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JREM 466 Bundle

by: Anna Ingleburger
Anna Ingleburger
Intro Contemporary Media
Erin Whiteside

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About this Document

Here are all my notes from Fall 2015 JREM 466.
Intro Contemporary Media
Erin Whiteside
journalism, Media, diveristy
75 ?




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This 70 page Bundle was uploaded by Anna Ingleburger on Monday January 25, 2016. The Bundle belongs to JREM 466 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Erin Whiteside in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 53 views. For similar materials see Intro Contemporary Media in Journalism and Mass Communications at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.

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Date Created: 01/25/16
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Sulagr wmrh in Eh Super hjgh inmat nati ml is m39ta nncd in 25 II E Elftnmf t g indi un nf w United Statesquot Leggmrr Yen Elm uf39 d1 Super Eml s glam its he TEHEFIEE Em nf mis m FRGFEEEIDHHL SFQHTS Whitman and mare 01d W d U f The fact Him Supt mt dam an we Wilma ame qwm ma n atquot in night It nut 5W5 dam mr ding world39s tap sparring mm 39 39 a spar m firiliircu Eur pmpl the The r gt EmAussie TW 21 39II I mi Emmi that th 39iztm mm pawl w l In mmh i dag RI 39Wb d Cup 2 gr Brazil ind Em Hint an m the mm had i Ean a icing 1th law gummy it bum the spomg fan m as a span that dares mm as m inn Eula mart u w m in are lm 1 tmds In quot the lacpa mnding i t ti prof anal tb l 510M tartan m iml39f ta in ame the miy the But the we is ta bee ame Elm and man if it shadd ma a in which mm ier is n bill and 15h nmii nnal 51 quotGUu m the cl GELE prim Super aw 39 the Immi mx an was aw 2 JREM Page 12 quotE Elmgnu Elf 39I Reading guide Tuesday Auust 1 2 15 1122 AM Reading Guide Martin i1 84 Reeveaj L 2MB The Super lin wl and Chatwiniam In L Terr e tLj Prefeaai39nnnl Spartaquot Examining pep eultnre plat E39iw i j San illegal G reentaeen Preaa What mg the mllthmquot quotwall by thE great E Ell39l39p39 l m The assumption that outside the US or NFL sports aren39t important US sports are the best Wheat interest rlnee it Serve tn imagine the Snpeanwl ae an internatinnal event and haw The NFL benefits because it encourages Americans to be a part of something that matters Haw is the viewing experience tlill enent fer individuals in tiliff39etent part5 ef the world The timing is very different from people in the US and most of them are unfamiliar with the sport The anthers argue that the NFL will net gain in tietnatinnal papalarityi Why It focused on hegemony not global ideas JREM Page 13 Notes Thursday August 272 21115 1116 AM Review Agenda Power of Mass Media fear of IdEOIOEY Nazi Germany Ritual model application War of the Worlds Transmission Model Focus on the message itself Ritual Model Focus on delivery Focus on beliefs communicated Messages maintain viewpoints Media is a space where a particular view of the world is portrayed and confirmed Consuming media becomes a ritual that helps maintain our shared beliefs The presentation of communication serves a function in ordering society Ideology a system of meaning that defines and explains the world and makes value judgments about it quotCommonsense view of the worldll World view Belief system What does it mean to be normal Justifies opinions choices and policy American Work ethic Money Democracy Christian JREM Page 14 JREM Page 15 Sept1 Tuesday August 18 2015 1120 AM 739 J nP r nj h m a 39 a quota fauna kgmtmlga nkLsmam 115 u E Efciz a Tammi m m Gnursel a a emala Readmnsgs F r39 llass amnes aym Sept 12 For Class 351 Tuesday Sept 1 Readiing guide fur class 33 Tuesday 59m 1 t ached Fines 3 Chapter 13 D HLJEMM read iing guide mc n 481 KB Heading assignment 39I hr Tlueaday Sept 1 DIUSMM Eh I3 Il39rl39l39lne 2Hhhlnnrn I l39 nH J 39 mill ILIE39quot quot39 39 n nl39nni icn39fii nllmn iii391 Hfu l n nlnn f iirIl 1quotT1I q 1 JREM Page 16 an Rear i ng gtti the Chapter 3913 quotRepresentatiehs ei39 Class in Diversity in US Mass Media Why tie the HLHITDTS suggest that narratives teatihg the United States as art quotegalitarian ideal are misleading W 3 DCXOKA CK Q55 c5 40 le QmCvw c4 5 S Hewdeeritiea lseheiars define elass a 8mm 0 SN iQr W i e Wi tat itihti euf steree types de ragsteriehes sterylihes perpetuate QMK 7W 0ft la j 39 74M Cm Edam i i i t with he 39ttiquot i MW IEJ ways are em eplee In eevrslen DOME we are we wnrried ah eut inertmpiete and unevenquot news etwerage eat the peer JREM Page 17 Notes Tuesday September 1 21115 1114 AM Ideology Focus on social class Stereotypes and ideology American Exceptionalism Manifest destiny Global example of democracy and social mobility Critique of US Materialism Tolerance of internal social problems Extremes of poverty and wealth Communicating Ideology Education Family Religion Government Business Media through the accumulation of images and ideas over time and space Relationship between ideology and stereotypes Stereotypes stem from ideology Example Stereotypes attached to the ideology about poverty Welfare mother If you39re poor it39s your fault t b Lazy Uneducated Substance abusers White trash Violent Criminal Dishonest MN MW WCMi M WWme ina uw il mm W JREM Page 18 MW 2W 0 m f Sept3 Tuesday August 18 2015 1120 AM 39 my twigi quot e V T gr ilms J I Course Materials Readings For Class 3 Thursday Sept 3 For Class 3b Thursday Sept 3 Reading and reading guide for class 3b Thursday Sept 3 Attached Has 3 food network reading gmde doc 23 KB L KetchumFood pdi pdf 391 323 MB Reading assignment for dass 3b Thursday Sept 3 Kelchum Ct 0007 Tunnel vision and food A political economic analysns of Food Network in S BanctWciscr C Chris amp A F rcltas Eds Cable visions Telewxmn htjmml browcaning pp ISKl7639 New York New York Umwcrsuty Press thcIlhhlaamn r 39 L LL 1 quot quotnnlnnfien h mlrca id RSO 12rnn9nnl id 1771 1 JREM Page 20 Reading Guide Ketehum C 2011 Tunnel vieiieru and feed ft pelitieal eeenemie anallyeis atquot Feed Metaer Ilu IS Ba aetWeieet C Chris Ft eitae Ed ijq If 39tr he e ratttma39 T39eft 139ftttart themed Itt neteii39t39m rt g Jpn 15 Trial Mme Turk New Earle University Fire55 In what wage wee Serippe ttttiqael peeitiened ta launch The Feed Netwet39k tn ether wards hew lid Sertppe39 extetiag tml dinge emtttt aute ta TFN39e SUCCESSfttl launch S Why deee the Feed Netwet k tareSent teed net CGHtI EE E Ei uv 725 W What eategnr tiltvitamin and hume and llit miyle televieainan it an attractive genre tenquot em petate uwnete W 4 MW W W 1tittfltat is a eeIwetged expertenee by tritewere and lame Cl aee it help the Feed Hetwnrk and Strippit MA M W Why won t the ideas and centth in aeeteeller beet5 like EttperStee Me and Fast Feed MatteIt fail te make it into shewe appearing on the Feed Netwetlt WWU70L lt JREM Page 21 Cable Visions Tgiavi n Bey39 nd Bm dm i g ED111155 PET Sam BHHEE W i Cy HIM 51 C31 his mind Amway Frei m i I New Yr r fk U f l i f i y Pms HE39W ELIIRK lf E51 JNUJUH JREM Page 22 Eltnjhter 7 Thntftel itquotisicttt ettcl Fuucl El Peltticnil cetttttttic ttctijt is inflicted Netwnrlc Cheri Ketchttm in the 193055 televieinn executi39tee Tat mild ltttet39 FFtJll ljljr39 scuffed at the idea nil a channel deemed entiter tn tenth Cuelting shewe were relegated mttstltquot tn public telet39iSicrt i cl ta ttclt hr the ncceeinnnl weekend nftetnnntt tint at n mtttnterciel ctet innh utferingc Thnun ptngtntne like lulle Ch iisicl e heel been successful and were reinWet cheep tn pendent ther wetettil 39E i t iti rml primetime materiel himtenet 1993 lieud Netwan was launched with the hnpe that there wee meant lint this type f rticl39te Pt gt tlml g in the expandeel channel ttlii eringe Ell cttltllc lift the begin ning the netwutlt Struggled But thtnugl t titt eelectinn nncl ccce tittzn cit sett in 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nee nutritinn t2 eLtt cncl ethict in this teeny l examine tn39tne nf the politictit tutti ecnnntnic underpin ttingt nt lfnncl Netttrnrlt in an e ntt tn prueicie a better undetetnncling Inf huw nteclie discnuttee permitting tu Chmj in cable leltttFiS lt n ere cnn Teawatt 39tr sinn t rmt than til attained h the requirements nf cnpittth 39thugh there it a great deal htquot pn liticelecnnntnic reeenrch that iltltlnf l iIL S hnw capital hinders centcseinn titer little academic week has ntltlteeeecl the cntttlttereial unclepinning Intquot llieetyleutientecl channels like Fennel Netwntlt This ttetwutlt is alien intetm tting ltccau e Elli W35 litit lt39 t ttct39ptinnnl in the cahIe htlttlneee in its initial plan tn tel nintnet exclueieely un acitr39ertirting revenue ineteacl n f enh ectiptictn tllnllate ftctnt cehle cetttpenf ej tn prneicle ntuel til its eaten cun tcnta encl tn attentinn in engine netrnteccethtg plant Thmugh present ing cln tn nn lined Neewrite htteineet ntttnettt39eringe encll pmgtemmhtg Clinician i then hintti ecnnnmic tectctre I tnt e shapeth and listtittedi title net WGIWFE nl39ifetittgt Fennel ights in utclet tn malice ittl39cttmccl chnlces ehnut lined the puhlic must heat tie hetee regarding the enciel end entiten mental intplicntinns n1quot such citetees hecntdi ngly fend iEEttce have heen tntnntinentJ7 r l39ututeti in the nteclltt in leftti Rachel Getter tint Fuhlishecl Silent Spring heel that tlncttntented the harmful effects that the pesticide ltlitl heel en humane and wil lile P uh lic enter leti tn n hen nn DDT in the United States in 1931 Seventeen nestle inten in 1935 a Sixty Mintttet segment cm the tin ngerre nt39 hint wee Enxl l wetd by a it 39Jtiil39 CAEf39I decline in apple enleeJ The apple irttfltteltgt blamed the ptthlic39tt cctt39tcetn that 55ft miiun lease until renen heE ftenncd intg tn 3 1933 suture cansclttctecl he the Feed Marketing institute lie Westlti glunheeed trade eesrteiutienh 535 percent clquot thnee eurt39E39tf til claimed tn he cuncetnecl ehnut chemical reeitlue in their thee In the tnggtnea repent en mad cnte citstease scared ennte penplc twat trnrn heer tit lee3t tentpntnrily i Mute te centltr Et ic Echieteet tn ld milliune Ellquot cnpiee of ten than Mutant hie eit nnee en the littt fend restaurant intluett 5tquot end the datum enter Septteiee Me which incucee Hi the health implicntlune ttf eating at MeDuttnlde tene ntte ctf Lhc must euceeee tl tincuntenlttriee if nli titneef The P plll rlijquot nf Ilteec qu recent weeks tiletnnnettetee that fund it an intpnrtant epic the a media etrtttenrt tn nclcltese in terms nF huth en tis ging puhiic interectt nttcl serving public needs fnt interntellun hitcl public cencern tt39huut the US let39th supply is persistent ft tenet Runner pell fennel that ten percent nl these surveyed believe that IEIPHG39IJFE tn pettickles i5 tithe7 tientirnti ng theee heart the EM tank pesticides es the third lending cancer rich nmnng the Eat heeetcle that it regulatesa JREM Page 23 ll ll CH EH39 EETCHUM In addition to pmminent fears over possible thod contamination there have heen ongoing concerns shout the health risks of a high list high calorie diet hr the early goons than nutritionists and rnedia outlets were claiming ohesirjr was an on ericao e17 jcler uicl italanon Nestle among other scholars compares ueur political struggles around food to the deltetes around tohacco in the tooosll Thisanalog is holstered lter government statistics that shotsr weiglrtrelaterl39 illnesses are just behind deaths linked with tobacco ccording to one study in soon obesityrelated illnesses caused as nanny as sinonus more than is percent of all deaths In comparison tobacco use killed 4331Joo people iii percent all deaths less on the public radiate but equally important are concerns related to glohal environmental destruction and ttt rltEt l exposure to harm in agri cultu to production Environmental concerns include worries ENE the de struction of hastc resout39ces lithe air soil and water and chemical rislts to both humans and animals Even less publicised are the often deplorable working conditions for those in the food and agricultural industry espe cially for migrant laborers Each year benreen room and semen farm workers are poisoned by pesticidetH and in too farm workers suffered from tqonuo disabling injuries 39E llutside of the elds jolts in the meat paclcing industry are among the most dangerous in the nation with over erosion injuries per year In clairr production workers outlier ch mhic strains m39uetitive syndrome lower had pain asthma which is caused h exposure to notions font es 3 Within this contest of both public concern about food saletjr issues and as problematic food production system Food Henrorlr was launched The network s prograrmuing systematically ignores anF critiques of the L15 food system in favor of celebrating food consumption hood Network is of a trend of the mass aeoiding serious ci rneersations tl mU E the environmental rislcs or ethics of contemporary capitalism Political Economy and Democratic Merlin This analysis is grounded in the theoretical ts39or ls oi 39 itical political econ onur lhncent triosco captains that oolitiml economists are generalhr inter ested in studying control and survival in social lilo and maintains that control processes are broadly political in that they involve the social orga nisation of relationships unthio a co ruuutnits ll Peter Golding a ocl Gra ham Murdoch contend that artsr athalrsis should begin he looiciug at the Tutorial When and Food ii39ir organisation of property and production as the inundation tor all cul total production l39rlosco further notes that Lpolitics ewcnnornists who study communication analyse historical forces seal to understand alsoA ctoi totality and embrace moral philosophy or analring claims about the social gocnllEl Though sometimes denigrated the other scholars for economic determinists M osco insists that potilical economists see HIE nomtc factors as just one of man forces that shape social inferaod Cultural ttroduction22 I m M A I l l h m l5 El l ng illmm limmm l tlllun FraserItch that has studied the impact that corporations and sponsors lines on the production of content relation to parent company with been accused of or 39 suring the news divisionsquot coverage of the rst Gulf War Find an Mil Journalist has accused lisuetr of rejecting stories critical olquot litisner s labor nractieozH in another case hos news journalists in Florida were halted to change their critical story about the potential dangers of the geneticall ir engineered recombinant bovine growth hormone irli 31H given to course to increase mills production after the journalists r eeeieecl 39tlalc From corpo rate heads and Monsanto the ecuingotsr that produces the hormoneLa These cases are examples of how the pursuit oi pro ts arid the avoid ance of controversy can afFect news However the type of instructional and liihstrleeorientecl programming offered by l ood Netscork and other cahle channels including The Learning i2l1annelquott39he Travel Channel or Di cuttersl has not been conttttuhensi rel analysed for its politicaleco nomic foundations or Lhe programming that results from its commercial commitments Critical analysis is needed not only in hardhiirring news but also in mundane discourses about coolring dinner Ideologies also play out heroerrors though such clailt practices are often seen as apolitical all commercial television networks Food Nettioil has considered the desires of advertisers iron the outset l art ot39 the new network s appeal to investors use its plan to draw in sponsors with restaurant reeietes nu tritional information and tness news all themes with identi able con sumers Though this is part of a long Pilllsi l oi nro tseelting in US tclcttis ioiu todarh multichannel cahle world has created seen more prose sure to appeal to an attractive welldehnecl consumer market and some onentlts some attention to demographics Such concerns inilnenoe a net work39s ability to form alliances with more pooartist industry players its programming choices and its brand identities Ther also de ne the eucli ence only as consumers his a result in the case of Food Neheorlt it has been dillicult to It39s ise issues around food that might engage the audience JREM Page 24 52 C H e at H e 3939 t H U M as eithzens quotcitizens whit entih l he eurEEemeel aheut the ris lxt ml ethics 0E feud ear ether cutrtmnttit lartttlrneti tmt Eta early as the tQt i tt eahle ttetwurhs began ttt entrantrite their atltiienees tel spunsnrs hasetl ht the qual39ty at viewers as much as ea Eta mere sir than the quantity efviewers Stash early attempts at targeting a narrew set fe n umer in it t ttt ltlcl ttttti tell etteirtrnment meant there W lttiLl new he irnpartant similarities between the newer terms at eahle teleeisien pm gramming and the elder media nf magazines Er terms itquot eeneeptualieau timm t39tlquot audiences and tttuttettt selectinnu In their seeia39l histur39y advertisw inter Williatit39l Leissa Stephen Kline and Stat Emily mutttad that in the earlr tg nsi when ttmgaaines hegan ttt deeelep mere higth segmented thrntatsn thit39t ttt was prttdtteed in an efl39ttt t it create a lucrative eneirtmt t tmt39t FIJI the rteetttihn elf advertisements and IftItljtquot wellde ned thasun39ter gruups were deemed teerthr inf targeting Cttneeellaertt tr mntent became even more bland and thteentret39erslsl in an e 39ert to create pleasant feelings in the audienee anti ta tttalte sells term than mere attractive and exciting Fer their PEEL advertisers Likewise heeame lesis interested in speei e ideas than in fhrmats amt stylistic techniques heeause they the1 wanted tn esta hlrieh a particular quotmend tether than heightening interest engaging etmtentg Teilevt t tt alse Stt39I t39 a strung push Its better ittesh enntent and enmttte FEEIHlSt which is a keepert eul39 Fund Metrenet j s market plan in 199939 the thenpresident ef the Farrel Newark Eric tillset said he wanted to de tall things lined emphasis retitled Hewever Fragrant mitts ehet39ees indieate that the ti39 t k has a narrate de nitimt nan all things it Iiaetl re ecting the general terse Sara Mnultnn Inner Elf the teetil Heftmm shewtr Sam39s Ferrets tinLl eeeettttee eh e lr39 taxi Getirtttet tttttgttet39tte said nf fhuti mLet s thee it We eat earttreeersial lth ahetut the anti thing in ear titres right new that is39It39t fu39m that and is net neeessar y inherejtthr Lienmnm 39trn39eersial Rather it is network EECIJIiMEE wha have made ptugramming Chinktit 39ttttt ensure that tted is rarely mtthrtteersiie L111 Fraud Newark t39md this strateett meteater related to the marketing rat gentle Mthmtgh the FJEiWtmi daes nnt sell gentle tithertha te the pahlit in its PTttgl at et as this teanld hri the taint nt transforming shew ith tnf m t t l t it anh thi39 refers viewers ttt its website and there hazenthr its shnppittg eharmelp where geeas are strict direetht Feet Netwn rit illustrates hath eemrnnzn antl utttetmttett trends in the eshle industryr like ether eahle ventures the netwnrh was detelnpetl wellestahl39isll39led televisielh insider Reese ehettfelti fhunttihg president at the Cable News Nutrient1r CNNJ whn understand the impnrtanee emf Tammi la Ett39utt rtrtrtlIiehti tee identifying a elear tensumer market hiltth industry ennnxeetiens meant the Newark was ahle te attraet the capital heeessargr tn grow But Feetil Newark teas allse ttnitjue in its initial plan ttt get la seleltr en advertising feasting ten pmt nee the maittritjr set its pregrammjngt and tr mix pretri eust disparate teletr inn genres ta attract heth fisheries and ethets 39 his ineluries mixing melting instrttetierns with the tallt shew game show or travel genres Finding that a Inerstiee market niche cettltl he achiever h5 tergeting a variety nf audititem ihelttding these Frnrn the middle tenet tt39et ltjng classes and men as well as wen tett Ferrel l sl et39ttnrh has also heen ahle ten attract spentart that range from tree the tween Eh39tt it the Ghee Garden and Mereedes Eerie Threngh these tt39 gmmmtng ehtaiees the neewnrllt eultiarttted new aadiettees tnr theerelated pingratnming and treated new ancillaryr emnernit nppertunjties at itself This was a sharp tnntrsst tn its early greats hf tellartte en entreentienal jnstruetinnal entrie irtg theses The Mastery tiff Feed Net tvrmli There is a long histh nf seeking lt W in hnth radiu and 39teleyisinm hut mest have been produced flat netteemmertiaj staLiehs heeense the mailer networks elitl net see them menegtrmahere Dru the ether hand public ststiu tts intranet these shews attractive heta ttse they were tatexpensiee tn prndute anel inertrelated spensnrs Were readily siesilahle The biggest hreaflt39thrhngh the teletLsitm melting shutts htturretl in tea with the an tateetted Success if an Ltnljlteltr eelehrite chef at midtlJe agett quotwennan harmed Tttlht Child 39Whtt Ettnketl French tenet The success nf Gh39iltl s tren gtamt The French Che eat P135 prth E l nee impnrtant lessensh T he rst was that melting shutters tettid attract a male audience Ieremtr Ilggers El ill t ts that he f m Child g ttl39 39l f E h itl tg Wile t h ittglft39l ttr Emitterhe the read tellers etfete a hit ef s smelt and slums always a hee heletrf tten it eeultE be her the mastu ne man the thateel Ehiltl s friendliness well as her willingness tn reveal her nwn mistakes and ilft tpf vll eg made her en dearing to a wide anthemtit The seeand impertsnt realization arising hettt the feet that her featured items wenltl frequently sell hut in steres the after her shews aired was that the shnw eeultl ael etmuttlzuhaltsr lined products and making Suppers The success int Ehildis sh net led FEE af li ates tn tletrelttp anther air either melting shewas including The Fright Geurmett The Gttitlaphtg Geurmet and lift Cent Conic Fm JREM Page 25 l lld I H E H K E T L H Li M White PBS was airing seeeral cranking shnws the cnmmcrclal nettetirlts primarily used them as tiller hetwesen hither shelters up until the late linens Then in the early igtins rnany lncal af liates hegan running syndicated melting shnws during the daytime at weekend limits Nanenrlcs were prahahly attracted ta this anagram thing because ni its late cast and useful ness in ful lling FCC requirements ahnut airing lncat andiar edncatinnal Prtigtttmming that it was neat until the increased demand tar content and target audience segmenting brought air can by the rapid xeaiiansien et ea hle in the team that cranking shnws became more iii a mainstay at eennrier cia39l te le eisien Seeing a tactcntial gap in Ll mi il39lclllflfhETEIEtZl circigranirniirtga the early Feud Nelsendc llll39iti39l attempted to reprndnce the cnnyentinnal cnnlcing shnw genre With relatively inty hudgets fnr prntgra nnning and the poten tial tn sell advertising tirne tn understated husiaessest eaectitiyes f39elt ther cuulcl maize a prn t item develcnping cantent the what they cansidered is he an underseryecl ntartcet niche upscale whines Bat early cm the net wnrlc hart cliF cutties attracting viewers lined Netwnrlc s history denier strates hciw the search the capital enceuraged the ereatinn at a pie gram sting erwirnnntet39lt that celebrated the pleasures ntcnnsanaer culture mime limecity in the early 19905 a representative mm the Prueidience inurnal EDD patty appsnached Schnat39eld sheet deeetepiag cahlc netts39ur ls devoted en tirely to fend When asked if it made sense tn hinti Echnnilielcli respnnded yes and that it enticed hecanse quotfeed and pactraged grinds is sic the larg est advertising category 01quot the chantry s trip the advertisers are are tired related Erie Schlnsser claims that by 2U 1 the Fast hind industry alcme spent ahant 3 hillicin annually nn Lclcyisinn adyertisirug l ljrnyidencle Jnurnal Campsites a snrnewhat diversi ed media firm with hnldings in newspapers cable t39eieyisinn systems bmadeast relayi sinn statinrisF shnpped the idea mantle and was able Ln attract a range nf ether l ttedla intestate including the Chicago Tribune jumpany Scrippee Heward CQtttlttct ltal Cable and Landmark 39Cnnimtinicatiun 39l39hese companies presided capital in exchange for equity in the cnm party Printi clenee undid air the net39snth err its cable system Ctrinny Communica tirtnt and limitsquot cleats with miter multiplesystem UPL IIMUI E fid s 391th get Feed Nttli 39 tfli inter hnnse39hcildsr 1quot central strategy 1teas tn nudistquot tn provide the nehynrit fcir 1F the cahle system agreed tn air the network in 30 percent atquot its subsc39cihersim ti quotEnrth concentrate in twn areas pingrarnnthig that Was in Tim reel Vistas and res Feed Me neerte was launched in Neyeinher 1593 The owners anticipated spending between 5th and an militant haters the netwcirlc turned a pre tt tstitch it heaped tn den nasty in its QUE h year199fnil Such a delay as well as substantial multiyear ins are expected in starting up a new netinitialsI and they nnderscnre hath the necessity at big hackers and the ability In talce ennrmnuis Financiai risks to become cnmpetititre in the cable indus try Thus at either antherrs in this ynlnnie nni nt cuntt scrintirnic and either harriers tn entry malce it dif cult liar netsr independent cable channels in U succeed after a year things did not levels grind the the neeacids Theuglt it reached henssen 1c and 1t ntillicin cable subscribers in was and landed a natinnsl attestrising centract with a gracer chain uyerali ratings teens dismala and adyertisers were turned nit quotthat year cahlr analysts were questinning its uiahilityj saying that cahle was already lled with niche ymgramming and that ant all these channels cnulcl succeedE But its nmsnect s great y changed with the phennmenal s ccess all with Whit arealcl euei39ttua y he linenca simply Emeri lf success prairieted the nenectrlt ta change its narrateresisting strategy and tn attract yetinger peca ple and males lit regs jnst prim tn limeril s rise in snperstarderm t nnc39l Mentor hired a new programming disasters Erica Green in transient1 the nearestth sufferings Seen after signing an she launched its Website teatimeem Tr39i39l39tlfl39l is frequently prnrnnted can the channel In terms Lilli pmgramming she taught tn acquire and create innueatiye fund media Ilcr attitude as she Put it was tn dump the hasbeen chefs rst with the talking head lieliinclasteye Strip lecturing tiewem and entertain them Far Gwen nmgramming ahnnt fend needed in the light and funny and tn engage with viewers in ways that weald connect tend to ccinstirneiquot litestylest Instead cit ji39lj39S39l39 running seeking stint2s l ecicl Network wenld hence uctinnd and prngrarnrning that wnuld arne uid part ll liyin gt a cerat artahle grand life Despite Enterile success the future netwciric president lud y ILiirarcl contended that only a small percentage if the audience was interested in melting shintits Titenri39hren ancl Nefertiti W uld take penple intn iantasy starlets cit vicarietts ceitsttnitttian where everyone had access an nice lined and heautihrl stirrniindiiiga and it accnniplislied this atrial by linersiting its pmductinn values and incurring were an what it called quotcategclry televi sinn a tccn39i 1 clahnratc an later in this essay JREM Page 26 ihfulrichaanel News described the in a zoos article likening the transformation of the networh to the remodeling of a lcitci39rcnh where linoleum oors are repllacecl with marblequot Eileen patuh senior vice presi dent of programming told Mattichcnad new that in the late logos the 39nenvork began emphasizing stories Zahout iood and nding hosts that audiences could latch onto I39tt earlyhs 195 it hogan investing to pro rgtantniing to get hosts out of the ldtchen and hiring producers who had done work on channels like Discovery sitEdi and the History Channel Dpatnt said that the networh now shroots39a l of its programs like sports ts liven if something is in a frying pans wants quotto get it into that pictu 2 Such changes required funding whteh cante team a takeover by EW Ecri pps tfotnterly herippsl lowardl Though ratings were still poor in tears Scripps saw Food Mervrock as an important clement in a new strategy the company was adopting namely cornering the market for lifestyle and homehnpnvcrncnt programming An early investor in Food Net vmrk Scripps bought Home and Garden 39Iielev ion tIvIGT v39 and sought majority control oiquot the Fund channel in 119516 Then1 in 199 Scripps made a deal with u Halo Corp a company that had telch over the Provi dence Journal lElwinpatnyh to acquire 5d percent cit Food Network In cote changeJ the H Belo would he given two television stations antl 33 mil ll nai Bi wuss Ecripos owned fie percent of Food Mensatie with the Iirih Line Company owning the rentainclerquot39ii Following this deal the network took advantage of rules passed In the league table act which required that cahle systems make arrangements with Local TV stations to carry their signals Scriops owned ten broadcast rele vision stations covering in percent oi the national market In exchange for cable systems oIl er ing HGE IM these stations vmuld deliver Scripsz broadcast network39s Eeed to the cahle system i nr Free Scripps recruited 54 other television stations to hartetr the retransmission in carrying FiGii r39ld In exchange these stations would receive percentage oi IIGWE advertis ing revenue Enert39pps soon asked hid s to cite hoth TIE1W and Food Mervrot as a package Its sine and holdings gave it an advantage heret hy the early aoooss Scripps was trying to create an easily iden rhahlc and highly speci c viewer and an advertiseriiicndi y media htand devoted to food calling its Itatrowcasting strategy category tele39vislnnf m Accord ng to Harry Icssell this meant that Scrippa began attempting to in habit the category of home and lifestyle as media genre and capitalize Tunnel Vision and Food 161 on it as much as possible in a pnocess that has Further involved huilding companion wehsitcs and developing merchandising Seeing HEW as a way of tapping into a huge group of sponsors in the do it yourself home iu39tprovcmcnt industry which had previously advertised alniost exclusively In magazines and newspapers Scrip ps pursued its eFForts to build a media cutpica devoted to se ing domestic liitiestylesqetfnrts to which the acqui sition of Foot l Network corttrihuted At that point the target audience n the osmotic tvas both the wealthy and those interested in acquiring the trappings of wealth through huying various middleclass and upscale cnmrnoditics or learning shout thud l 19913 executives at Food Network had made a calculated decision to target a wider audience which would range from lowermiddlecmass uppcreclass lhtt allE and males Their programming directive also changed hennaring personalitydrivem rather than cuisinedriven as this would estahlish a more intimate relation to the audience tlthongh the atoidance of controversial issues was not iisted as a rule given the content shared it does seem as though food controversy were frowned upon in the tor of happy talk about food coolting and dining Before zttttd there were no progrants that addressed health issues and to this day few address any risks in food production or consumption Even the network s documena tariesi which as a petite are more derivative of news pr gr j sc usually simply celebrate famous lined and restaurants In soot I ood Network announced plans for several new shows that were part of their eti39orts to make chefs especially those who are male5 seem ooolf39 T his strategy was dcsigned to target males under 35 a new taglinet taste the adventurei was used to classify a set of programs that showcased various Food quotvoyagesquot including For example those nt ehe 39 hnthony hourdaim author of Kitchen Ceitylidcnrini who would go out in search otwcictrcrnc cuisin from around the world In addition to dishing the nonvorlt safe for nteu this new programming was also edgier and more cntertainmentorieutecl h et years ofquot stttiggie Food Network is now a nancial success In 21191 distribution grew by 31 percent to arts million and ratings increased afi petccnt i Its ratings were up another to 5 percent hetwcen ton and zoos with growth oiquot as and 15 percent among adults I wd l and 2554 re spectively In sons the nenvorh attracted an average of saunao house holds speci caily during prime time each day which was a to percent in crease from the previous yea ctquot 39I oday its estimated reach is said million5a JREM Page 27 i intent KEZI39CHL39M Even with this semewlmt Smell viewership Eeripps eemhi ned eehle site tinns are remitted fth hehinel Diseeverti It39jell39iria rtttnieatietrisI Turner ESPN smei Feij by cable systems in terms if their meenttihuii h in revenues and pm tahilitf lnngjwith Powell Nettimelt brought 2M millil n in Fl39 ll39fs t1 the patent tempeny in new which was up 64 pette nt item the previews yeah L 39 Feed Netsrattle is else time easily tessgnieahie ehle htettei David Everitt explains their as more eitentiele ere availehlre t eve39rell netwwk se39tisw litetiett heeenies more important than an individual pregrem s ratingsquot the netwurh hes whitenl number eme fur ht39tir39l g the liketl heels and unrait pewterhellties 2 In terms at quality lL was ranked in pumpleis mittx FWE femrite cable prugramming servicesl i lluhert LL Thnitrittsttt39jii Dimeth hf the Renter fur the Stud nst39 Pnpuler Televisirm at Spatuse University 39 s that Feed Netwetk has been mete su eeesshil them anytime else at e erestiitg varied lineup eent tereti smiled single tether The Email it Eettsttmer Lifestyle Netwerl The ehnnhel has else become eleser it the early greed conceptualized Reese helwnfeleh wherein the editririal leeks like the ads and the eels luul t iiime the editurial This might be Emmi fur advertising retrentities1 bill it dries Emil llets fer my eri tieel summertime in the pregame Even an Emeril felt interviewed in the trade press admitted that the shew alien seems Eil l infemeteial 111 feet the netwtttlt appears in he attempting tie reeetipe e speee between iniemetsials realitj pmgremmittg Feet itig peeple wettid tum eff the eiiennel it Emeril were he start selling knives eittrighta it instead directs viewers te its website when pretl ttets can he heught I lireestlyd It the future FenLi Netw rlt might direct pe ple in shh pping channel emrding tn LEIEllis Ill IliusrmtriIi Frintl Nemnrl grew up with the idea that fil39i till equals melting New hnwetren lilii d equals l iiiesi39felei and the itemeels lies thertged its et39ietitetien eeeet r tgltt Insets lifestyle iti ireiites diseexurse ef the sell related in eerteiit kinds elf certs Limptime ee eerding ten Eereljm 1tritigltttt it ereates a hermittr sense ef identity and this is the eifeet eff Feed Network s et tentien in lifestyle hxiem Reelamen the ItemBrit39s vice president hi marketing in gene putt iti the nr 39tWUiIlt Shught it attir ettj iEWers whi imight ml lemme at Wt tlt rttm a weifile but f quot I 39limmfl hemmed Feed Mitt I when just might tune in fer cuisinethemed llfak39iigl shows lilte Feilew That a Iquot Feed er Celtic Teti1 There was nit sense that viewers might be inter 39 tested in hearing semiill tit Eit39tlilllCE Ll infemtstimi sheet mail While being thirty ittnneetive in their pregramming eheieee and ad eettisittg eetttpeitts 39Fenci Nermrrk tutti Eeripps have sisu attettttttecl it 39 39 htsneli out ittth hither meats and tili lttersiffrr their revenue stresttts The neta we rltis sot ttpaitihn d Fi PlJlDFt tl wehsite is eunstsntly prDtti tesl hit the Shi39JW shill has hemttte verge seeeeeztfula Between the shuws 39iheIItssl w39ee and with telJet s viewers engage iii what the ahieteievisien Adeettising Bureau tells it en nsergetl esperienee m M t et tet when Viewers leg ran seek ing Further lnstruc lttttl their see 3 range eE39 hettttet advertisements and pmmetigns For 3 satiety til celehritt39 Chefs anti pmdttcts tehrtling Lt K Seeipps the tittehsireEl f dW mb new averages 2e millien page views en ii 11 I milli utt unique viewers eateh month melting it title Lilquot the more twptlltlf unlime site s While people gm tn ihhdtttmm meted tilt recipes 39I39tejiellse emeeunter a quottnerkeiplaeef where the ITIETW UTlE sells kitchenware apparel and fowl as well EELS mekhenks written in its limits Recently the neiwctt39lt has she begun presiding iiisttttetieiiel vieieeas em elementiij end has devel n 39 wiped plans Let latitieh t ttagztsiites Thmugh the ttetwerle Serripps has been able tn hetter realize synergy The empathy has asked its htgtgleest tele139is39ittttttetwnnrlts ir pt tt li tt i tith tent related in feed traeeL mitt hettie niecetetmg that mulel he repttrpuseei 39Fmr the enhle ststiens Ethel triers verse Setim ts else t etet39liltlI lauznvtheei twu other taltle netwetltswvl iine living attitl Der ll 39t39ttut39seli iDlYlaheth Lil which were heavily pmmuietl en heth Feed Neweerie arid HGTV 41ml hegeltte part of Scripps PItiiL39ll lmL tll attempt in he the leetier in liliestjr39le intriguetttttiittgfi E znhgg after just ll treats lei being le utteheeli Elliquot heel reeeheti as millien hemes anti ime Living 2e millien itemizeFl same 39 I year Seripps anneuneed that it wattle begin airing Dl t ptegretttming mt its inreedeest networks in tin attempt tn attreet new viewers its the net Wtixrltf The mmpengt claimed it have great sueeese with preteenlune 39 int HIST nn same statieesh In 1102 Eeripps else acquired it fit peteent mntr lling interest in a lieme slmppittg nether tailed 5hth fit l39l mtief Thettt hi ecuL155 Serippe heugh t the channel h u tright for 5285 willieii The eeittpeh39y planned in melee gee peteth ef the geede quotlifestylerelsted and tel tehr hea itily en Feed Hemetit ehefs tr promete pmeluets that teeLaid he entail hie en the the website where viewers leg itftetwerde tit damtitted recipes err eltttt 39 1 JREM Page 28 u ell39trsrn39lel3H Seripps herpes that Shep Pit Htime will allnw the campers 13 h uilcl a telesisinn crammerce listlsincss which will preside finitestalls stilts tinns lier marketers lit will alert ctnss prttmnte ail Inf its ventures and sell grinds Ur all citi its chart nels lliecause elf this focus tin creating pmgrnmming that Willi generaser sales of featured gends there are tier fuelre nppnrtuni ties tn speak alhnut sett Emptir l 39 Ftrtstl issues The nerttrnrlt claims it he ereetjne inch prengramm tiring tram esere cenceirahle angle inel udhig nostalgia travel trivia cempetitienj ceniests and mere IIeweser quotmerequot tines net innelude an critical pregrentniing which would slimr fer a diversity tit seriess tn ad dress issues related in cnnteinperere feed Kprndnetinn and censnmptinn l39lteugh sureses r ientiened earlier shess that much til7 the pnlslin is cnn eernecl nhtrttt a myriad 0f fetid issuesi airing such cnncems which cnuld alienate the fund industry and other spnxnstsrs as well as petet39itiai airline cwstnrners wnuld became a lialsilirrirr tn the netwer lt Witheut altr ptt39lilie sereice eemniitnients it can inst ad Feces en res i ingpre ts in netswarts in addition rd predttcing varieus revenue streams inr taps the39 I j 39 nerwerlt has else helped trens srm the penislatitj rr and the rianeial tspx pertttnities tier up andearningtheirs Celehrit39jrr ehefs cm lined Netwnrls i Eh f lll present their idealised litres and make inane3r frern selling their K steeds Fer example l39entie Diner heist titT The Naked Hirer snld rnnre tlisn semen cnpies each ef his lirst and seemed hurries and endorses 139FsJ entrainrare Eit tet39il sells m hh lts sealnears ancl a line of spices ancl prepared sauces and endurses riser rsn products Rachel Raye itest ef 3t Minnie M39ssis tiles A Dray and inside Dish wirir Retire Rey full ernhedies the new pltilissuedt3r nFcelehrity chefs wherein cranking just see sharpen enL nF her larger marketing campaign Fer ample as Allister Hermann antes 3n h nure Meal Viewers Esctmbarcled the netwnrlr with lintlIIJllTlES sheet what knives Ra used5i subsequently the netwer l made a deal with Ray and leftistni39 the trans rnanu tuner re sell the Precincts cm 39iendn39eent Ctn rent Feed Network lJresident Ethelts 39 litiliinsOti said that this is a perfect example tsi 11th the netwtsrlt wants tn nperateF and time it is limiting plans its tileseiup mere merchandise with quot its talent lms a public relallluns executive claims that televisinn elteis are quotlient media items ht39cause39quotet1nsumers can see titerraj taste their tted fee they are really getting stimetl39tirtg frern 39tl ten ifm This situa inn is just whet Fund Netwnrlt had wished fer 1n envirenrnent where pregramrnine itself hecemes as type of centn tercial i hr feed tier life styles and fer the celelsr itsr ch ei when represents and premieres heath TiitrnIel Visi srl rindquot Henri 1 Certsinsieri 39El39ttesralln Feed Netwtrrlt tlen mnstra ltts wltal strategies and pregratnming choices were made tn assure that the channel hieicst rie viable l irst it lied 39tEl came up with large arnriunts ell capital from big illltStll39d rr39ns and httiltll a set nitquot identi able cnnsumers witJ it39cre attractive El advertisers Seeend a ittheca39rrte part til largerquot c crrtglnmerate Scripps which leveragtxl its ewe ership ctF heth Isrcraclcast statinns ancl H T d in extend its reach tin sable systems Third the ttestle altered the Chilirentian tsli tsltler fund media tn reach a scaling inedern urban audience This audience was assumed ta he spelitiral and eeneerned ertle with experiencing a pleasant enteirtirtr reenter being entertained Enenuraging viewers nhtnin and use a wide 39 range ni crsnsumer grinds and prenteting restart rant experiences in cenfer 39 symbolic status can individuals programs screed the interests atquot the net 3939ienrlt its spensnrs stncl mnsnmer snrietjgr mere generally Feed Newest is raise an excellent example ci39li i39tciw a netsrustle can llJt part of a ennng merar ed enrporntinn Scrippsl and help it achieve synergy Feed Netwerlr prestilttces inner 9n percent ch its prngrarnming with mini 39 trial nests and Scripps niines be th it and its brendcast ne ttstsr39lts linr new sheets to rise aeress its empire Threugh the Feed NEl l h U rk Scripps else ee ntrenls s neeset that has errte ellquot the most useful websites related in a w relievingis statinn because it presides desired informaticsn Eisin recipes 39 with due additiensl parchese of a shcupping channel Stripes 1still he in a gencl pusitiun tel sell branded gueds directls it the cctnsumer river berth cable and telephtsne wires While Ennrl Hatermks business and pregrstnming strategies have heen effective at lentilcling n viewing base anti the network heeerne pref i tlhle its success lies enter in part ireun igrttiritig the negative elements ei ear ined preductzinn and censumptinn as well as tritital perseeetls39es en iiinth Censttrners and eitireus need he he were in ercler tn make iriierrned elsniees in terms ninthst is safe EiCl eensurne and understand the preetices their cliniees suppert instead the ne39twant builds a eisinn of a utnpian ennsniner Culture where sill eat tngetliter new one really wnrlts er cleans ncil curse gets sic ltJ anti nu tine suliers the consequences inf nur instrd ineltts quottire which is increasingly clestruclis39e l human health and the erts39irntl39l K merit In he sees it is hard tn imagine a cable channel that ssettld criti ofenrjs amptinn when such a channel must hernrrtr pert ef stipends ex 39 isting netwerlts that must premiere precincts anti eurnsfump39llmi tn survive which sinu entrant really get while watching the J39rngrarris themselves JREM Page 29 we I H 3 Lt 1 K e T f H u M 39Eurrrlel View and Feed 1 5393 I39uigitmmgmt tgg Sean Um tie tea humane and animEJS eee Thea nihum Dieeie Dumameki d Jinn ethen Peters i tei p39ertF Elite Emilee Hittite are We quot lmm ning Der fert iig figJieJ39J39igimvfej mmquot Survival A Sei39emtgl39ir Demeive Smar New Yerkr Penguiin mgr Inlhum el mi point In Iesea nth 1th at E1345 mad 111135 bemen quot eeptwurre 1 the egeieuhumt hE39micelle and interseme mikering haw fertility rates 39 Ittfteai due tn low sperm taunts 1 r EF rfi liEiES m39d death in berth enime ie and Nenxethe e ee the euceese HE eritiq uee UT L le mud induetrf Such as the lm SupENE Me and the mm etitm hunk Fast Fwd N m dern enstrete thee there is enviable market and demand Em this type of enetent The q39ueeltie 1395i d ee feat Hf alienating advertisezre keep cmnmtreie T llw fk FIGHT pm 39e etdlng the mud 11 prngrammmg humans 6 Le Mammal Emittule I39eir Ucwpetlnnal Enter and Health quotPesticide i f 339 Injury Stuttei hnee ltttpttfewuedepgmmitefht39tupiest imeeticidesf amassed Sep mlfzuer quotm 20 04 15 we term Safety C u f ln Tram the hesidem s Rearview Mi39rmr Mme tuft Safety The Cuttnvci ire 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Marian Neet lse Feed Fellini ew the Feedquot Industry In uence NH T i mi and Health Berkeley1 Univerxity Inf EjeT39t nrl lia Fleetsquot may 31 Aemgjaeed quot Eel Eula tness beeity39Neer y as Deadlyee Tishalent in United States MS NE mm Match 9 new http menbemenenma39idt39eat yu t39 eecesSend Naeemher 9 2004 h 52 Ibid 5 13 On remune ieeuesg eel M EJ39LIEi Mfieri quot Eeeilmgieal llhpa i 4512f I d ett ia hgriu hue and the Faeeiblllfi tiee fere i li39Ll1lr ammable Farming vfer tij39tly ev w mm Eeyore 541w 1 Eummm ewe quot 153 1 tent Mesa The eminent r i y er Clematistrm39ritta frm Rethinking med Renehen Themeem Jake um kge 155355 2e en Peter Balding and Enh t39m Murdxaek Culture Comm unimittens and Pa 5Lieel Ecennmy Ln lame5 Curran and Mie heei Guteei reh Ede Mme I39Lfi39t ati mm Seciety Nrm mkg Amnfldg 1991 139 30 I Ihid1 24g Meem The mittr39mu Emmett m 25 Robert MvECh nwj Rigi1 Medici ner Democracy Ethane M nivereity ef Minnie Press 1999 e 24 Ibid 15 Ugv l Canteen ante Wil jnm Haynes The BIwa39tet rtijlr Media Cerpvmte Me xr e and the PMch Intem 39Ihouemd ake EH Pine FHTEE T f zia 2101 F4 26 Anet nymuue Leandra tn 39leuet eleiwi t Seeking Sheer Hermm Cfrt ut ii a 39 Jail 23 Egg feed 1 2 William Lei Stephen ijne and Stat Iha lje Smite GZJmmtta Ji i in Hequot mgrtrlsmg Perseus niters mrr 39 ring5 0f WEEbeing H u1f mr R l 39tle39dg a 1991 114 m E1CFEIL tee get Kim Mammy Fwd Newughquot Beecttimsttr e r Cable 135 me 42 iiDetrtiher 111gjggj 42 I JREM Page 30 1E4 EHEEJ KEETCHEJM 3m mmmmnnua Rethinking F l d TH Hrigju gmmnnalilieg waxr d WWI arid high pmdut iut aking fur a rE39inwzn39tmil triad DEEWUEIK Mu i39 dmrme Nm 4 no xiii Favember 141903 3A 3 Jimmy Ig ms The Garcia nfEali mg Fund 3m and EM Hangsr fur Mmrrirzg Netw Y rki Easi Hunks gg 29 31 Had Granger quotNew quotW39FN NEE Fithde Frj39r leum hf famfghnrmgi News 11 rm 15 FLp 39 15 15149132402 33A Mu nynmm quotLeagh m Host Cekbr r LIMEng Shamquot 1 31 Swinger Fc i Fwd Nation 4 35 Richard Kati ElV Faun Mum s m Pmlgf 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Marlg l Black BET and Ilia Hr nd i g nf lm lmerfuz39 Bargain Smilh hnma a ii a In the early years than mm people who ll39slzmgl39ll tl39m39f lilac EJ39iEIEI39llill mE 39tl Television with 5514 mpha is an Black was Mn HEIIW and mi a way ElEiT anytime In pmmuts a bush55 Rl39alquot2ii239l39l 1 Jnhnmm thunder Celebm g 21l Harm BET algal 5quoter FEFWE39F 39 Ln Nnvember mun inunder Fragment and LIED Ruben L I hl lg l ml the than twentyyaarald Black Entt amment Televisiun m Viacmn I This gale hoisted lobnmn inm l lflEquot hilllmlalrt39s lulu while Simm LlEa neausly eliminating Um mquot Elm few blatk mme l manila entities Balkan and its schnlars had rm2 tn full appre iate the impact Inf The quotgale 311d ponder its legaqr inhuman wan his 2013 bid ft the new Khar lUll t Nurtlu Carmina prru Fesminnal bnskrz ib ll franchlsm Hi9 establish meat 35 ll39EiLquot rsL liltlgk NIThquot nwner wept Virtually all critical armminn fmm Biii39l39 bx mlcbrat c lahnsmn g intcluslgn HEltl by Hangman LLI cnf black 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Not mainstream JREM Page 38 Sept 15 Sunday September 1L3 2015 359 PM Reading Cn uide Muieehyt Kevin if 212ml Culture il tjt3rquotiiftiii5t1 land eufl tutal Sv t cmig li lLlEi jettadiiatt cultural teletiett Janette rif39 lrtt Management Len rt E39rtetetv i 33145 pp Ef 23 i thy tire Canadians eeneernetl with the newer and tilLLquotij efettneztieen I l tt llEb39 where1J XMM i030 MK own culmi00ij amp WitHy What ill339 the Itlui39EJLlJ39tE iitti LLHtt39iet i end hew are the 5 de ned by WAFT A New its net lltttre evaluated tamti validated in the United Etate and in Tattude39i um i W What is the dietinetieh between high eelture anti eei tttre and what is the i nttierttmee ei39 eneh39 What are the Ianede e three tipt itme itt tennis e39F I i39t iltg within tie iljn39ited Etetee39 Sphere HF etiltu rtt iJTL iTIILIEJTtW tttJttJ139Lii t39lg tea the mutter Whieh eptien tiees he tiltset ttl td What tite ite advantages epneeeel te tie ether twe f High culture works that are held high by the culture Mass culture generalized set of ideas and morals JREM Page 39 Cultural Imperialism and Cultural Suvereiguty USCauadiau Cultural Relatiuus E EVIN Vt h l 39s Y C atmtla i5 not alone amaan tatie tta in its eenteutlena with American eul v tural imperialijsmf39 With a liberal palit39leal culture that la ehataeterlaed layquot limited g tfemmEm intematirunal iaertt and an upeu avaelety Canada atauda semewlhere between Frasrtee and the United States in ital degree t tf C39Ltll39ttml patt teetieniam and tweralll intenai ty ual39 culturall Wlllil n Nariway like ether small language and StJdIlelenUUI lit seeietieat pumuea a pulley of Englishlatt gauge teleettntmunieutlurta ttntl atlppta rt that highly laealiatle attt l f lli39l39UrlSii eultuml expresstuna Canada an the ether hand 39laelta bath the utilijeitt tiaalcl culture and E FIE Ltar thil iault ttltan aquot Mummy and the lireneh ttaditiun at a hege mtmje eultur e and the natiuna t guvemment as We t39ttlrttrell The Ui39tit39etl States EJF mutate l5 the great eullural eaeeplitttti with at tegtl ttt l pupulttt Eul tur e that 12 able tn indemnify ittt CUH39li i m39era at39tpauluua ttntl pruapemua Setlet that la largelyE immune tueultutal euprett luna that die mat pmjjee t an Antietamtn SiETIFtlhlllllff In effect the United States ea rt a urtl rttt hENE a eultural pE l IGLl nEr pulley because it hat little quotta ttar ftatu feteien eam39petitittrL Far Canada hQWE t39EI cultural free trade rahtea the specter ttl standing unprute ed against the fumes f meriean eulturttl anne39tttsttinrt Table II represents game generall hell if Mttlem tt tit the Shaman Htjraltal tst39ttgttr tl ted P g l d l f Ftt r39iril39ettt39 St39t39twee at bl39lt tiff 39 State L ttt t39ettr7rv and 2W3 Britta Ful lmitt Diatl39rtgqatrLtt39wtl iilmt braju 09395tzagl39 Chair in Amerr39t am undies Hiquot the H39lid t jl39 Unt39mrgt39ty eff Ermmmt r E39ef39 tt39aa mad Fairlie Att39J Jtfttt39art39attrut Hittite SW 255 JREM Page 40 Tf Arturmat affirm Mttmtgt39mtt39m Law and anker TABLE 1 lumps ratit e Tg39pnTngy 13F Zultuml lli39ttliqr anm Nitmat Canadit U MudL Uquot Smttw 5WtilUdt m39 i i Liberal puiitiml culture Emir 0F Strong Strung Madurai Weak gEATE39GTHEI39IEM Sa39iigitce of High Madame Moderate LEW Iquot39I1 cultural pt itics High tht D12ng tilquot High Minimum Madame Ltitt39 culiumi Pmlf it39il39i 533d amenminus m1 Cttluml ptjlicjest that tire minted It a hrmtder i uur ntttitjrt stud UF pttbiic39 patrnnaga with whi39 I am intrnti39ed Mimimathr 27th In that digctta tnn will SUPquot6quot the dEI HIE His23quot 1153 cultural tmparialjtam rind C di ll mnmttts fiatquot its culturtti sommigntt wilit mrttmtlttr rst attance lit the ittttimtttiUtiai trade agreattmttts of Hit putt decade The cmphatit will be ill the Canadian I p ic m tilt commercial premg tives 3553th by tit United Statct tit its tuittirttt industries hidt in it vitw of WEN Canadians h 39ln39c airway whitum a cultural lttgertftctty 50 puwgt t i tit ta threaten limit natitmat idcntiy quotthat this tin uttcllcrttatttjabltt if daintitmiilet trmtttntfiiion it the guhjuut 31 the first mailman EFT the stitttlil tttititztttt big neighborquot tyndmme in the Hac nd S liitjm I win tltcuss the itsur inf wittutti idertity and Canadian dcmandt fur cuttuttt ll pmlttl i jit wide mi martianquot at the Canadian trimar titm tit ti quotquotxuultutttl Httttpti tt quot 39tti its i l l39mti39i 39lli Had grtztsments with H Unit l Suntan in the third tectim Sectim t 4 and 5 will teens m the Lwn T j r EII39II39L m Lindttttirititt tt 39cmm Pwhi Elilrl g M d tc t EDDIE b kslor i and nudit 39istml 111IPtquoti tElEViSiE i lfi tuditt In time tattrtc iudittg section will 355335 Canadian quot Etiflijuml pt t t ttmnj m at a defense Hg illtit tilt impmi ti til at IU tightth at cultural in uence SMALL NATJJ UN ETI39E E NEFGILIEURquot EWERDME Living in ifl39te hu uw titl39thtt L lttit tl Summit makcs at ETEIJIEJITPIL39EHEET3quot111 Amaticams typically mmgnizt Ctitmtjtt is an amicable ally and Erma trailing patmgr Lip e y 1935 Tmtfbttt that tifhtztt tttittg t 153 135531 mum is ung t iitie cancam at many Canadians Emit 1996 154 In Butmmrtit militin tinL1 ctt39llturtal it iht prmirnitgr39 EQEIJE and vitality tit United E ILELEIEES inhibit the gratin iShJTLEI39LE if H mm 5L Hf mmmm t Mattiin tlt39td ilgll39iif lt di hmmm in JREM Page 41 Currmm39 fmperrfa a m a much small lrer ulcighbm I39Rnhertmm 935 331 In I acL mm Canadians Farmiw thug Uniltd Slams 11 L1 mmmp limm pcpwer in rlelatimn m Camadm which they m a hini trln d ragh nquot Lin3k and Mamie 397 I I The mnrniprcsmm af mcrican en tcrtui nmcm prnducla has promptelii a REEFCT is man laTiLj wmung mm Cam ung ahcmt 1m sur x bi hly f a national 11 a of ME 1513 is mm an American lammm The sidch highlights some n he must fraquemty sited umrlnp39lm HF thquot dmmimamg Cunni iancu mra mnzrk s hy nrEigm pmd min m yAmerjranl Emma39s it heuld b5 noted time the Himgrimy cull um imperialm 39r Himmg t in t m mum of f lLITE ms with Hamwde movie39s mmuming fur 3995 percent fth RENEE timc Brutmm trim is naming unique Em ILil the duminmjm mf Millywand in foreign lm rnarkct when betman Hl i and EH partam can the mavics aummmd are An mn cnn Thmugh mmnsiw Subsidy 53f in domcgtic lm Fwd uc l m n FmrJEL RECPE ma Myanmar I39nm rkre ghum at m pcmmn39 Riding 1998M In Canada 13911 Flamcm cf the mmic E1111 ms nadir ins Amcmami were is 115 will bu d i cussm a quu lu min guuru nmes 3 peasant C l di n Enntt39n ll Fl u j ve is m pawn minim by American in wt rtsis inf me trim1 nm kc39 Emmy Pi39m l fl uf Ehquot mmunmr mngaszs 50M am tmw ssmn uds are Amtricmm A eru u iul n mnupmlg Exh ts cur primejinn Englishilm nguage ne39iwhsiimn drama lb wrn miri m bm ajemali m in 5mm Canada iin lp39 y uh 39 l t a vmuctd cam uf Am gun dumin39nuli n ul39 1 fumig l unterminmmt markuh a w 39 5 Fumign39 Elf Emailing Mr i 95quot K Paint It E g L if 39 39 Mu trnn id Slsmlm I h R aj w sggnimmdimgs n 39 n mg m ir sr i39ndrhci irig39a quot 3 quotgtu39 gc En39lu siv r pm ammihg 33 Franum angumgeieie sim pmgrhmn ji g 35 P menimeiqrqwnmpgif g ashlangua g m visi F T5 Prime imr drama tilr Fercl IJmng img mtg sisnn 39 3999 T Hn kmark a f1 39 n 5 39 NEH55mm majkezf rmngniinea h E quot u 39 39 Engli slk anguage ma amm mrmr Raina Achmh and ris39w r mm M ii aka ELEMe ma quot Warn ng iffmfUniir39 i 0F Mimi pH3 q amdim 39quot39 J39i39 a mmmi mm twl WW 1 quot Ti 339 39eeasmm I r rt r r 5 n39 1 m h xl3939ll us a Wi mr 2amp5 36 JREM Page 42 Tire Inmate affirm Mrttrr rgerttertt LatI rrttrll Samar These are iaattea that need ta hc tlteuaeecl in greater detail Hemarm at predetttirtattt arr hmericaa media pretence dram raiae the specter alquot crtltural imperialiam The argument that Canadian tnicea ttecrl a public apaee in which he tell Canadian starletquot t39 pt i tlils a deeply felt anxiety at man Eanadiaa a The feel that the have last their ability in de nc them eeltee ettll turallja because the instruments ati reprcaeatatlaa rtcttj antg are earned by an can carperatiatta hut partrag the pcculiaritiea at ftmerican linie as the universal made of cattterttparaqr lit39 c IDENTETY F LlTl39Cli ANDquot UL UR AL PRUTECTIDMS M The predr rmiiaaace at American culture especially in the audimriarta media haa cameed i39itlepeadiency to he uaerli at a metaphar tr characterize ameditquots relatienship with the United States Arccarding ta Richard Grilling The iterttei preemitien it dependency theary it that the market eerrnarrtr eena titutee rreripiteral atatce as exploited dependenema atquot quotcure atatesi 9911 Hill Whether Canada s relatiunahip with the United State ihfiljitj he termed attlrural eelattialiarrt i its highly dehatrthc hat tar the createra of Canadian culture and its cattaurrteraa American culture rarely heart irrel evantquot Curse 19912 3395 llrttleerl it can he argued that the teastwig larger and rhurt aggregatec amulet Fl lStSLl allurtg Canada quota artlament harder threatelated Canadian palitical uittntlll tj and cultural diatinetiveneas item the begin rung till fume 199 35 It is this cultural dlmcnai n 39f Canadian identity hat the ahacace ul mlrluat puliticall irratittttziuna and societal atahiiiiy that magni l39tea the iatttte 1itl39t39hat Canada lattice frrtm a rtatiurtaliat atht39ideyeriderjey view purtt it the quotaueia gluequot ul39a ahared aymhulie culture ECGquotIrina 99 9quot xii it ia the threat ral cultural deracinutiun that irlflarner the tiel tate raver cultural relatirme ta39iLh the United States The matter i li exacerbated further by an internal debate within Canada ahuut its awn l lliftft i identity p i ti iiil bilingual multicultural Americana have L tieali3t had a hard time taking eeriutteifr Canadian cant piai aheut t te ittt meite39aeaa at American etttetraiatrttettt pmdtl i t et hat aur priairtgiy identity paiitic t quotrhe C lihiicii it that Canada was ta he ttrtderataeti run its awn i l l l t tEimith lgiz39i iig Mitt acquired an mereaeittg 39Iiarceitlltteea in the diamurea cancerhittg the Extent ai lhe 113 cultural pmaehee in Cattaria Are3 hated the size and aggresaia39eheaa rtlquot American cultural industries aueh Eta moviee i39eletiriai rtt atth puhiiahing have in 1rat ittitltit perittda and amuartg cer tain aurdte39rtcee stimulated a iLlf g se it ui 39l39ear almiui the 39Attteriettttieatiurtquot at Canada Carat WW 5 39lt39 CanatlIa a cultural eattccma were invariably interpreted aa maaka fur teeurtumie ltratcctlartiaatt which they sm rretirt tea were 39atmcricaae were eelrlurrt ahle te tlt tiagu it ecartetrrie pratecdahiet n fratn genuine ca I IEEmR ahcat culture and tltil it39tITIELllily Tharttpaea amt Randall a a 355 Hui N N0 4 JREM Page 43 Coitttmt Itogwn39oiiem 1991 iii This duet of and Comedian pempectivee eon attributed Largely to o tundemeotoi value difference between how the two poiii iEill 53395 tems evaluate and ventilate culture Sigiet one Home 11935 23 Americans typically accept the market as the detenoioer of coitu tell values tiutiieedr of eocie i wines in genereii to the United States culture is the equivalent besieoirlyj oiquot entertainment and its it good that pmperly altoeat ed by the uterieel It Earned lies in among European national culture is H1 expreseion of until13w identity and 35 ouch ii to be promoted end protected or at public responsibility To the degree to which culture tor Americans is about ti tE pro tItieking entertainment indu 39i39f tutti for Canadians about the politics otoetionoi identit there should be ii ttie doubt about the ptopeositgx for mutual mietmderete nding concerning any exempt Status or cultumi ioduetriee in free Erode agreement5 FREE TR DE THE CULTURML EXEMFTiiDN Ass ooted Tornado and the United States have very different perceptions about the uotute of culture uilur e according to the American 1riew we been de ned at a putei moriteteijie commodity Ceoodiotte admit to our care about the commodity aspects of culture but they elm see culture at o social resource or poutit goodquot tMertett i995 2 33 The Hollywood producer Norman Jewieon to Comedian omenoil Titie ien39tjuei core or refrigerator for Hole l hiiu is itteee Arid when you l li39i exporting ideae ooiioeophies behavior producle wow oiquot iuiog it becomes an Heeotilt on the ouitum Americans have to understand thatquot De Fatima 1999 Of genome entertain ment is one of the chief exports of the United States second etguoi39aiy to aerospace and Tentacle i5 ierge profit eeote t emeticen entertainment and publishing executives hoee argued thoIt Canadian protection of its cuitorei induetries quot tepreeented major impediment to A oteticoo international corni merciei activities and also set e boo commute to otter count ee cooei ening measures to protect their domee39tic eultutei production Hewett 1996 22 Not Surprisingly mute of the meet couteolioue aspects of the I39Ir eestreoe debates revolved around the production and diesemioelioi ot eu39tturet trod ucte iHositioe Fiom anti MeFodyeo 1 996 55 Morrow IIEi I 224 Coltutet industries are de ned itquot N5iFTA as imollcing the puh licetjom tiiettibutiom or agile oi hooker mogoeioeei periodicMei or nowepepere music i print or maehinereotiuhie Foot1 Iii39itquot production Liion17outioo sell or exhibition otl39 lm or vieeon audioE or 1titiieo music recordings tedie communications TV cattle and eeteliiitc programming Uotdtl orb 12995 5 The NAFTA mag1pm tide that these cututai iodiuel39riee are governed by the terms of tire 11939 Conuderoiteti States Free Trade Agreemeot HAL out eiTectively the treat mom of eultute i5 Mammal both treaties Ache on anti Mattie 1995quot T5 Winter 25H 359 JREM Page 44 WW JENTHIN if391 Management Lem mmquot Silt ie 39 Artieie E ii it tamidea that eattara t industries enetnnt team the 1mm ainzns nt39 the agreement 39trnitutai eaetnnlinnquot has been the snhjeet nt39 eetttpeting interpretatinns hateteen Canadians and Americans and atnnng Eanatiians I1E m Eii EE From the stntatg Canadian iratemenial 39t39i t39ptli h Article nns apeei ea y in its rst paragraph nanint iee the nnltatai inrtiuatrtea tram the nrntinintte tn the ether hand pretentinmste unite the mnwithatantting einruae nit paragraph lt39 iJS t2 witieh mates that a party may nine menentes nt eqninatent eavmtnetrn eiai e eet in meantime tn aetinna that wn39nttil have heen il tEt tI39ta39tatent with this Agreement but in paragraph i Cine ntgnatent is that thin quot rei alliattnn if u39i nit39mquot hat auiii ed the enitntni eaentptien hy ailawing a kind nf eennnntie blackmail with Lint 514 naiquot ndn eree itE it lliiii against either aeetn rn hf the Canadian eennnmy Hewett WK 33 nitl th 199 19 Dthers mint nut that the United States has nnt directly Iill k39 39kl f atgy at the meatturns available tn it in chaiienginn the enentntinn aient tint the rst time the lrinfiten Staten ennenneti that euiture was nut nitnniy a cent manna nidi arh 1993 I9 fit warrant the extent In which tultnre treated int 1 nnmmtttiity hr at aewien in the nite nf the hattiee near the teettnieal applieatiana at the trade agreementa Although the United States hast net E tt teated Canadian euiturai pretee tinninnt as a nieilatjiun nt HatTat it did neck a ruling it the Want Trade tganieatinn LWTUJ entttiemjng Canadian tiiaeriminntinn ngnittnt nneaiiet i Sp litInnn magazineet aueh Sparta Untreated that are distributed in Canada t39Feapi39e Camtide and Eit39e Qwehee are arguably Esplti t39Ltitn alsni The WTU mired in CanadiaCetttain Meantime Reiating tea Perindiezalnh mt setera Canadian m 39tlt ut39t were impermissible heenttae magazines were judged tn be a gland t39tt39tt a HEW39iCEZ aeentdin 313 Canada was required tn treat iike nnttiuete the namequot thldl39ath 1993 23 Keith Aehemn and TI intunpitet Mattie nrgttxe that the Unified Statea went the WTD tnnte rather than pufffun Et NP HA chap ter 2139 dispute at a way Inf attaining a tiittact Lent Hi the meaning of at enitnrai eatt39rrtptiinrt quotCanada and the United Stquot tea are on teenrti as having enni iit ting views atquot its meaning and it apnea neither an wanta tn test their treatme tive views Willi EDI Fnrtltetntnnet the United States en nit use any advan tage gained in a WTU rating tn press iie ease againet C Ltlturttirpmtu39tiiut39ninl meantime generaily nntrjnst in annel1 hut nine in France and Atintraliia F ntr inteteated Arnedeans the euiitntai enemptinn argument can seem like tttn much arin iih u l very littie The enee ptinn may the tmeriean entertain mgnt industry whene nine of the atandiarei fnrmuinit tn duet3 eruitnmil trade har tjiers has been This inn1t ntmut cniiute ilquot ahttul Tunneyquot Wiiata t 9915 iii Canadians netted tent generaiiy it nee culture as a phettttment m titwniviing there than enten39ainmen and tn bring up instant ttf natinnni identity hetitt tge anti en ini Wheaten Fns39t39 twainr Eanadinnn cultural pirnteetinnisun it the meet guarantor n1 nuiturni antEreignty Keeten 1991 i 3 4l in filth FIJI 2H Mai 3439 Na 4 JREM Page 45 Chit rtttr i ttrperfttt39ittt39t many Canadians a tted ea ef Amerieatt eu ltural eerttett is see at ieeem patihte with Eattatiiaa taittee Ether Cantattians aee free trade as mere a dag titquot eppettuttie than a ditty eat capitulatien believing that resetting eter l39tttll ttitC seemtry Willi ieaei m t mere independent 1mqu titer Eanadafquot Puhlltitthirtgg Industries What has been t stitt ta e id ge literally eeneeming Canada39s impnttanee ea the greatest intemai market t er euljtttrai predeets ta highlighted in the pith Iliahing irieiuatriee Canadians heeg ht 4tquot perteat et ail the emeriean heather and at percent at Amerieah magazines aeit trier12331 39t hempaett and Ftattthtii 1994 2113 Seventy pereent ef the heel5 at tJ i39rt Ctttttttle 39ttimer39teatt heehs 25 percent ef the heelta ee1dare Canadian primerin texthutjka eeehheeha 1th te heeka ieee than hereeat rat the manemarket tietien it by Canadian emitters Theimpsem and Ram tti 1994p 25 The Earlat iart httt t market it E 39peteeat39 the size ef that ef the itl ttitetl State which aeiie haif ef 39tmerieatt beet eapetts teCattatla Cataeiart heath ptt tdltei39itnt i5 athie tn attataitt etten thie lim ited market shale target at eetttetttlettee m5 terme i39errrt eff government strata pert whether S39hb tdyt reguiat irtm er tea ineettti39a39e39quot Eerie i991 l 39li itI eeaivei argue that the Canadian market has beetme att etttette39tert ef the 113 tttarhet Tlftitt quotsetetherhtg tlehtiaatiert hate been an impertartt settler et the eaii that quotCanadian veieeat teiiirig Canadian tteriea Curse 1997 idle le Canada dimmed tie that pmtmiiee cultural legisiatiurt against Armtariettrt magaainee Irt partieuigth the splitnan enrttrtttaeriy tjii c39l t l earlier celteerttw the 3mm Iittrttmted htet been a eetttetttieua teeue hetween the United States and Canada t splitrum tttagaaitne it a Canadian editiett elf a Irtegaeiae puhiialted etigiltu liily in antither ermntre that has htt iieeil t39 the ute e intenl as the tirigtttati hull replace mere time 55 hf ita etigi ttalt advertiee ta with ads argetedt it Catteditana Predeeert ht spItit m lauiax39lieutiehe enter the mt et treatiseticm Ihttmgh steinH Irlt attireraking titl their men mrtrhet Cattle 19915 153 Cattetjiatt peliey il tt ta airtight to prevent hitteriean publishers 39Fmrn putting nut C tliz editions of pe edieaia where there i5 Ititti e differertee in edimrtail eeri tetttt but extensive Camititan advertising The argument it that eplit tuna eempete at art unfair disadvantage 1saith Canadian inagatrittee ainee USS adeettiaihg has alt earlr paid Amerieah preduetiett teeth A ep39iierttn magazine can tterm pmf habit1 in Earneda even while e hat ging newer adeertiaing rates than the Canadian eempetitien Ht iSplih ln pe iieieet have 39iEII39I39WJu Etj measure5 atteh its prtthjhiljee tariffs amt partitit e tautatten rates Meteeen amt htnttle it ttii39t39t The iUttiteei Statea Meet a tunnel eettn piairtt with the Wrath Trade rganieatiett in tithe as tiiaeuaaed eariieh eh1ilengingCahatia e hteteetiettiat Whiter NEED 2 JREM Page 46 The Jdnnmi dfriii liefniangnnimr M magi Swim nnliciea regarding magazine Wi iiie aciiij I rwindgii g Canada s iig39lai In iaiie meaanree an piniecir in nuiinral id enliiy ilhn WTD sided with the United Snares E eelieelya Canada must minder radiii aimed an iiiLe Canadian Minimum of American imgaeinea an amine Inn Bil pereeni iinpneed nn Spain fl39inai39mredquot fnr Inning nrnselanrder nai eiliie irnnainieeinn ni engage in menu a lineal edininni and preferential pnamge raiea far Canadian magaeinee Since the WTU ancia inn nie Canadian gneernineni has margin in make earinns enm nrrnmieca in alinw 332 magazines in inereaae their advertising rates which nnnid aatiefy dninealie pnliricai ennsidiera nne an well an die mlings an inier national trade agreemenie Admfirm and Maui 1151991 Il Z lg Andiniisnnii Indnelriea The Ernaeleasting Ant niF i d g ae part ni in efl nit in safeguard enrieli and altreng wn the cnllural inalnewnii ni Canada1quotquotsreaied a federal reguiatnv r had the Canadian Radian and Teieni id Cmtrn iia im t CRTCL 39Ln C r i39Cl quotCanadian ennient mine in ningrainming llhnnipenn and Randall 9945 1395 Thane enmenl regulai inna renaeeent n prn ieetianiai irnpu ine lgninali the prepDnderance at American pinataramming viewed by C aimdiana especially anninpiannea With the exeeniinn nitquot pniilie affairs and ennui hineriean programming prex39aiis izranenl Inne nien ene are mere IIiiiel39y in watch Canadiaipmdueed dr ii39i illl it Shane and much mnre likeiy in view Canadian vaneyni39uueiveinnia endgame Calliine l39EIFQi39Ji E 9 Eilaei1eenn and Mnnle l99 3 ll l Pin pan ni39 he criteria fair hrnadeani CED Fling the CRTIC39S Canadian Etna a lent regulaliisnnzL require a apneiiied nnmiber ni hlnnre ni39 Canadian drama music liarquot writing programming Each wank Friar redid 3C percun l nil pnpnlarw rnunii snlne tinn39l m uat he Cnmniianz fur French radin 3539 39perchlL an 39i39nnai muaie mutai he French Far lelnriainn printnn brnadcs39aatere rnLtS l anew per cent Canadian programming n a Lilladiay baaia and 5 percent in prime firm i i F39M In midnight percent Canadian prugramming in prime time is reqinred far pahiic telenigma Wham enneiiiniee Canadian cnn ienl in determined a paint airmen Fm snnnd rennidlings Canadian content is men when inn ad the fallnwing inn acne ni Canadian naiiniallily ernnnnneen llyrieisr aniele plane er prndnetinn Fear ielei iainn pingrams WETiii he predated by a Canadian and haw at leaeit in pain an annual inn 39I39ni a Canadian direntnr and man for each leading antinil In he deiermined Canadian see anwwinl nexpnngeearradeen1nnei Ten paints are required liar a productinn in qualify for equity im eatment by ihl Canadian Teieeieinn Fund Nni aneprieingly giann he eyeiem e Eumpinxillr and enniewiint nieenanieiie nainre determining what cuneiii utea Cnnndiannesa can lead in mid nnieninee Fnr Examprliey in a Mini Jagger album reeinded in Inmate mere Canadian than Heir r39nnng allJun rewarded ilxur lag Mai 33quot ML ii JREM Page 47 Cttt39t39ttrnl hnpe39t39lnft sm in New Tedd The Super Bowl and Wentit were determined tn have Canadian nuntent because at the degeee at lEleniinfinn inteirent The39tnpsnn and Randall 1994 213 I i Ian Jame written that quotquot Iliijn nu literal5n eeuntry tlid the US lm industry aelt39ieee mete enmplete cnmt39rtereial and cultural dnmtnali n and plane tratiinn than it did in Canada U992 35 En patent a medium tn massc eukum was thus supplied by and dependent upen a fnreign pewterquot artr39ie lQQE Etjl It is peehape the ntythie WWEEI ellquot ntnvies that made Heliyweetl prednminanee an patent a entitlea inane Shelia Canes ntin39intet at Canadian heritage and llaett 1tt39alenti president at the hidden Pietnre Anaheimen Itaee enjngtr39ed a cer tnin tandem celebrity in their dentuneiatinn and defense el anteriean eultural imperialinrtt in mania prnduetien and diatribetien Fer Valenti Input5 s enl ttlral pmleetieniam iiE L llE wth almxuld he the unregulated altneatien nftaate prefereneen tn the cultural marketplace Fur Ceppn eelhning the ample titgt merits for cultural natinnalinn39t tli seusned herein the nee market in t1 cede wen For Alrl39ltEl iC m en ll tttral imperialinm The real ESEJE in cultural newtea net ech nentie penteetinniem Canada hat never been signi cant predtleet at t39eattne lilting Meeeeeen tlte number of lms made annually has fallen in the Wills 39ant that achieved in the Widths meltearth and Hattie 1999 l 1 The large Amatican lth dciatzrihutjnta halve ennaidet ed Canada as pan atquot their dat39nestie market and Canadian tiling represent enl tn 5 peteent ef sereen time in the tnatltet Magdet Will 5 nhnut lefty feature tints ptedueed in Canada yearly and thin eutput in heavily indented tn generamenu nu39hnitlien l39retn tier example tlte Natienal Filln Beard wiltielt ttllpptitrtt a na t39ttjnal lm industry and i5 dp i ifle neted intematinnally fur the quality at itn dent mentttrtett Telel rn Canada Iiftn39tner39f the Eanadian Film Deveinfpment Cn tvt pn ratiexnt pmmnten the i39ndttarttj by taking equityr medicine in nedjneinna l ptudttelienat auplpurting partieipatinn by Canadian 39 lmrtaa39liem in at eign lm featienl and pmmettng Canadian prnduetiinne tn fnretgn marltetE at we as enlamdttetinnn with Terretgn eumpantea Indeed much Inf Canadian ill t pne dttttinn is either tailuted fat sale in the United States nr finaneed huge the Hellywemd atudiea Magnet 1993 El Pt SPHERE ID CULTURAL INFLUENCE Jenn Meiael the phat1113analynlniCanadianelullturai Difi argues that the quotkeg fae tnr relevant tn eultural pnltey enneerma Eattada 5 proximity tn the United States Alan has been frequentle Tinted the phyaiea l eliteSemen at thin penernt and exuberant neighhnt creates verge speeial pmhlems l nr Canadian e ulttne and henee fer cultural healingquot M i i f and itt nrt Lnan ram 2 Meieel nan 24955 it hat been inhsen39ed in n variety of diplnmatie Winter Elm 233 JREM Page 48 Turn Jammie 4 FIE JW J fELEEEFHEHE39 Lam l39rd Emma ugrecn mms lEmi luml39luriral prupinqulty meatless EPEEi I rulurjuuahinps murumur pmpir lquily El l Ellaf creme EpEti pru hlemg Fur cmn39lpllgm it be argued hm uuntumpurury Canada euiutr wll39hln Em Anmrluan splmm u l uulluml iin 1u EI IIE39IE Hquot Ihl premilw is amapl d rrE IE gumEl n lil LaE fulluwu is whthr Smith 1 cultural depuudcnw u iliutea Cauudu i 39im riuzual Sallvcrclgnly Huron addll E lng this 555 it should he numrj El rul Zanudliun sum3 has um truer rElumd sim ply m a subset all 1115 Aum can I39Eighhur nnu dram well In remember than 39ijllrilu l mu Eunudium uhrm the mum cunliuenl this do nut uhuue 1hr uumu cullurul valuesquot Mullrem 1991i 11 Mmewen 1hr all 111 f mgmin lg ducusmn rrl 1hr emanaive penelzml39iun uf Kannada by Amaricun culturalquot prud qursa n39hcir permuutrun 39is neithurrmul nurumfurm across all lyjjuu ufprurlurlu Table 2 sdmmulims the relfulv influxmm mamd diff r nl ukuru pmdu ls As a gemml uhsurm 111 ultrluri39uinrnent ES mum Amuricanizud rlmnn ljhe urt aa pupulur culture mute mun high vcullure ill1c arudlitwlsuull 1mm 39lll39L rll39l llm Iilrrargr rewalls high culture in Cunudlu remains resign31m an Arumrieun a39un mium and cz sequuntlyl maintains its iurlulluuluul imlupunucrlcu Arguably a r raliun r quotmllcclivu diamurge is railer l Llrualr 0 hr rahqu by its Tighvculium um irr tellecluu l products than by he uulmumm ulf 39pupular EuH v lure al llhuugln illquot pinMT HT 1hr E lL il l lit m i ll inlduutry Simulld munI lhi under umimulrui Carizuliun cultural thrift may PWVE l r uu n msillcnl than If fl gl d Ill Ihuzi alga hum mumid that lllnguugu pmvlduu Quuhm wilh mmlilsum uf pm ljuctinn ugaimrct the penulm ti n in American ful tur l Flflf dlll lii as pun 11f u bmu er rESi lEhl39LL E E13 ang phanc MILgunman in guncm 39Fhr39 Canadian cultural ll39lllltjn39l39 ii 39t pinnaclirmium hall Truditmnully been the prul39umd Gamma Haul39539 already discuswd usurrzml measureu dC lE Edl to pm il39am39 Canadian uuum ning with 39II39LE I 39hjECti l39 valued I15 the p mp ll l l39jl of a TABLE Z ph ug f In uence uf nmerican full urnl Prndu cits WHEN 1amp5ou I39E IFILE Arilemming Desiunl39gu lc39rircs Sir l lgesr Madura tc Hurling I m1mm lm 5 rtrhuusc l mun115 Duu umcmurluu TalruylMuIn Actirnrrndramu faithedlusi game 511mm waucurlu upum ner Mluuid Ruck FolWew Fags E i a lm Periuri imis Euturtulnmcnl Flew1 muguaineu frirluislmxuplniuu Hunks Mus can Num glinn Literary iuu n Musuum mumage bii39EEv 25M JREM Page 49 kill 3 NH Emittth Firmirritate freetrade 1iherel eettnttmzie apptherein It is prehnhlljx fair to ehsene that the pt teetienist argument is stmnger en the p iiiieeit39tnntttittrnel level t tttd the eettl39ttjttt rte argument peeveit en the prttetienitrtttienai it i EI Put emitter wage the trench ittire argument wine the mt39t tt39iia hurt the ctl39itutrtlittatiettttlliet argument wine heart itttereetjmgty the hli itl39iitiLt iJ I39ti titi tiitI39ttzrtt tt39trtt may net he eats eaeiii39 t S i r Ed tit iiittttrusted by the can at a prepme sn39htietttien ef the Natietttti Hockey League 13139 the Canadian gutterquot r39nrttttrtt Ell bid 0 Ji39metzt the Ctttttttiitttt netiettt ti spurt from further I39iE3939 13Et it tl39t in the United States the Canadian get tgnm39tent premised tn subeidixe the munit quottt remaining ttitt n rnjnr i hgue heck ey Eatl39t i he more than US Hf miliinn at year Acctxrding tie at i999quot New lfimi Kirilitre antitie Entrapmentan E 39ti39 l39td that because heehey it Ett EEEEn ti i pert Diquot Canadian euitttte the internment should step in in keep the iii teennet in Camdenquot The Upj ft ing Vi WF i ji whitti39t pr 39 iied after the gn t emment we deluged with ttrtgtjr 39ptetestet rejected the itiett n i hutii it mat private hut jtteetes empteytrtg mittienttire ttlith i39itt i In that thee irritatee re EC immif wen tint ever whttt hart been witieily ttttttetJl as e t39iil i element ei Carnelian culture inevitably the mere wee IEEPGHSES en teeth titles of the tiehttte have tent eti tn he the mine extreme For example when hkttt39ii tinting het emt trtttelitm hearinge tlhttut thtrttit gnit tttt Atttentfttn prm u 39i 15 part iii1 eitt39iflumi chemes tinn TUE trutie itegttlieter Ceriu 39Hiitt reep rttieti iir r39EB li neguiittte i39Hthi tithe gleee39n t 39ttlu39tjl39iiL we ii Lite 3 eruwhnr ELLE Sentttt 1999i Fer the beard iii the Canadian Cttnferenet iiiquot the Arte the ieene watt patted tie a eituiet between having Canadian eulitiru p iifff deemed by Line s ewn eleeted mprt Berthttit39ee or by nnneleeted inlemutitJnni tribunals L39Gttpttinttihle thrthC irnplernentntinn of trade ttgreemeniztt tieeieitjn was green 15 H eirmple Line Cena ittn must elemiy eetehilish eur u nfettered right tr manage nurentttrai affairs as we heel see t without chttillenge er threat at tetalttttien Cttltetijttn Centertenet 290m Heneven neither eenrtttrnit retaiietien tier eluhttrtti Etttt39erehi39 is e ret teentthle solution in an interrtiepentlen39 weriti collaboration hetweeh Ctm t39iitttl ttt tutti hmeriezths is neeeeaasrjt ttl39it39i EI39IEii39Itlmi even are such interdependence mag teetht gtlre rttthttene tt TiLil lti titquot I tttiit39tt39itil sneereigntit Tucker 193E tiit in the realm hi CartrntlittttUS euitnrei reintiens there he little ehetet fer Cttnntln hut In accept Heme etquot the inevitable eeneeqnenees et heing in an Amen sphere ef in uence Betting an exercise at entitlementLatte eeil39m restraint hy the American entertainment indtntry tn iii in 39 it the gtmttth tit ti large Canadian eelnnetiter tent in the thsertee et titquot10 antitrust legielettent Canada hue three hmati pnii y eheieesn The first we are the trttttlttittttttt tiiehtttemies tit ettiturai itiiSSEEEfair mitt Efllii39li t39t ti pmteetienisntt The rst titter tl39l i tr tithe L ItLliile lii eeieniretinn and American nnnertatien wherein the Stet ttmi ettuid nththree Ctth39ttrttl iseintienis tn at well HS trade war with the United States The third titty 39lt liiijr39 he at term ef eutttirtil 39fl llquot ii5 I El in which Cat t in neeepht the realitim hf American sneerttirtty in entertainment trndtueil Wil39ii Whiter 2th 2 F5 JREM Page 50 Ti39rr Jartrait arising Mannythat Laniz mat Sarita mamating a rihtant Canadian high CUIlUt E Egr unlurgittg the puhiiit tttilthrai phE E thtttugh suhaiaiast aahvatttianst grants and in aatmettta Canada maid sustain a attiturai miiiau tattamiag itti FEJWE hittaint artti ialttaa while aacaiating with its ttaighhar a Tl l E pU 39 afatttzartaiamaat aaramaditiua ts hated in the aancaptaaiiaatian at tht amatican E 39i i uml aphera af ia m atticn ht Table 2quot Caaatiiati quot IJiiiurali tJiiSii i C Ii39u39E39i EE Ea i5 gratttast in the ESEcum ataraiaiiaad mcdiia Ia aft at highhmw ctthttra aravitiaa tama it39tttultttinn from the in uence at Amaricaa panpuiar culture Canaaquatttlgrq Canadian calm tartti paiittti might an we tn Heat auphar t fat Eattadiait starf39wahng in arenas which the V if ii at am he Etlff i tfii h athericaa E I l tWiii39li n Thia gh s at tar an unanndilin hai aurrandar ta American aaetartainnaaat ii39trtlt tar an h L t Efit iiiquot agaaiaiag reappraisal at that rampatitiwnuaa tit Caaatlian cultural ptadttalja in att apach at rhatdetarmimsd ma a cuhaaa ht particuiar Canadian Ellidi 39lriEUHI ind watn ES might acct t39urthter Einpmdttciitjns and canal ara tite arrangements with their Amadtun ctiutitaraarts rather that attempt any llttzadatt Si iESui idiz trumpetititm Fat attatttph39 tha critical and aamtttamial Eucauaaua at Liuna ata Films wageam a niche maritalquot ht raiatitiaiy ST I I IFbutJigt unrunventianail thinm which are ital atajtia at iaih waad Studiaa Liam Gilli misused Dogma by tha wait ragartiad itttlaaandattt tiirjaatar Kittin Smith at tht hEhE i at Mitamaa Fiima chiaf Hawate th39iaiaataia higiraataaa parant C39Dimpiilsl39l 39t Diansaga had hawad ta ataaattra atria Hawaii s ai lcgatiiy antim ligiaus mutant and with drawn from its distribution mattaita tattt A Canadian Marita Murismtta play Gad in the ilttij Uliil 39 att tt piutt of Canadian a rtiata what have made attacasaii u17citayainta alternative papuiar GuiEIJITE am the track hand Bamttaked LittliL S and thi tttlrnut ly gruntJ Kitia in tilt Hal it the athar hand Eattat la a attitttra palitgjr caala ih t39 aapiiaitiy prama atie tat in hit Sttht39atttiatt at aaacata aterciai cultural aati rititta Thu Salaam 339 at mata ttma and hautaga sitar margaritas the past ttpp tfi for artists iz39ituaiciaas and i iimrhaitera haips tia tta tlta futurequot Without denying i39I39IE pattiar39 ti impact ut pupaiar auitarct that iii a altering aTgM m ll39l far lilztlt aritiaa and tratta tarmatva pattam of arts and hilitl i iliIESn Far attampiat Quebec s 1992 atti tarai palicy rattan EmitImam thy titia fa39 tirre t39tlt39ii39tt fquot Nam armirquot Jia 511m the atiliaatitra ti iacrittraa aataaaary ta arit ittaihr da i iaa thin t ttttn ra atquot a aatian a t39ahnt ayatarh has a greatar likaiihaad at haiag ittapiratil by its himhattimrai F39TIIEELIIEIS and thair pradarart anti aartattmers Elit iiih fm j m a pa39l it t39 ati cultural atta cmtiam 39itt rattaiatattt with the spirit of that Maaaay Catatttitaiaa which waited a Euliur attiaatatian appaaad ta Atttaria39aa annular attitura aesthetic grt tua tt and a caltttrai aatiattaiiam appaaad ta the minimamria hm af r tmetican whim an it llaaiagiaai gra39uads tLi tt 1992 4 5 h luicahg 1994 1024131 Finaiiy culturai ay nm ctiam may enable Canada to tinUri ant a paaitiatt atquot aaitzutai aampia39int that mama ambushquottrig m Li39tI triumphaiiam at hittericaa 3 PM 31 Na 4 JREM Page 51 Cranimmf Irvawn39n m popular cu ture m a mare PUSiJIi L E am n Li n l culmm than i5 disn limC39liw withGut busing pm ncial M pamchi l Althtmgh mmquot in p pulmiun szada is 11mm ma major linguistic smicties and may 1 idcally prime I39inned m medial u glnh uuiLLnrajl pcrapmiim that 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manureiguana Tim neui39 ender39a Dig2m ms Fir E39T39rmrmi39u New unk E raegezr WMIJJ39 2W3 2 f JREM Page 52 The Juumai f 39 Mmmgwriem Lam and Swim Magi rquot Tbii IWE Erma411 H iiji39w mi39 quotNii CamiJam SEENf and rrrmm firu liar1mm Jniutrr injy ns39i39Thrmrl n ilquot39r39 ga Mti ci Jluhri 1991 Eminmi n I 39w iisiliad 39Cuifl wrc and isl ussi in Cun dg In Swim rrquot t 39iquot siremfg g39wrL39er lewd rltn39r39rj in CHI4min Hurlcn Hu39lmS and Davie TEEEL39E 2nd qu Tiamum I rcgjun Brim Canada 249 56 Baki ul Ithlil lel iIJ lmn Wm len 39I 13 Cultivating he hus39hgmrje Quinnall mintg in Canadih in HM Winin smrr Girl39c39 lailz39nr39arid39m am in Eu l m Mrmiigiurrrfm gm Japan ad Minm Lquot L39ummlngsJ ru and Riciqud Km HWYark miniEl Uiiivmil39y Tat55 Merrc39til Chrislnphcr Ell W39J Fiim irm vi Nria39ai rrr fr i rmr hum md Mannmi mack Rum Monks hiinmhgr HE39u39iIL Pr39 WEI31 R 39i w If Thi39 Hillyair farm W f t and I39irIaF 39iIF fa d2quot3939 feirmaiir39u39i39an bigrquot Paul Li39ll chm ir 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MichTEL WED TwatI39m Iiimm Itlml39inE39 Emirmrprrrzirl iiiMEN mm39 Lianm5 Luuih hic rnwHili Egg2mmquot UR 5mm WW T suim n miquot Caitlin Hills in Sammie Banking massing um Uerm A fuim CDmmimm nhmmm ee an Inmrmrinna l Trade and Fimmw 4 May Available an quot kingJ39QEiEIEHIEMEDJW smilltlh ln39ib 1am Cii ndiu rigging cultural lumping my Haifa 2n Ma uh IIEEPEHWWW QE H IEEEHW Ir39filmn u Casi I l i Manila Leta gap3 was 3 Ira 4 JREM Page 53 Cnpy right 3 21302 EBSCD Publlishingl JREM Page 54 Notes Sunday September 132 2 15 42 PM Global Media Flow Dominated by western mainly American media Hollywood39s revenue 75 from international markets 8090 of films screened worldwide are American Western new agencies supply 30 mil Words daily The next 5 account for about 108 mil Words per day Culture industries Forprofit capitalist driven industry in which cultural values are communicated Pluralistic view Culture industries exist because of demand by the audience Hegemonic View Culture industries naturalize the dominant worldview in any given culture JREM Page 55 Sept 29 Sunday September 20 2015 830 PM JREM Page 56 Reading guide the Eaeakewltskh Pt J F ZUOQL Techaeiegyt meniteringt and imitatien in ecntemperary news wrik f 39emaraaicetiea if tame a Trimester 2 3959 Nate Y l lr required rte read 3 395ii39 tier at page 51 EM IIEI net it59 are eatien i wii expand en the d iscnssicni sectien et the articie in ciass it yeu will miss ciass en this day I streneg recemmend yet read the Wheie piece 1 in what tare ways has the cemmcn practice et n iehiytcxring ether media and imitating their sterics changed in tandem with new teehnelegy Why is the auther eeneerneci with these twe changes 2 What twe factors increase at decrease the ameunt of time media catietssjeamalists Itieniteringg ether meciia Preside an example atquot each in actieia Be Here mansr times dices Fernanda Retirigtiea teeth at liecal eniine news sites Why titres he tic this 4 Haw dees using teehnetegy the d i sceaer petentiatiy newswerthy items affeet caerai til imamsit ct centent What dees the ciisetissien cf imitatieri practices FCVL Eti in terms cf a iinit between newsgathering and meaning making U n JREM Page 57 Notes Tuesday September 29 2 15 1112 AM Review 1 How are user generated content site empowering Comteporary shifts Bypass gatekeepers Bypass advertisers Bypass culture industries quotmedia customizationquot facilitates target marketing How is this data used Determines ads Weblining Social implications Health insurance Education Target marketing Max customization requires selfdisclosure Demographics gtquotpsychographicsquot Admin29 R L kg iq pSuw f v7 9 Consumer culture markets and brands play an exaggerated role in making our lives meaningful Commodity fetishismjdea that needs and wants can be met through consumption of the product Consumer culture undergirds a status quo Hegemonic 2 What role do users play a Surveillance i Productive surveillance 1 Taylor39s workplace experiment a When he stood and watched production increased 4x b Motivation i To act in the way the surveiller wants b Data collection c Audience as laborers i Wasted viewing time 1 Showing women rogaine ads 2 Eliminate this by using targeted ads ii Exploit audience quotlaborquot 1 Two limitations a Market segment dependent on media tech b We expect privacy outside of the workplace iii Why do we accept surveillance in our everyday lives 1 Status quo 2 No way to fight it 3 Convenience 4 iv Who benefits 1 Corporations 3 Internet a Revolutionary i Who benefits from data production ii Industrial society owning production is key 1 Unequal access iii Postindustrial society today 1 Owning info about people is key 2 3 4 What is media monitoring a Watching competition i Looking for stories and styles b How does it help journalists i Reading good writing makes your writing better ii See more sides of a story JREM Page 5 8 Deuce c What else should we be aware of i Hegemony 1 Mimicry 2 JREM Page 59 Oct 22 Thursday Detober 222 21315 Media Literacy 1119 AM Gender and Media 0 Socialization theory How to act What39s expected Learned from messages in media and culture 0 Feminine Passive and supportive Focus on appearance Focus on home life Privilege relationships over careers Don39t deviate from feminine look Don39t deviate from the accepted sexual norm Don t deviate from the primary sphere of influence 0 Masculine Performing masculinity is performing power Be active and aggressive Pursue a career Demonstrate physical and emotional strength Don39t be passive Don t abdicate power Be confident 0 Gender ideology Justifies gender stratification Patriarchy J REM Page 60 Nov 3 Tuesday November 3 2015 1143 AM Symbolic annihilation exclusion denial of legitimacy LGBT issues in the news Rare prior to 1970s 1980s AIDS coverage Demonized LGBT people 2000 LG BT coverage Crime celebrity crisis Moral order of the body Bodies deemed most useful male ablebodies placed at top of the moral order and are positioned as the norm and morally desirable Ableist rhetoric Ableism JREM Page 61 1110 Tuesday November 1Q 2 15 1144 AM Social privilege Special advantage Granted not earned Related to status An expression of power Unaware to those who enjoy it Constructing Race Modern invention 1176 Marks difference 5 different race Caucasianwhite Malaysianbrown Ethiopianblack American red Mongolian yellow J REM Page 62 111215 Thursoieiyy November 122 2 15 1124 AM How is race communicated Token Absence Where don39t we see these groups Whiteness Assumed norm Priming J REM Page 63 1 11715 Tuesday November 17 2015 Diversity i oooooooo ms 111915 0101 MAE KWAQJVDHC KW W m a WWm ML 9 WM MW quotW W WWW0W W 7 SM Wm W Vs IREM Page 66 12115 Last Day of Class Tuesday December 12 Z 15 1126 AM Fixed Corset The idea that women are better communicators is dangerous Cultural Resistance Democratic Theory Habermas 2 basic tenets 1 Access to the public sphere by diverse voices 2 Diverse individuals are engaging in rational debate How is the public sphere limited J REM Page 70


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