidimensional, multidirectional, plastic, multidisciplinary, and contextual; involves growth, maintenance, and regulation; and is constructed through biological, sociocultural, and individual factors working together Characteristics of the Life-Span Perspective Development is Lifelong o No age period dominates development Development is Multidimensional o No matter what your age might be, your body, mind, emotions, and relationships are changing and affecting each other o Development has biological, cognitive, and Socioemotional dimensions Development is Multidirectional o Throughout life, some dimensions or components of a dimension expand and others shrink Learning English early in life decreases the chances of you learning Spanish or Chinese as a dominant language Development is Plastic o Plasticity means the capacity for change For example, can you still improve your intellectual skills when you are in your seventies or eighties? Or might these intellectual skills be fixed by the time you’re in your thirties? Developmental Science is Multidisciplinary o Can be studied by psychologists, sociologists, anthropologists, neuroscientists, and medical researchers Development is Contextual o All development occurs within a context, or setting These include: families, schools, peer groups, churches, cities, neighborhoods, university labs, countries, and so on o Contexts, like individuals, change Normative age-graded influences: Influences that are similar for individuals in a particular age group Puberty and menopause Normative history-graded influences: Influences that are common to people of a particular generation because of historical circumstances Nonnormative life events: Unusual occurrences that have a major impact Development Involves Growth, Maintenance, and Regulation of Loss o Mastery of life often involves conflict, and competition among three goals of human development: growth, maintenance, and regulation of loss Development Is a Co-construction of Biology, Culture, and the Individual o Development is a co-construction of biological, cultural, and individual factors working together The brain shapes culture, but it is also shaped by culture and experiences that individuals have or pursue ▯ Some Contemporary Concerns Health and Well-Being o Health professionals today recognize the power of life-styles and psychological states in health and well-being Parenting and Education Sociocultural contexts and Diversity o Health, parenting, and education – like development itself – are all shaped by their sociocultural context o To analyze this context, four concepts are especially useful: culture, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and gender o Culture: The behavior patterns, beliefs, and all other products of a group that are passed on from generation to generation o Cross-cultural studies: Comparison of one culture with one or more other cultures. These provide information about the degree to which development is similar, or universal, across cultures, and the degree to which it is culture-specific o Ethnicity: A characteristic based on cultural heritage, nationality characteristics, race, religion, and language o Socioeconomic Status: Refers to the grouping of people with similar occupational, educational, and economic characteristics o Gender: The characteristics of people as males or females Social Policy o Social Policy: A national government’s course of action designed to promote the welfare of its citizens Values, economics, and politics all shape a nation’s social policy ▯ Biological, Cognitive, and Socioemotional Processes Biological Processes: Changes in an individual’s physical nature Cognitive Processes: Changes in an individual’s thought, intelligence, and language Socioemotional Processes: Changes in an individual’s relationships with other people, emotions, and personality Connecting Biological, Cognitive, and Socioemotional Processes o Biological, cognitive, and Socioemotional processes are inextricably intertwined Developmental cognitive neuroscience: explores links between development, cognitive processes, and the brain Developmental social neuroscience: examines connections between Socioemotional processes, development, and the brain ▯ Periods of Development Developmental period refers to a time frame in a person’s life that is characterized by certain features o Prenatal period: time of conception to birth o Infancy: developmental period from birth to 18 to 24 months o Toddler: often used to describe a child from about 1.5 years to 3 years of age o Early childhood: period from 3-5 years of age o Middle and late childhood: developmental period from 6-10 years of age o Adolescence: entered at approx. 10-12 years from age 18-21 years of age o Early adulthood: Developmental period that begins in the early 20s and lasts through the 30s o Middle adulthood: developmental period from approx. 40 to about 60 years old o Late adulthood: developmental period that begins during the 60s or 70s and lasts until death Has the longest span of any period of development ▯ Four Ages First age: Childhood and adolescence Second age: Prime adulthood, ages 20-59 Third age: Approx. 60-79 years of age Fourth age: Approx. 80 years and older A key element in the study of life-span development is how development in one period is connected to development in another period ▯ The Significance of Age Age and Happiness: o Many studies indicate as you grow older your happiness increases o As your age increases you are more content with your life, have better relationships with people who matter to them, are less pressured to achieve, have more time for leisurely pursuits, and have many years of experience resulting in wisdom that might help them adapt better to their circumstances Conceptions of Age: o Chronological Age: the number of years that have elapsed since birth o Biological Age: a person’s age in terms of biological health o Psychological Age: an individual’s adaptive capacities compared with those of other individuals of the same chronological age o Social Age: refers to connectedness with others and the social roles individuals adopt ▯ Developmental Issues Nature and Nurture: o Nature-nurture issue: Debate about whether development is primarily influences by nature or nurture. Nature refers to an organism’s biological inheritance, nurture to its environmental experiences Stability and Change: o Stability-change issue: Debate about whether we become older renditions of our early experience (stability) or whether we develop into someone different from who we are at an earlier point in development (change) Continuity and Discontinuity: o Continuity-discontinuity issue: Debate about the extent to which development involves gradual, cumulative change (continuity) or distinct stages (discontinuity) Evaluating and Development Issues o Scientific method: an approach that can be used to obtain accurate information It includes the following steps: Conceptualize the problem Collect data Draw conclusions Revise research conclusions and theory o Theory: An interrelated, coherent set of ideas that helps to explain phenomena and facilitate predictions o Hypotheses: Specific assumptions and predictions that can be tested to determine their accuracy Psychoanalytic Theories o Psychoanalytic Theories: Theories that describe development as primarily unconscious and heavily colored by emotion. Behavior is merely a surface characteristic, and the symbolic workings of the mind have to be analyzed to understand behavior. Early experiences with parents are emphasized Freud’s Theory o Became convinced that their problems were the result of experiences early in life o He thought that as children grow up, their focus of pleasure and sexual impulses shifts from the mouth to the anus and eventually to the genitals o As a result we go through five stages of psychosexual development: oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital o Our adult personality is determined by the way we resolve conflicts between sources of pleasure, at each stage and the demands of reality Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory o Erickson’s Theory: Includes eight stages of human development. Each stage consists of a unique developmental task that confronts individuals with a crisis that must be resolved Trust vs. mistrust Development of trust during infancy sets the stage for a lifelong expectation that the world will be a good and pleasant place to life Autonomy vs. shame and doubt After gaining trust in their caregivers infants begin to discover that their behavior is their own They start to assert their sense of independence or autonomy Initiative vs. guilt As preschool children encounter a widening social world, they face new challenges that require active, purposeful, responsible behavior Industry vs. inferiority Children now need to direct their energy toward mastering knowledge and intellectual skills The negative outcome is that the child may develop a sense of inferiority Identity vs. identity confusion Individuals need to find out who they are, and where there going in life Intimacy vs. isolation Individuals face the developmental task of forming relationship with another, intimacy will be achieved; if not, isolation will result Generativity vs. stagnation By generativity Erikson means primarily a concern for helping the younger generation to develop and lead useful lives Integrity vs. despair A person reflects on the past. If the person’s life review reveals a life well spent, integrity will be achieved; if not, the retrospective glances likely will yield doubt or gloom o Evaluating Psychoanalytic Theories Contributions: An emphasis on a developmental framework, family relationships, and unconscious aspects of the min Criticisms: Lack of scientific support, too much emphasis on sexual underpinnings, and an image of people that is too negative ▯ Cognitive Theories ▯ Piaget’s Cognitive Developmental Theory Piaget’s Theory: Theory stating that children actively construct their understanding of the world and go through four stages of cognitive development o Sensorimotor stage: Birth to 2 years old. Infants construct an understanding of the world by coordinating sensory experiences with physical, motoric actions o Preoperational stage: 2-7 years. Children begin to go beyond simply connecting sensory information with physical action and represent the world with words, images, and drawings o Concrete operational stage: 7-11 years. Children can preform operations that involve objects, and they can reason logically when to reasoning can be applied to specific or concrete examples o Formal operational stage: 11-15 years and continues on into adulthood. Individuals move beyond concrete experiences and begin to think in abstract and more logical terms. As part of thinking more abstractly, adolescents develop images of ideal circumstances Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Cognitive Theory o Vygotsky’s Theory: A sociocultural cognitive theory that emphasizes how culture and social interaction guide cognitive development The Information-Processing Theory o Information-processing theory: Emphasizes that individuals manipulate information, monitor it, and strategize about it. Central to this theory are the processes of memory and thinking Evaluating Cognitive Theories o Contributions: Include a positive view of development and an emphasis on the active construction of understanding o Criticisms: Skepticism about the pureness of Piaget’s stages and too little attention to individual variations ▯ Behavioral and Social Cognitive Theories Skinner’s Operant Conditioning o According to B. F. Skinner, through operant conditioning the consequences of a behavior produce changes in the probability of the behavior’s occurrence o A behavior followed by a rewarding stimulus is more likely to recur, whereas a behavior followed by a punishing stimulus is less likely to recur o In Skinner’s view, such rewards and punishments shape development Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory o Social Cognitive Theory: The view of psychologists who emphasize behavior, environment, and cognition as the key factors in development o Bandura emphasizes that cognitive processes have important links with te environment and behavior o Stress that people acquire a wide range of behaviors, thoughts, and feelings through observing others’ behavior and that these observations form an important part of life-span development Evaluating Behavioral and Social Cognitive Theories o Contributions: Emphasizes scientific research and environmental determinants of behavior o Criticisms: Too little emphasis on cognition in Skinner’s view and inadequate attention paid to developmental changes ▯ Ethological Theory Ethology: Stresses that behavior is strongly influenced by biology, is tied to evolution, and is characterized by critical or sensitive periods o These are specific time frames during which, according to ethologists, the presence or absence of certain experiences has a long-lasting influence on individuals Konrad Lorenz: studied the behavior of greylag geese, which will follow their mothers as soon as they hatch o Lorenz separated the eggs laid by one goose into two groups o One group he returned to the goose to be hatched by her o The other groups was hatched in an incubator The goslings in the first group performed as predicted, they followed their mother as soon as they hatched o However, the second group, who saw Lorenz when they first hatched, followed him everywhere, as though he were their mother o This is called imprinting John Bowlby stressed that attachment to a caregiver oer the first year of life has important consequences throughout the life span o In his view, if this attachment is positive and secure, the indivudal will likely develop positively in childhood and adulthood o If the attachment is negative and insecure, life-span development will likely not be optimal In Lorenz’s view, imprinting needs to take place at a certain, very early time in the life of the animal or else it will not take place o This point in time is called a critical period ▯ Ecological Theory Bronfenbrenner’s ecological theory: Bronfenbrenner’s environmental systems theory that focuses on five environmental systems: microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem, and chronosystem o Microsystem: setting in which the indivudal lives Families, peers, school, and neighborhood o Mesosystem: involves relations between microsystems or connections between contexts Relation of family experiences to school experiences, school experiences to religious experiences, and family experiences to peer experiences o Exosystem: Consists of links between a social setting in which the indivudal does not have an active role and the individual’s immediate contexts Husband’s or child’s experience at home may be influenced by a mother’s experiences at work o Macrosystem: involves the culture in which individuals live o Chronosystem: consists of the patterning of environmental events and transitions over the life course, as well as sociohistorical circumstances ▯ An Eclectic Theoretical Orientation Eclectic theoretical orientation: An orientation that does not follow any one theoretical approach but rather selects from each theory whatever is considered the best in it ▯ Methods for Collecting Data Observation o Can be made in the laboratory and the everyday world Laboratory: A controlled setting in which many of the complex factors of the “real world” are removed Drawbacks: Impossible to conduct research without the participants knowing Causes participants to act “unnatural” because they’re in an unnatural setting Those who come to a university lab may not accurately represent groups from diverse cultural backgrounds Those who are unfamiliar may be intimidated by the laboratory setting Naturalistic Observation: Studies that involve observing behavior in real-world settings Survey and Interview o One technique is to interview them directly o Another form is a standard set of questions which is used to obtain people’s self-reported attitudes or beliefs about a particular topic Standardized Test o Standardized Test: A test with uniform procedures for administration and scoring. Many standardized tests allow a person’s performance to be compared with the performance of other individuals Case Study o Case study: an in-depth look at a single indivudal o Performed mainly by mental health professionals when, for either practical or ethical reasons Physiological Measures o Hormone levels are increasingly used in developmental research o Cortisol is a hormone produced by the adrenal gland that is linked to the body’s stress level and has been measured in studies of temperament, emotional reactivity, and peer relations o As puberty unfolds, the blood levels of certain hormones increase o Another physiological measure that is increasingly being used is neuroimaging, especially functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), in which electromagnetic waves are used to construct images of a person’s brain tissue and biochemical activity o Electoencephaly (EEG) is a physiological measure that has been used for many decades to monitor overall electrical activity in the brain o Heart rate ahs been used as an indicator of infants’ ad children’s development of perception, attention and memory o Eye movement is used to learn more about perceptual development and other developmental topics ▯ Research Designs Descriptive Research o Descriptive research: Studies designed to observe and record behavior Correlational Research o Correlational Research: Research that attempts to determine the strength of the relationship between two or more events or characteristics -1.00 to +1.00 A negative number means an inverse realtion The higher the correlation coefficient (whether its positive or negative), the stronger the association between the two variables o A caution is in order, however. CORRELATION DOES NOT EQUAL CAUSATION Experimental Research o Experiment: A carefully regulated procedure in which one or more of the factors believed to influence the behavior being studied are manipulated while all other factors are held constant Independent and Dependent Variables An independent variable is a manipulated, influential, experimental factor. It is a potential cause A dependent variable is a factor that can change in an experiment, in response to changes in the independent variable Experimental and Control Groups An experimental group is a group whose experience is manipulated A control group is a comparison group that is as similar to the experimental group as possible and that is treated in everyway like the experimental group except fro the manipulated factor (independent variable) ▯ Time Span of Research Cross-Sectional Approach o Cross-sectional approach: A research strategy in which individuals of different ages are compared at one time Longitudinal Approach o Longitudinal approach: A research strategy in which the same individuals are studied over a period of time, usually several years or more Cohort Effects o A cohort is a group of people born at a similar point in history and share similar experiences Cohort effects: Effects due to a person’s time of birth, era, or generation rather than the person’s actual age o Cohort effects are important because they can powerfully affect the dependent measures in a study ostensibly concerned with age ▯ Conducting Ethical Research APA’s guidelines: o Informed consent All participants must know what their research participation will involve and what risks might develop o Confidentiality Researchers are responsible for keeping all of the data they gather on individuals completely confidential and, when possible, completely anonymous o Debriefing After the study has been completed, participants should be informed of its purpose and the methods that were used o Deception In some circumstances, telling the participants beforehand what the research study is about substantial alters the participants’ behavior and invalidates the researcher’s data In all cases of deception, however, the psychologist must ensure that the deception will not harm the participants and that the participants will be debriefed (told the compete nature of the study) as soon as possible after the study is complete ▯ Minimizing Bias Gender Bias o A preconceived notion about the abilities of women and men that prevented individuals from pursing their own interests and achieving their potential Cultural and Ethnic Bias o Historically, people from ethnic minority groups were excluded from most research in the U.S. and simply though of as variations from the norm or average o Ethnic gloss: Using an ethnic label such as African American or Latino in a superficial way that portrays an ethnic group as being more homogenous than it really is ▯ ▯ The Course of Prenatal Development The Germinal Period: The period of prenatal development that takes place in the first two weeks after conception o Includes the creation of the zygote, continued cell division, and the attachment of the zygote to the uterine wall Blastocyst: The inner layer of cells that develops during germinal period. These cells later develop into the embryo Trophoblast: Theo outer layer of cells that develops in the germinal period. These cells provide nutrition and support for the embryo The Embryonic Period: The period of prenatal development that occurs two to eight weeks after conception. During the embryonic period, the rate of cell differentiation intensifies, support systems for the cells form, and organs appear o The embryo has three cell layers that form Endoderm: inner layer of cells, which will develop into the digestive and respiratory systems Mesoderm: is the middle layer, which will become the circulatory system, bones, muscles, excretory system, and reproductive system Ectoderm: outermost layer, which will become the nervous system and brain, sensory receptors (ears, nose, and eyes, for example), and skin parts (hair and nails, for example) o As the embryo’s three layers form, life-support systems for the embryo develop rapidly These life-support systems include: Amnion: The life-support system that is a bag or envelope that contains a clear fluid in which the developing embryo floats Umbilical cord: A life-support system containing two arteries and one vein that connects the baby to the placenta Placenta: A life-support system that consists of a disk-shaped group of tissues in which small blood vessels from the mother and offspring intertwine o Organogenesis: Organ formation that takes place during the first two months of prenatal development The Fetal Period: Lasting about seven months, the prenatal period between two months after conception and birth in typical pregnancies The Brain: o By the time babies are born, they have approximately 100 billion neurons Neurons: nerve cells, which handle information processing at the cellular level in the brain The four important phases of the brain’s development during the prenatal period involve: The Neural Tube Two birth defects related to a failure of the neural tube to close are anencephaly and spina bifida Neurogenesis The generation of new neurons At the peak of neurogenesis, it is estimated that as many as 200,000 neurons are being generated every minute Neural Migration Cells moving outward from their point of origin to their appropriate locations and creating the different levels, structures, and regions of the brain Neural Connectivity ▯ Teratology and Hazards To Prenatal Development General Principles: o Teratogen: From the Greek word tera, meaning “monster”. Any agent that causes a birth defect or negatively alter cognitive and behavioral outcomes The field of study that investigates the causes of birth defects is called teratology The dose, genetic susceptibility, and the time of exposure to a particular teratogen influence both the severity of the damage to an embryo or fetus and the type of defect Dose: the dose effect is rather obvious – the greater the dose of an agent, such as a drug, the greater the effect Genetic Susceptibility: The type or severity of abnormalities caused by a teratogen is linked to the genotype of the pregnant woman and the genotype of the embryo or fetus Time of exposure: Exposure to teratogens does more damage when it occurs at some points in development than at others o Embryonic period is more vulnerable than the fetal period Prescription and Nonprescription Drugs: Prescription drugs that can function as teratogens include antibiotics, such as streptomycin and tetracycline; some antidepressants; certain hormones, such as progestin and synthetic estrogen; and Accutane (used for acne) Nonprescription drugs that can be harmful include diet pills and high dosages of aspirin o Low doses of aspirin pose no harm for the fetus, but high doses can contribute to maternal and fetal bleeding Psychoactive Drugs: drugs that act on the nervous system to alter states of consciousness, modify perceptions, and change moods o Caffeine, alcohol, and nicotine as well as illicit drugs such as cocaine, methamphetamine, marijuana and heroine Caffeine: Maternal caffeine intake was linked to lower birth weight and babies being born small for gestational age Alcohol: Fetal Alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD): A cluster of abnormalities that appear in the offspring of mothers who drink alcohol heavily during their pregnancy These abnormalities include: facial deformities and defective limbs, face, and heart Most have learning problems Nicotine: Cigarette smoking by pregnant women can also adversely influence prenatal development Preterm births and low birth weights, fetal and neonatal deaths, respiratory problems, and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) are all more common from mothers who have smoked during pregnancy Cocaine: In recent studies, cocaine exposure has been linked to lower arousal, less effective self- regulation, higher excitability, and lower quality of reflexes at 1 month of age Methamphetamine: Babies born to mothers who do meth are at a higher risk of infant mortality, low birth weight, and developmental and behavioral problems Marijuana: Research has shown that babies exposed to marijuana experience a lower intelligence level and resulted in children using the same drug at younger levels Heroin: Children who are born to mothers who are addicted to heroin show several behavioral difficulties at birth Including: withdrawal symptoms (tremors, irritability, abnormal crying, disturbed sleep, and impaired motor control) Incompatible Blood Types o If the fetus’ blood is Rh-positive and the mother’s is Rh- negative, the mother’s immune system may produce antibodies that will attack the fetus This can result in a number of problems, including miscarriage or still birth, anemia, jaundice, heart defects, brain damage, or death soon after birth Environmental Hazards o Many aspects of our modern industrial world can endanger the embryo or fetus o Some specific hazards to the embryo or fetus include radiation, toxic wastes, and other chemical pollutants o X-ray radiation can affect the developing embryo or fetus o Environmental pollutants and toxic wastes are also sources of danger to unborn children Among the dangerous pollutants are carbon monoxide, mercury, and lead as well as certain fertilizers and pesticides Maternal Diseases o Maternal diseases and infections can produce defects in offspring by crossing the placental barrier, or they can cause damage during birth o Syphilis is more damaging later in prenatal development – four months or more after conception Damages include: stillbirth, eye lesions, skin lesions, and congenital syphilis o Another infection that has received wide spread attention is genital herpes Newborns contract this virus when they are delivered vaginally o AIDS is a sexually transmitted infection that is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which destroys the body’s immune system A mother can infect her offspring with HIV/AIDS in three ways: During gestation across the placenta During delivery Postpartum (after birth) through breast feeding o The more widespread disease of diabetes, characterized by high levels of sugar in the blood, also affects the offspring Other Parental Factors o Maternal Diet and Nutrition: Children born to malnourished mothers are more likely that other children to be malformed Maternal obesity adversely affects pregnancy outcomes through increased rates of hypertension, diabetes, respiratory complications, and infections in the mother One aspect of maternal nutrition that is important for normal prenatal development is folic acid, a B-complex vitamin Eating fish is often recommended as a part of a healthy diet, but pollution has made many fish risky choice for pregnancy women Some fish contain high levels of mercury Researchers have found that prenatal mercury exposure is linked to adverse outcomes, including miscarriage, preterm birth, and lower intelligence o Maternal Age When possible harmful effects on the fetus and infant are considered two maternal ages are of special interest: Adolescence The mortality rate of infants born to adolescent mothers is double that of infants born to mothers in their twenties And 35 years and older Maternal age is also linked to risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes When the pregnant woman is older the risk that a child will have Down Syndrome increases Down Syndrome has distinctive facial characteristics, short limbs, and retardation of motor and mental abilities o Emotional States and Stress High levels of depression, anxiety, and stress during pregnancy were linked to internalizing problems in adolescence Pregnancy women with high levels of stress are at increased risk for having a child with emotional or cognitive problems, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and language delay Maternal depression during pregnancy is linked to preterm birth and low birth weight in full-term offspring o Paternal Factors Men’s exposure to lead, radiation, certain pesticides, and petro-chemicals may cause abnormalities in sperm that lead to miscarriage or disease, such as childhood cancer Heavy paternal smoking was associated with the risk of early pregnancy loss There is also an increased risk of spontaneous abortion, autism, and schizophrenic disorders when the father is 40 years of age or older ▯ Prenatal Care Usually involves: defined schedule of visits for medical care, which include screening for manageable conditions and treatable diseases that can affect the baby or the mother In addition, prenatal programs often include comprehensive educational, social and nutritional services Exercise increasingly is recommended as a part of the comprehensive prenatal care program o Exercise during pregnancy helps prevent constipation, condition the body, reduces the likelihood of excessive weight gain, and is associated with ma more positive mental state, including a reduced level of depression CenteringPregnancy o This program is relationship-centered and provides complete prenatal care in a group setting o It replaces traditional 15-minute physician visits with 90- minute peer group support settings and self-examination led by a physician or certified nurse-midwife ▯ Normal Prenatal Development The Birth Process o Stages of Birth The birth process occurs in three stages: First stage is the longest of the three. Uterine contractions are 15 to 20 minutes apart at the beginning and last up to a minute These cause the woman’s cervix to stretch and open By the end of the first birth stage, contractions dilate the cervix to an opening of about 10 centimeters (4 inches), so that the baby can move from the uterus to the birth canal For a woman having her first child, the first stage lasts an average of 6-12 hours The second birth stage begins when the baby’s head starts to move through the cervix and the birth canal It is terminated when the baby completely emerges from the mother’s body This stage lasts approximately 45 minutes to an hour Afterbirth is the third stage At this time, the placenta, umbilical cord, and other membranes are detached and expelled This is the shortest of the three stages lasting only minutes Childbirth Setting and Attendants o In 2011, 98.7% of births took place in hospitals Of the 1.3% occurring outside the hospital, approximately two-thirds took place in homes and almost 30% in free-standing birth centers The people who help a mother during birth vary across cultures In U.S. hospitals, it has become the norm for fathers or birth coaches to remain with the other throughout labor and delivery o Midwives Midwifery is a profession that provides health care to women during pregnancy, birth, and the postpartum period They also give information to women expecting about reproductive health, and annual gynecological examinations o Doulas Doula is a Greek word that means “a woman who helps” Doula: A caregiver who provides continuous physical, emotional, and educational support for the mother before, during, and after childbirth Researchers have found positive effects when a doula is present at the birth of a child Methods of Childbirth o Medications There are three basic kinds of drugs that are used for labor Analgesia Used to relieve pain. These include; tranquilizers, barbiturates, and narcotics (such as Demerol) Anesthesia Used in late first-stage labor and during delivery to block sensation in an area of the body or to block consciousness o There is a trend toward not using general anesthesia, which blocks consciousness, in normal births because general anesthesia can be transmitted through the placenta to the fetus o An epidural block is regional anesthesia that numbs the woman’s body from the waist down Oxytocin/Pitocin A hormone that promotes uterine contractions; a synthetic form called Pitocin, is widely used to decrease the duration of the first stage of labor o Natural and Prepared Childbirth Natural Childbirth This method attempts to reduce the mother’s pain by decreasing her fear through education and child birth and relaxation techniques during delivery One type of natural childbirth that is used today is the Bradley Method; which involves husbands as coaches, relaxation for easier birth, and prenatal nutrition and exercise Prepared Childbirth Developed by French obstetrician Ferdinand Lamaze, this childbirth strategy is similar to natural childbirth, but includes a special breathing technique to control pushing in the final stages of labor and a more detailed anatomy and physiology course Cesarean Delivery Normally, the baby’s head comes through the vagina first, but if the baby is in a breech position, the baby’s buttocks are the first part to emerge from the vagina As a result, if the baby is in a breech position, a surgical procedure known as a cesarean section is performed o Cesarean delivery: Surgical procedure in which the baby is removed from the mother’s uterus through an incision made in her abdomen Assessing the Newborn o The Apgar Scale is widely used to asses the health of newborns at one and five minutes after birth Apgar Scale: A widely used method of assessing the health of newborns at one and five minutes after birth, this scale evaluates an infant’s heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, body color and reflex irritability This scale is especially good at assessing the newborn’s ability to cope with the stress of delivery and the demands of a new environment It also identifies high-risk infants who need resuscitation o For a more thorough assessment of the newborn, the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale or the Neonatal Intensive Care Unite Network Neurobehavioral Scale may be used Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS): A measure that is used in the first month of life to assess the newborn’s neurological development, reflexes, and reactions to people and objects Neonatal Intensive Care unit Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS): An “offspring” of the NBAS, the NNNS provides an assessment of the newborn’s behavior, neurological and stress responses, and regulatory capacities ▯ Preterm and Low Birth Weight Infants Preterm and Small for Date Infants o Three related conditions pose threats to many newborns: Low birth weight Weight less that 5.5 pounds at birth Very low birth weight newborn weigh under 3.5 pounds at birth Being born preterm Born three weeks or more before the pregnancy has reached full term Being born small for date Those whose birth weight is below normal when the length of the pregnancy is taken into consideration o Recently, considerable attention has been directed to the role that progestin might play in reducing preterm births Progestin is most effective in reducing preterm birth when it is administered to women with a history of a previous spontaneous birth at less than 37 weeks o The incidence of low birth weigh varies considerable from country to country Poverty ridden countries where the heath and nutrition of the mother is poor have higher percentages of low birth weight babies In both developed and developing countries, adolescents who give birth when their bodies have not fully matured are at risk for having low birth weight babies Consequences of Preterm Birth and Low Birth Weight o As a group, they have more health and development problems than normal birth weight infants For preterm birth, the terms extremely preterm and very preterm are increasingly being used Extremely preterm infants are those born at less than 28 weeks gestation, and very preterm infants are those born at less than 33 weeks of gestational age o The number and severity of these problems increase when infants are born very early and as their birth weight decreases Survival rates for infants who are born very early and very small have risen, but with this improved survival rate have come increased rates o severe brain damage Children born low in birth weight are more likely than their normal birth weight counter partners to develop a learning disability, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorders, or breathing problems such as asthma Nurturing Low Birth Weight and Preterm Infants o Two increasingly used interventions in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) are Kangaroo Care Involves skin-to-skin contact to which the baby, wearing only a diaper, is help upright against the parent’s bare chest Why use kangaroo care with preterm infants? Preterm infants often have difficulty coordinating their breathing and hear rate, and the close physical contact with the parent provided by kangaroo care can help to stabilize the preterm infant’s heartbeat, temperature, and breathing Massage Therapy Has a stress reducing effect on the preterm infants, which is especially important because they encounter numerous stressors while they are hospitalized Infants who were massaged with moderate pressure by their mothers gained more weight, performed better on the orientation scale of the Brazelton, were less excitable and less depressed, and were less agitated during sleep The infants of depressed mothers who received massage therapy had lower stress, as well as improved emotionality, sociability, and soothability compared with the nonmassaged infants of depressed mothers o The postpartum period: The period after childbirth when the mother adjusts, both physically and psychologically, to the process of childbirth. This period lasts for about 6 weeks or until her body has completed its adjustment and returned to a near prepregnant state ▯ Physical Adjustments A woman’s body makes numerous physical adjustments in the first days and weeks after childbirth She may have a great deal of energy or feel exhausted and let down Those these changes are normal, the fatigue can undermine the new mother’s sense of well-being and confidence in her ability to cope with a new baby, family and life Loss of sleep is a large concern in the postpartum period o This loss of sleep can contribute to stress, marital conflict, and impaired decision making After delivery, a mother’s body undergoes sudden and dramatic changes in hormone production ▯ Emotional and Psychological Adjustments Emotional fluctuations are common for mothers in the postpartum period 70% of new mothers in the U.S. have what are called postpartum blues o About 2-3 days after birth, they begin to feel depressed, anxious, and upset Postpartum depression: Characteristic of women who have such strong feelings of sadness, anxiety, or despair that they have trouble coping with daily tasks in the postpartum period o Typically occurs about 4 weeks after delivery ▯ Bonding A special component of the parent-infant relationship is bonding o Bonding: The formation of a close connection, especially a physical bond between parents and their newborn in the period shortly after birth ▯
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