CHEM 100 all of chapter 1
CHEM 100 all of chapter 1 Chem 100
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KEYl Sections NOT on the Syllabus CHEMISTRY IN FOCUS CHEM 100 CHAPTER 1 NOTES We are fascinated by the light and drawn to the warmth To us a burning log disappears slowly but at the molecular level particles are ying around like a bee hive 4X fastforward Chemistry is the science that investigates molecular reasons for the processes occurring in the world we can see Relatable Example You may see that sugar stirred into coffee dissolves The sugar seems to disappear in the coffee However the coffee is sweet so you know the sugar is still there The molecular cause is that a sugar molecule has a strong attraction for water molecules and prefers to leave its neighboring sugar molecules and mingle with the water The sugar is not disappearing at all just mixing on the molecular level Science and art are often thought of as different disciplines attracting different types of people Artists are seen as highly creative and uninterested in facts and numbers Scientists in contrast are seen as uncreative and only interested in facts and numbers Actually the two professions have more in common than is generally imagined Like the artist the scientist must see order where others have seen only chaos Like the artist the scientist must create a finished work that imitates the world Vocab Scientific Law Outlined in the figure below Scientific laws summarize and predict behavior but they do not explain the underlying cause Hypothesis An initial attempt to explain the underlying causes of observations and laws Experiment A controlled observation specifically designed to test a hypothesis Theory Often predicts behavior far beyond the observations and laws from which it was formulated A theory is valid if it is consistent with or predicts the outcome of experiments A theory is never proved only validated by experimentation F lll L 1 I Experiment le Observation A measurement of some aspect or phenomenon in nature Something you can see smell feel taste or hear Scientific Law A series of related observations or measurements may be combined to make a general law that applies to many things Law of Conservation of Mass In a chemical reaction matter is neither created nor destroyed Antoine Lavoisier 1763 1794 a French chemist who was known as the father of modern chemistry He studied combustion when a fire or explosion is the reaction of a chemical reaction or change He discovered the law of conservation of mass by measuring the mass before and after a combustion After he died his works were proven true for every chemical reaction Some inclass examples of the law of conservation of mass 1 Reactant I Product Reactant Chemicals you put into a reaction There must be two or more in order for a reaction occur Product The result of a chemical reaction HClNaOHH20NaCl CH402C02H20 Why should people who are not Chemistry majors study chemistry 1 Most professions need a fundamental understanding of Chemistry to better understand their fields Such knowledge will deepen and enrich your life First modern science in uences culture and society in profound ways and raises ethical questions that only society as a whole can answer Decisions involving scientific principles are often made by nonscientists Politicians and most of the people electing the politicians are two examples Yet politicians make decisions concerning science policy science funding and environmental regulation Relatable example Adolf Hitler proposed his own versions of Nazi genetics on the German people He wrongly proposed that the Aryan race should isolate itself from other races and only reproduce with other Aryans to make superior human beings However any person with a general knowledge of genetics would know that Hitler was wrong Excessive inbreeding actually causes genetic weaknesses in a population 14 The History of Chemistry As early as 600 BC people wanted to know why things happened the way they did in nature However they did not perform experiments to understand the world they used their own thoughts m 428 348 bc A philosopher who thought reason was the most valuable tool when trying to understand the mysteries of nature Democritus 460 370 bc developed a theory that matter was ultimately composed of small indivisible particles he called aromas or atoms meaning not to cut Democritus believed that if you divided matter enough times you would eventually end up with tiny particles that could not be divided any further m 624 546 bc Reasoned that any substance could be converted into any other substance so that all substances were in reality one basic material Thales believed that the one basic material was water He said Water is the principle or the element of things All things are water Empedocles 490 430 bc Suggested that all matter was composed of four basic materials or elements air water fire and earth Aristotle 384 321 bc Added a fifth element to Emopedocle s list the heavenly ether perfect eternal and incorruptible In Aristotle s mind the five basic elements composed all matter and this idea reigned for about 2000 years 15 ImmortalityEndless Riches Alchemy was the predecessor of chemistry that many people in Europe believed in It was a mixture of magic and empirical thoughts in the minds of those who wanted to discover how to become immortal Another goal they had was turning materials into Gold Throughout their trials they formed many mixed metals and alloys with unique properties The Alchemists also made advances in the area of pharmacology by isolating natural substances and using them to treat minor illnesses 16 Beginning of Modern Science Two books published in 1543 began what is now called the scientific revolution First book was written by Nicholas Copernicus 1473 1543 A Polish astronomer who claimed that the Sun was the center of the universe Most people of his time thought that the Earth was the center or the universe By using elegant mathematical arguments and a growing body of astronomical data Copernicus suggested exactly the opposite The second book was written by Andreas Vesalius 1514 1564 A Flemish anatomist modeled human anatomy with very close accuracy The books were revolutionary and Copernicus and Vesalius laid the foundation for a new way to understand the world Progress was slow because their ideas were unpopular among religious people Galileo Galilei expanded on Copemicus s ideas and was ridiculed by the Roman Catholic Church He was forced to recant his findings and he was put on house arrest for the remainder of his life The Good News The scientific method progressed nonetheless and alchemy was transformed into chemistry Chemists began to perform experiments to answer the most fundamental questions 1 What are the basic elements 2 Which substances are pure and which are not Robert Boyle 1627 1691 published The Skeptical Chymist that stated If a substance could be broken into simpler substances it was not an element Matter can be classified by its composition What it s composed of or by its state solid liquid or gas Boyle s approach led to The Classification Scheme for Matter Matter may be either a pure substance or a mixture If it is a pure substance it may be either an element or a compound If it is a mixture it may be either a homogeneous mixture or a heterogeneous mixture Pure Substance Either an element or compound Element A substance that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances At The smallest identifiable unit of an element Compound A substance composed of two or more elements in fixed definite proportions Molecule The smallest identifiable unit of many compounds gt Water is a compound whose molecules are composed of 2 Hydrogen atoms and one Oxygen atom Mixture A combination of two or more pure substances in variable proportions gt The ame from a burning log is a good example It contains various gases whose proportions are a little different from one ame to another Heterogeneous mixture is separated into two or more regions with different compositions gt Oil and Water does not mix well it separates HomOgeneous mixture The same composition throughout gt Salt and water mix thoroughly States of Matter 0 Solid Atoms are so close together that there is no visible space between them They are usually incompressible and ridged 0 Liguid Atoms or molecules are also in close contact but not in fixed locations they are free to move around each other They have a fixed volume and are incompressible but they don t have a rigid shape 0 Gas Atoms or molecules are not in close contact but are separated by large distances The atoms or molecules are in constant motion It does not have a fixed shape or a fixed volume but takes the shape and volume of its container In addition gaseous matter is compressible Properties of matter characteristics that distinguish a substance and make it u h i q u e Physical properties You can observe a substance changing its state without changing its composition Chemical properties these are displayed only when changing its composition Physical change Its appearance is changed but not its composition 0 melting 0 boiling 0 cutting 0 bending Chemical change The composition is changed after a reaction 0 Give off or absorb heat or light 0 Color of the substance changes 19 Atomic Theory As we have seen Democritus was the first person to suggest that matter was ultimately composed of atoms but his idea was not accepted until the early 18005 The laws of conservation of mass and constant composition both led to the development of the modern atomic theory 39 Joseph Proust 1754 1826 established the law of constant composition which states the following All samples of a given compound have the same proportions of their constituent elements I 1808 John Dalton 1766 1844 A British scientist used the laws of Lavoisier and Proust as well as data from his own experiments to formulate a fundamental theory of matter that has three parts 1 All matter is composed of indivisible particles called atoms that cannot be created or destroyed 2 All atoms of a given element are alike in mass and other properties These properties are unique to each element and they differ from one element to another 3 Atoms of different elements combine to form compounds in simple Wholenumber ratios For example the compound water is formed from 2 hydrogen atoms and 1 oxygen atom The numbers 2 and 1 are simple Whole numbers 110 The Nuclear Atom In 1909 the internal structure of the atom was studied by Ernest Rutherford 1871 1937 He tested the Plum Pudding model of the atom He tested the idea that the atom consisted of a sphere that had a positive charge filled With tiny negatively charged particles called electrons 0 By using these ideas and the results of his experiment he proposed the nuclear theory of the atom With three basic parts 1 Most of the mass and all the positive charge of the atom are contained in a small space called the nucleus 2 Most of the volume of the atom is empty space occupied by tiny negatively charged electrons 3 There are as many negatively charged electrons outside the nucleus as units of positive charge inside the nucleus so that the atom is electrically neutral Rutherford s nuclear theory was extremely successful and is still valid today
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