Soca 101 Lyons Lecture notes Bundle
Soca 101 Lyons Lecture notes Bundle SOCA 101
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Sociology 101 Chapter 1 Notes The Sociological Imagination Sociological Imagination Enables us to grasp the relations between history and biography in society Wanted to figure out where we fit in in the world Challenges the inevitable or natural Challenge stereotypes that lead to DISCRIMINATION Learning to ask good questions The ability to ask hard questions instead of accepting easily availably answers is the hallmark of sociological imagination Why do Social Contexts matter Social Context Influence of society on individuals Context Family Community Shape the individual racial ethnic religious and gender identities Boys dress like boys Vice Versa Socialize to norms Being normal Provide Networks Political etc Connections Develop Emotional Cognitive Captivities Investing in education Preschool Educa on Family Resources Quality Schools Organizations Places we work worship relax exercise and pursue political and social objectives Going to the gym may influence your opinion on people that don39t go Shape what identities are available to us Connections at work school gym church open doors or create friendships Also shape what opportunities are available to us Sociology Involves study of the diverse contexts within which society influences individuals Two key components Social Interaction Way people act together and alter their behavior for others If this place was church or concert Wherever you go you modify your behavior Governed by a set of norms Social Structure External Forces Shaped by Social hierarchy Governed by institutions Where does sociology come from Auguste Comte 17981859 Coined term Sociology Is NOT father of sociology Societies evolve in stages Believed that the field would synthesize other knowledge and allow sociologists to help improve society by focusing on moral progress Carl Marx Kids die of malnutrition 18181883 Shaped society by creating inequality between capital and labor Exploration Revolution Economic organization influences all other institutions CLASS organizing principle of social life CLASS your relationship to the modes of production Durkheim 18581917 FATHER OF SOCIOLOGY 1st European Sociology Department and the first major European journal of sociology Viewed society as an entity larger that the sum of its parts Social solidarity Social patterns external to individuals Development of Functionalism Where Did Sociology Come From Emile Durkheim Suicide Personal or Not Religion Age Marital Status Gender Employment Integration and regulation Individual Family Peers Educa on Economy Religion MORE INTEGRATED YOU ARE THE MORE STABILITY Weber Like Marx Class is the most significant division ADDED the idea of status and party Multidimensional analysis that combines political economic and cultural dimensions Partyvoluntary organization Church Status social ranking American Sociological Thinkers Thorstein Veblen Spin off of Marks 18571929 The Productive Workers The Pecuniary Owners Technology IF NOT PROPERLY MANAGED SOCIAL DECAY Not Social uplift or social decay Major position Not a matter of the technology but rather of its ownership and control and the uses to which it was put CONTROL of technology Conspicuous Consumption The purchase of goods or services for the specific purpose of displaying one s wealth University of Chicago First US Sociology Department Based on European counterpart In just 20 years established in US Industrialization Growth of factories and largescale goods production New technologies and innovations Immense social changes Different approaches needed Urbanization Growth of cities Shift from agriculture to manufacturing Problems were markedly different New type of political challenge including social movements How does sociology differ from other social sciences Concepts and theories cover wider range of topics Explanations of how the external world shapes behaviors of individuals and social outcomes are broader What are some of the spinoff fields that originally started in sociology Criminology Gender Studies African American Studies Organizational Studies La no Chapter 2 SOCA 101 Lyons What factors shape sociologists choices about what to research FACTOR 1 Epistemology study of knowledge and the justified belief that one can study theissue What we believe is possible to know about the world EX Early sociologist had to pick ls society an object in man s environment ls man part of society her Positivist logic of natural sciences lnterpretivist social world to complex FACTOR 2 Theoretical traditions the conceptual framework Symbolic interaction Structural Functionalism Conflict Theory Globalization Symbolic Interaction Symbolic meaning in the process of social interaction ZOOMED IN LENSMicrO Ongoing process Symbolic communication Reality is variable and changing Structural Functionalism The symbolic meaning in the process of social interaction ZOOMED OUT LENS Macro lnterrelated Parts working to keep order Agree on morally rightwrong Conflict theory Marx Role of coercion and power to produce order ZOOMED OUT LENS Macro Social inequalities based in class racegender Benefit some harm others Inequality causes social change Factor 3 Values Beliefs that influence perspectives Ex I support the US Constitution How changing political structure has influenced the interpretations Factor 4 Ethics Ethics set if guidelines that outline what is considered moral and acceptable behavior Tearoom Trade violates informed consent Rest stop gay sex Watchqueen Licenses plates numbers of those guys Public health survey Takes license plate numbers to cops Went to their homes took a survey Wrote it in a journal Willowbrook State School for Children Fed live viruses to mentally retarded children San Antonio Contraceptive Study Went to doctors to get the pill they were testing a new pill Who knows what you went home with Fernald State School Tracking Radioactive material through the body Got consent from parents to join science club Fed kids radioactive material 19 mil settlement American Sociological Association ASA Code of Ethics Professional and Scientific Standards Competence Conflicts of Interest Cant perform Confidentiality Informed Consent Research Planning Implementation and Dissemination Plagiarism 2 What is the best method to research sociological Qualitative or Quantitative Depending on the data and method used Research will either be quantitative or qualitative Quantitative Statistical Analysis Qualitative Operationalize Dependent Variable Aspects of research we predict will fluctuate in relation to other variables Independent Variable Aspects of research we predict will exist separate from other variables A hypothesis about crime An increase in the level of inequality in society Casual Claim an increase in the crime rate Dependent Variable Independent Variable Wide Range of Acceptable Research Methods Surveys Standard questions Explored patterns of Large numbers Interviews Small number Indepth Ethnographic research Observe or participate Strengths How people make sense of their worlds Giving voice to groups Challenges Drawing the research sample Turning research question into focused interview Analyzing copious amount of data Ethnographic Methods Two types Observation Participation Strengths Produces richest most nuanced accounts of life Provides thick descriptions Weakness Making sense of data Wide Range of Acceptable Research Methods Experiments artificial situations Historical research recordsdocuments 3 How is data collected What sampling issues do sociologists grapple with when they began their research Reliability and validity Access Time commitment Correlation Occurs when two social phenomenon appear together Casual Indifference Addresses how variables are linked and what motives change The Coleman Report Congressional mandate after 1964 Civil Rights Act to survey and report equal education opponunMes Coleman and colleagues demonstrated spurious relationship between school resources and student test scores 1980 with the use of Longitudinal data follow same respondents for long period of time found that a mere accurate view would be to equalize funding What do out conclusions tell us about the social world How do sociologists decide what kind of general claims to draw from their research Researchers strive to make general claims about issue posted by research questions Empirical generalizability Theoretical generalizability Chapter 3 notes Soca 101 Lyons Social Interaction How do we DEVELOP a sense of SELF Verbal 35 to Nonverbal 65 is understood better on a day to day basis Nonverbal Facial Expressions Tone of Voice Movement Appearance Eye Contact Gestures Posture The SELF is born of SOCIETY George Herbert Mead Symbolic interaction or interactionalism Self a process of interaction Individual is shaped through communication with self and others Charles Horton Cooley Looking glass self Looking for approval is a motivational fundamental human instinct 2 How do we make SENSE of our WORLD Context We are constructing our identities by nonverbal cues or nonverbal language verbal meanings Context in interaction method of constructing meaning with only limited responses Conversation Principles Turn taking fundamental basis of conversation 310 of a second of silence to establish the turn If a question is asked Want to go to the movies If the response is yes it will occur in a split second If the response is no DELAY in the form f silence or Um Ahh If the initiator picks up on the delay they can suffer an escape its ok if you39re busy just let me know later Turn taking fundamental basis of conversation This method allow for us to save face Lessens the rejection Provides sense of security Retains a positive self With this there are differences in Gender Age Roles The social Construction of Reality Nonverbal Communication Most vary from culture to culture and is considered to be the glue that blinds us Most potent form gestural Rule Use Zimmerman Welfare agency First come first served Sudnow Emergency Room unofficial rule treat worst first Social Position Molotch New York subway employees rarely reported suspicious package to avoid delays LabeHng Labeling theory 1st must be Deviant 2nd An individual or institution has the power to make it stick Labeling is affected by time and place Self Fulfilling Prophesy Robert Merton Change conduct and embrace the very behavior that led to the deviant category Scheff Mental Hospital patients learn how to get released accept the label Rosenhan deinstitutionalization of mental hospitals Conformity One argument presented to you in your text is that we conform to gain approval but just how far will we go for that approval Asch s classic three line experiment Demonstrated the influence of social context Miligran 65 of participants would shock you to death for a wrong answer Chapter 6 Power and Politics SOCA 101 Lyons 1 What are the distinct forms of power Power the capacity to bring about some income One Dimensional View Two Dimensional Three dimensional View One Dimensional View Power is observable when one party family or organization prevails in a conflict Power Elite small groups Mills Multiple small groups Dahl the Pluralism thesis Support Competing groups Majority Representation Critics Only if conflict is obvious Two Dimensional View Power to decide what gets decided Agenda Setting Consciously or unconsciously averting the challenge of potential issues Any interest contrary to elite interests Powerful dominant elite interests Why is Agenda Setting so important in politics Mass media influences politicians and policymakers or is it the other way around Power holders prevent subordinate parties from raising issues Three Dimensional View Power always involves behavior Power can be caused without exercising it Powerful people often attract others Power by persuasion can be used to maintain the status quo Invisible Power Reflects Ability of a power holder to keep challenges from arising in the first place Capacity of a power holder to convince subordinate groups that it is in their best interests to support the status quo Whats good for GM is good for America PREMISE If GM is more profitable it will hire more workers which in turn generates more business connection to the corporation and its employees 2009 Bailout 2013 annual worldwide profit 38 million Business Model Maximize profits Outsourcing and off shoring Cutting of wages Minimal Regulations taxes product pollution Outsources almost 23 of its jobs overseas Less than one in five GM vehicles are manufactured in the US Before Bailout 74500 jobs After Bailout 47500 in US 152500 outside US HOW DOES THE STATE DEFINE What is the State Includes all formal political institutions and legal system of any society IN US Includes 3 branches of government and all bureaucracies State Regulates Economy How Do States Regulate the Economy Role enforce contracts and regulate the economy In theory prevent economic actors from harming 3rd parties Policy general interest of all BUT the DETAILS of policy have enormous consequences for the distribution of power How Do States Impact Who Gets What In Society Business Confidence Theory Powerful incentive to support big business interests Relative Political Power Disproportionate resources to influences to influence political life 3 WHO HAS POWER IN THE UNITED STATES TOADY Who Wins Policy and Politics in the First Dimension Tax Policies Antipoverty programs Taxation Tax it is a financial charge levied by the Government upon a person such that failure to pay is punishable under law Why taxes Role of Government Quality of life for citizens Alter behavior to fit goals of country How does the government impose taxes upon the citizenstwo ways 1 Direct Taxes Progressive Government directly collects 2 Indirect taxes Regressive Sales tax Choice to pay Shifted Government does not directly collect Rich pay less than poor Tax Policies and Power US has longstanding progressive income tax system Tax cuts on high earners Income sheltered through loopholes and tax breaks Loopholes if you can keep money out of income box less tax Golf Cart write off 2009 6500 deduction Claiming income as dividend instead of income Black liquor Large SUV s Since 1945 decline in corporate income tax as a percentage of total federal tax revenue Rich pay less compared to the poor Chapter 5 Notes Soca 101 Lyons 1 What is culture System and a Practice 18th and 19th century Rise of world travel and exposure to world created differences End of 19th century Anthropologists viewed difference between groups of people as learned and biological Early 20th century Culture defined as entire way of life as people Today Culture is a system and culture is a practice What are some collective symbols of contemporary US culture In that picture wagering and betting Gold rush tailgating Culture as Practice Habitus and Tool Kit How is culture actually practiced Pierre Bourdieu sets of assumptions about the world and their place in it habitus Past experiences guide opinion Culture and Communication In what way is culture a form of communication Language Cultural universal Fundamental building block of though Provides cultural symbols and practices Languages influences culture but does not completely determine it Mass Communication Mass Communication Internet creates new set of communication possibilities Social networks and media Instant messaging Mass self communication Internetcentered communication 2 HOW DOES CULTURE SHAPE Counterculture ideas attitudes behavior in direct conflict with culture Subculture affiliation based on shared belief preferences and practices How is the concept of culture wars at odds with the multicultural landscape of the United States Cultural Wars Arguments over proper role of family and religious values of state policy abortion rights immigration rights Multiculturalism Melting pot metaphor Privileges a specific notion of what it means to be American Ethnocentrism Cultural Relativism Provides alternative to melting pot metaphor Evaluates cultural meanings and practices in their own social context 3 HOW DO CULTURAL PRACTICES RELATE TO CLASS AND STATUS Economic Capital Money and Economic Assets Social Capital Social connections and Networks Cultural Capital Educations attitudes and preferences which collectively confer higher or lower status Cultural Omnivores Demonstrate high status through cultural consumption Symbolic Boundaries may or may not overlap Taste clothes food Socioeconomic status wrong side of the tracks Morality Not taking your kid to a mud pit but you go Geographic location Don t live in a low income neighborhood and be middle class Spatical boundaries Where you try to not intermingle Class Reproduction Shortterm class reproduction Everyday interactions confirm relative statuses Longterm class reproduction Advantages wealth Childrearing patterns 4 WHO PRODUCES CULTURE AND WHY Public Sphere and Society Equal chance to present their ideas Public Sphere The IDEA that all members of a democratic society have the ability to equally participate Counter publics Subordinated social groups create alternative public spheres Networking Social networking another form of public spheres ls Popular culture an Industry or a Cultural Democracy Cultural industry perspective People passively accept what they are given by corporate media Cultural democracy perspective Corporate media give people what they legitimately want Cultural jamming perspective takes corporate imagery everyone is familiar 5WHAT IS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MEDIA AND DEMOCRACY Media Bias Domination or Framing Edward Herman and Noam Chomsky Propaganda model of media wealthy few paid advertising governmental influences specific sources Contemporary Sociologist Media framing argument 6 Major Corps How much choice do US media consumers really have Consolidation fewer and fewer corporations own more Conglomeration One firm controls multiple types of media Disney oGE News Corp Viacom Time Warner CBS Chapter 4 Social Structure SOCA 101 Lyons Big Question 1 What is Social Structure How are social structures similar to the physical structure of a building Social Structure the bundle of forces that shape the background conditions for society Social Structure shapes constrains and enables all activities just like a building What are the two key components of social structure Social hierarchies found in any society in which some groups or individuals are elevated above others Institutional environments made up of laws rules organizations and the government in which individuals navigate Big Question 2 how do social hierarchies shape our life choices and relationships Social hierarchies Places of into a matrix of power Navigate multiple hierarchies What two critical reasons make social hierarchies an important component of a society39s structure 0 Life Chances 0 Shape our social lives and relationships Social hierarchies generate tensions and conflicts between dominant and subordinate groups INEQUALITIES 0 Structure and power shifts Power and Privilege in Social Hierarchies Dominant group 0 Power and privilege monopolize opportunities or claims on rewards Subordinate groups 0 Discrimination subjected to inferior status and limited opportunities Privilege is Maintained through Discrimination Functionalist claim that there is some benefit to racial and gender differences Conflict Theorists see the exploitation of race and gender to benefit those in power In what ways does population change matter 0 Demographic changes can alter the relationships between many different types of groups Immigration Native dominate groups feels the affect of quotCritical Massquot perceived threat exclusion of opportunity stereotyping and discrimination Agricultural decline replaced by Manufacturing 0 Agricultural central role in economy 0 Manual labor 0 Farm vote Wave 1 0 18801920 CentralSouthern Europeans 0 Employment in growing manufacturing Population Change and Economy Wave 2 o 1965 Central AmericaAsia and Mexico Manufacturing 0 197039s decline technological advancement 200039s service white collar knowledge based industry 2007 high unemployment reduced immigration flow Today Economic shift 0 Set of quotgoodquot service jobs requiring more education 0 Set of quotbadquot service jobs undesirable garbage sewer janitorial fast food etc o Consequence on immigration Migrants are either highly educated or not at all 0 Consequence on dominant group Shortage of educated citizens Big Question 3 why do institutions influence social life Two types of institutions 1 Enduring customs Institutions 0 Created by human beings EX marriage 0 Can change acceptance right to marry for gays and straight 0 Changing the nature of an institution like marriage 2 Organizations and Governments as institution Why are institutions of the government critically important to the overall social structure 0 Schools 0 Economic institutions of society 0 Government 0 Religion 0 Legal system 0 STATE Stand above institutional structure of any society Serve as ultimate expression of powers of institutions Provide policies and programs related to social insurance and social assistance Welfare State Big Question 4 how is social structure linked to social interaction The context of social interaction How is social structure linked to social interaction Social structures provide processes of reinforcement Socialization is not just in childhood it is lifelong How does socialization contribute to the creation of roles and norms Individuals define themselves through identification required for social interaction Rules Roles Social norms Growth of Habitus We learn to be human Part of being human Language roles emotions understanding norms Through this process we develop habitswhen they become second nature habitus Impact of social structure vs individual choice Free will People in society are responsible for their position because everyone has freedom to act and make of their life what they want Margaret Thatcher Structuralism Individuals have little agency or capacity to make free choices and exert their own wills Karl Marx Big Question 5 why are social structure so slow to change Path Dependency Outcomes of the past shape and constrain the subsequent development of structures Difficult to drastically alter Social Structures Social structures positive Order and predictability Film clip Social structures negatives When structures fail to respond to social change threats to well being Understanding social problems understanding structureSocial Structures Chapter 9 Social Stratification Inequality and Poverty SOCA 101 Lyons 1 WHAT IS INEQUALITY Inequality Unequal distribution of valued goods and opportunities The who and what of inequality Income Average income 4488816 per person or Medium income 52250 per family of 4 Wealth Value of assets owned NFA Savings investments and other convertible assets Share of Pre Tax Income Growth 19792007 Top 20 751 Bottom 80 249 Top 5 318052 Top Quintile 181905 2nd Quintile 82905 Middle Quintile Net Worth Net Worth is the total assets minus total outside liabilities Inequality is More than just Income and Wealth Middle Poor typically consume more than their reported incomes Poor families more likely to go without Medical Care Adequate housing Adequate transportation Middle Class families Home mortgages persona bank College cars and more 2 Jusitying inequality Pay One justification for inequality is that wide differences in pay are needed Talent Inequality holds that biology creates those who can and those who can not Efficiency Inequality creates motivations to achieve and take risks But how large should these differences be to achieve motivation 3 DO WE ALL HAVE AN EQUAL OPPOURTUNITY TO SUCCEED IN LIFE Factors that influence Mobility How our families are Parents shape us How individuals are slotted into jobs with labor markets More dollars for more advantages Government policies Weak policies focused in on families reinforce it More reliant on parents income Less socially mobile Obamacare Website heathcaregov Penalty in 2014 in 2 ways 1 of your yearly household income 95 per person for the year Scenano 26 year old white male minimum wage Federal assessment Medicaid State sends rejection because he doesn39t meet State standards for assistance Which of the following do you think is the biggest reason a person is homeless D Can t make enough money to live in a house or apartment 4 HOW MUCH POVERTY EXISTS IN THE US COMPARED TO OTHER NATIONS The number of persons in poverty in the US in 2013was 45300000 Which Children under the age of 18 20274000 kids on street According to the World Hunger Org in 2007 this number was 373 million 6 years the numbers rose by 8 million What does it mean when it is said that a person lives in poverty Money income before taxes Does not include capital gains Does not include non cash benefits Public housing Medicaid and food stamps 1 person in poverty Make less than 11670 2 15730 3 19790 Supplemental Poverty Measure Adds in Basic needs and subtracts governmental noncash programs Controls for government benefits and basic necessity expenses 497 million 1 in every 6 people Comparing Poverty Across Borders Poverty in US US is doing less than other countries to reduce poverty US spends though welfare programs than other wealthy countries and more on education and health care Life at the Bottom PovenyHne Absolute poverty Relative poverty Attempts to capture changes in living standards Poverty risk factors Education lt HS Employment status Minimum wage Minority status disproportionately represented Family structure Single parents The working Poor Working poor Devalued The arguments on minimum wage 3 out of 10 ARE families The growing number of jobs in America ARE minimum wage If a family makes under poverty line they are NOT eligible for cash assistance through welfare If a family does receive welfare then the amount of cash provided will pull the family just above the poverty line in income FALSE All programs combined will not raise a family out of poverty HUD Waiting list average Depends on area 212 years Day Care must be under poverty Energy assistance Food Stamp Debate 47 million Americans Recession Unemployment Relaxed standards increased benefit Homelessness is NOT concentrated within cities or urban areas The average age of a homeless person is 9 years old TRUE Most homeless individuals do not have jobs FALSE Children under the age of 18 account for 40 of the homeless Major causes of homelessness Unemployment andor eviction Reductions in federal support for affordable housing Eroding work opportunities Inadequate housing for lowincome people Reductions in public assistance Inadequate health care Domestic violence Addiction In Alabama alone 30000 homeless under 8th grade Pnson27399 Welfare 4800 Chapter 10 Race and Ethnicity SOCA 101 Lyons 1 WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN RACE AND ETHNICITY Weber on Race First person to define race and ethnicity Ethnicity Shared common belief in common decent Race Essentialism thought common inheritable traits derived from common decent biological WEB Du Bois on race There are no identifiable common traits that can be signed as ONLY African Americans or any race Race is more of a product of the social fabric Employment practices between blackwhites Contemporary Sociologists Contemporary sociologists argue there is NOT a true objective measure but rather a BELIEF that some trait makes us one race or another Definitions Ethnicity System for classifying people who are believed to share common descent based on perceived cultural similarities Race System for classifying people who are BELIEVED to share common descent based on PERCEIVED innate physical similarities Key distinctions All societies are different on the importance of raceethnicity racial labels Racial Categories are imposed where ethnic categories are chosen 2 IS RACE REAL The Social Construction of Race Constructive perspective Racial categories are socially constricted and not a result of physical or biological features Essentialist view of race asserts that there are enduring differences between races that are rooted in biological sources Who s white Race is invented therefore we society can change who is part of the group Race is a product of the masses Race is an idea and therefore changes over time Constructivist approach holds that we have socially constructed the issue of race The process of assimilation supports this idea Arguments against a biological determination of race Socialization is the key from birth we start to learn what the differences are and assign a meaning to those differences Race is NOT biological How can it not be biological when we can SEE it Because we have been trained to identify certain characteristics and associate them with group membership For race to be more than skin deep visual traits must correspond to other genetic differences within the body The Foundation Thomas Jefferson All men are created equal at the same time he owned 175225 slaves Had to espouse a theory of race to be creditable Notes on the state of Virginia That the blacks whether made this way by circumstance or not were inferior to that of whites in body and mind Basically all men are equal therefore some people are not quite men Construction of Race Race was constructed through law Academics science and the learned created a litany of studies and theories that supported the idea of inferiority How influential were all these studies on our society Race Traits and Tendencies American Economic Association Journal In vital capacity the tendency of the Negro race has been downward This tendency must lead to a still greater mortality And in the end cause the extinction of the race Bassis of Plessy Vs Ferguson At the turn of the 20th Century What is white Ozawa Japanese 1922 Claims that he is white Courts refused it because you can only be caucasian to be white He said that is good because he is caucasian 3 Months later Fin comes from India and checks out Ozawa s case He decides that Ozawa is white and so is he It is decided that what the common man thinks is white Why Citizenship is Important To gain full rewards of US societies Can t legally contract Can t file suit Can t own property WWII No matter what you were 1968 Fair Housing Act Intended to end Governmental sanction of racism based on racist ideologies FHA Presence of even one or two nonwhite families could undermine the housing values in the new suburbs Fed Reg 1930 Between 1934 and 1960 homeownership rate increased from 30 to 60 percent Federal loans 1934 and 1968 120 Billion lt 2 to nonwhites Prohibits international discrimination as well as policies and practices that result in discrimination The Social Construction of Race Invention for us Doesn t mean that it s not real Race is man made so it is not natural Race is socially created A product of masses of people The idea of race changes overtime but not overnight 3 WHAT IS RACIST AND WHAT ISN T Stereotype Class Comparison What is Racism Prejudice Negative beliefs or attitudes that are held about an entire group Broadly applied subjective and stereotypefilled Discrimination Includes AND BEHAVIOR that harms or disadvantages individuals on the basis of their group membership Maintains social hierarchy Put both together RACISM Prejudice Without stereotypes here couldn t be any prejudice Stereotype Negative simplified generalizations about a group or an attitude involving prejudgement on the basis of race ethnicity etc Study College students were asked at 5 major universities about races Black Thugs criminals drug dealer rappers speaks Ebonics armed good at basketball well endowed Criminal Activity Racial Discrimination Institutional Intentional Actions result in inequality Individual Negative words placing limits and violent acts Why does racism occur Sociological Approach Race is normative socialized to believe Does income place its opportunities Med income of White households 54000 vs 32000 Black 25 of all Blacks and Latinos are below poverty vs 10 whites Even college educated blacks will have a gap in income between whites Upper class blacks only 85 of whites in similar positions Does wealth place limits Wealth depends greatly on intergenerational transfers Denial of home ownership and other assets for a couple hundred years Locations of homes Blacks continue to be residentially segregated Today the wealth gap is the largest it has been in 25 year Employment Vs Unemployment Black 136 White 74 Unchanged in 50 years Blacks are underrepresented in professional and managerial positions and overrepresented in the lowerwage service sector Criminal Justice Supervision Blacks 7 times more likely to be incarcerated and 2 times as likely as hispanic 12 of all black men have a criminal record Felony disenfranchised law denial of right to vote Native American Indians Jefferson spoke in terms of Civilization I believe sic the Indian then to be in body and mind equal to the white man Notes on Virginia Jefferson s lndian Policy 1 Acquire land facilitate trade and ally the Indian with the US 2 Civilian Policy Agriculture sedentary way of life and Christian Religion Before 1820 5 civilized tribes Cherokee Choctaw Chickasaw Creek and Seminole nations Results Abandoned Traditional dress Set up schools Newspapers Towns Constitutions 18201840 European Settlers increase Need Land 1828 Andrew Jackson take office Georgia outlaws Cherokee Government and confiscates land 18291830 Purposes Indian removal Act May 28 1830 signed into law 1832 US Supreme Court finds for Cherokee Andrew Jackson reelected on removal platform By 1837 46000 Native American Indians removed Told to take off clothes put back traditional dress and leave 2200 miles Trail of tears close to 8000 Cherokee died General Stats 2500000 Native Americans live on reservations More that 40 live below the 1999 federal poverty line Estimated 90000 homeless Less than 50 connected to a public sewer Economic No options Walmart McDonalds Chiefs Wyoming lndian High Schools 160 total student body vs schools with average enrollment of 1500 Went to States for the last 20 years in a row How Culture future on Children Traditional Rituals modified Sweats traditionally to bring about good hunt or before going to war Reservation goes to the games to support Children are condition to partake in the activity Athletics Cultural differences Only exposed to prejudice outside the Res Community Support vs no support Lack of educational preparedness Account for only 410 of a percent of the scholarship athletes at the major college level Cell phones or other technological advances none Chapter 7 Notes Markets Organizations and Work SOCA 101 Lyons 1 HOW DO SOCIAL FACTORS IMPACT MARKET The Creation and Functioning of Markets Market Capitalism Buyers sellers and producers engage in exchange of commodities and services Communism A society organized without private property and individual consumption on need not ability Central planning Employed in socialist economies in Eastern Europe Capitalism Characterized by economic systems based on private property and market exchange Socialism Found in economic system where government owns property and controls production Defining Markets Classical Economics Rational choice perspective Sociological Definitions Repeated interactions Shared understanding Outsourcing Arlie Hochschild 2012 2012 study Online Dating Numerologists Wantologists Government Private firms for traditional government tasks Weapons Military contractors present with ground troops Traditional Market Domain Outsourcing Increasingly penetrating social life Entrepreneurs People who invest in and start businesses Outsourcing Sandy Springs GA Publicprivate partnership PPP model City contracts with private industry for all of its basic services other than public safety that is police fire and courts Critics Not typical city Corruption sure to develop Key Social Factors in Market Social Networks Involve connectivity between people integral part of market exchanges POLANYI 1944 Argued economic action is embedded in social interactions and takes part in socialized life Power Markets are both affected by existing power relations within society and reaffirm power and inequality by systematically benefitting those who are already privileged Culture Influences formal and informal rules Contributes to unwritten rules of market that can be changed by participants to create opponunMes ZELIZER 2012 life insurance study 2 WHY ARE ORGANIZATIONS IMPORTANT FOR SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC LIFE Organization in the Modern World Organization Group engaged in specific activity that has identifiable purpose or goal and that has enduring for of association Organizational Persistance An example Jobs and Wozniak Apple Computer Downside of Bureaucracy Max Weber s Theory of Bureaucracy 19221978 Existence of formal procedures and rules ensure consistency and accountability and serve as hallmark of bureaucracy Decision Making Garbage Can Model of Decision Making Everybody throws ideas into pot sometimes work sometimes don t Loose Coupling Organizations and Their Environment How can an organization s structure help or hurt its chance for survival Creating good match to initial environment and a subsequent structural inertia Hannan and Freeman 1989 Identifying and fulfilling niche for services or products in completing environments Identifying and persuading potential donors Organizational lsomorphism Organizations in the same field tend to become increasingly similar to each other over time DiMaggio and Powell 1983 Coercive isomorphism ADA compliance Normative isomorphism expectations of people organization serves Mimetic isomorphism imitating parts of organizations visible in environment 4 HOW ARE JOBS STRUCTURED Division of Labor in Modern Societies Increasing Specialization Grew within Industrial Revolution Supported development of wealth more educationtraining and variety of jobs in modern economy Deskilling lose authority over the production process 5 WHAT MAKES A GOOD JOB Good Jobs Bad Jobs No Jobs Work in America Work Satisfaction Rate of Pay Amount of autonomy Status Amount of trust Level of skills and credentials Job security Comparing Work in America with Similar Countries Capitalist market economies Role of unions Kind and amount of government laws or regulations Free Market Economies Free market decides more of how work is organized Fewer government regulations of employment and relatively weaker labor movement Lack of Unions and Lack of Govt Regulation Unions represent the worker as a group 10 of total workforce of America Far fewer governmental regulations than other developed countries Lean Production continually identify and constantly reduce costs American Model and Social Democratic Model American Model Less power for worker Dependance on employer for health careretirement More Loan Production Social Democratic Model More job production full time worker Growing temporary workforce Healthcare Retirement Government responsibility Business Goal Maximize profits Lean production Out sourcing Minimal Regulations Taxes product pollution Educa on SOCAfOf Lyons 1 WHAT ARE THE MAJOR FUNCTIONS OF SCHOOLS The Purpose of Education Major functions of schools Socialize habits attitudes and practices Educate Economic Development How Hidden curriculum Schools will support gender roles Different classes Teachers expectation of dirty child versus clean child Teaching cognitive learning What and why do we need to acquire education Credentialism Higher educational requirements for particular employment positions Premise You have acquired the knowledge if you get the degree does that mean you have it Nope For Society as a Whole Education is a key factor in a societies economic development Universal education US 1944 GI Bill 78 million educated beyond HS Current Picture of Education System The US no longer leads the world in education 2 HOW IS EDUCATION RELATED TO IMPORTANT LIFE OUTCOMES Economic Outcomes Those with more education earn more on average then those with less schooling Human Capital Theory Suggest that people with more education are paid more because they are more productive VS Allocation Theory that education moves people along different routes that influence how much they earn Education and Life outcomes Civic and political participation More education more likely to participate To be able to participate in a documentary you have to be educated Why does one need education to participate in a democracy society Does the Earth go around the Sun or vice versa 1 in 4 Americans don t know the earth orbits the sun 1 in 4 cannot name more than one of the five freedoms guaranteed by the First Amendment Almost 50 of American can name all the Simpsons Statistics 73 million 2 year institution and 137 million 4year institutions Total 21 Million Roughly 57 of the total population More people in poverty than in college 705 graduate from HS 292 of the 57 will graduate college How can the American People vote beyond rhetorical arguments if they do NOT have knowledge More Education More Likely Healthy behavioral habits better physician condition live longer Better access to healthcare information marry and marry at a later age Rate that marriage is very happy Educational homogamy Less Likely To smoke more likely to quit Be involved in dangerous and toxic work conditions 3 IS EDUCATION EQUALLY AVAILABLE TO ALL Educational Inequality Children of different social classes Attend different types of schools Receive different kinds of instruction curricula Achieve different ed Gender gap in education Favors males compared to females with respect to attending selective colleges and choosing majors leading to higher paying careers 4 HOW DO EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS DIFFER AROUND THE WORLD Three Ways Access Control and finance schools Availability of public vs private schools 28 of Developing 14 underdeveloped 11 in private schools in US High Stakes Testing Achievement tests used to set high student learning standards and raise student achievement May provide wrong incentives for students and teachers Tracking ls widespread in US Creates instructional social and institutional differences in learning experiences Influences student selfesteem and expectational about academic performance Limits teachers perceptions of what grades are appropriate for students in different tracts Chapter 12 Immigration SOCA 101 Lyons 1 WHAT IS IMMIGRATION AND HOW HAS IT CHANGED OVER TIME Immigration A Sociological Perspective Migration is a process Initial decision Short term Long term Emigration and immigration Emigration Leaving of a place Immigration Coming to a place Individual Impact Locations Receiving and sending countries USA top Receiving Saudi Arabia Canada Spain Australia United Arab Emirates Mexico top sending China Bangladesh Philippines Turkey Egypt Regulation of both emigration and immigration has been common Berlin Wall 1961 Built between East and West Berlin Devised to stop moving between leaving and going to them both Officers orders were shoot to kill at the wall Prohibition of EMIGRATION Immigration Policy in the US Basic Structure of US immigration Policy Legal Permanent Residence LPR Legal immigrants NOT citizens Foreign born residents Naturalized citizens derivative citizens Derive Parent is an LPR Child is in legal physical custody Naturalization LPR live for certain amount of years Physical Resident live for certain amount of years Learn English Learn History and Governmental structure and test Show good moral character Swear in Constitution Legal temporary residents NON IMMIGRANTS Unauthorized migrants ILLEGALIMMIGRANTS Visas Visa status in many ways defines circumstances of foreign born person 23 classes of nonimmigrant visas Status Refugee status Form of protection Asylum status Available for people already in the US LPR Numerically Limited Numerically Unlimited Brief History of US Immigration First Immigration ERA 17891874 Largely unrestricted Noncitizen voters Second Immigration ERA 18751920 Qualitative Restriction Not numbers but TYPE of person from China from Asia etc Begins Exclusionary Policy Chinese Exclusion Act Third Immigration ERA 19211964 AntiImmigration pressure led to do something about the flow of immigrants Instead of Qualitative they made quantitative restrictions QUOTA Restrict immigrants from southern and Eastern Hemispheres SS St Louis 938 passengers 278 survived holocaust Cuba says that they won t get off that ship If they paid 500 per person they could come off Telegraphed FDR Statehouse responded They must wait in line Boat went back to Germany o EX Number allowed into the country at this time Britain 66000 Germany 26000 Western Hemisphere unrestricted Canada and Mexico US Border control os formed El Paso Detroit The Bracero Program 1940s and 50s brought large numbers of low wage agriculture workers from Mexico on shortterm contracts that did not permit them to become permanent US residents 1954 Operation Wetback General Joseph Swing Head of program He went out and with federal and state and border control officers they went to barrios and rounded people up If you looked Mexican they rounded you up and sent you back to Mexico Whole families born on US soil Attempt to remove illegal aliens Removed about a million people Fourth Immigration ERA 1965 now Both Qualitative and Quantitative Restrictions on Both Hemispheres Immigration Act of 1965 Elimination of Quotas Two Tiers Unlimited number Immediate relatives Limited number of all others Less problems if you are extremely educated to get in Current Issue George W Bush s Council of Econ Advisers assed the impacts of immigration fuels the country s Econ growth and has a positive effect on the income of nativeborn workers 3 Assimilation is multifaceted Remaining in new country EngHsh Culture History Want to become a citizen os US Becoming like natives Ethnic Enclaves Large number in geographic area Lot of people that are from another country Chinatown NY
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