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Exam 3 Material

by: Ashley Reuben

Exam 3 Material BIOSC 0370

Ashley Reuben
GPA 3.9

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About this Document

All notes for Exam 3.
Anthony Bledsoe
Ecology, exam, notes
75 ?




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This 16 page Bundle was uploaded by Ashley Reuben on Monday January 25, 2016. The Bundle belongs to BIOSC 0370 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Anthony Bledsoe in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Ecology in Biological Sciences at University of Pittsburgh.


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Date Created: 01/25/16
Exam 3 Notes Reuben, Ashley Victoria The meaning of K  Notice competition is dealt with indirectly  No direct mention of resources  By reference to population size base can support stably o Black Box of K Model Assumptions  Stable age distributions  Density is properly measured  Relationship between density and rate of increase is linear o dN/dt = r max N(K­N/K)  multiply each side of the equation by 1/N  1/N * dN/dt = rmax (K­N/K)  1/N * dN/dt = rmax (1­N/K)  1/N * dN/dt = rmax – (maxN/K)  1/N * dN/dt = TREAT AS A Y VARIABLE and TREAT N  AS AN X VARIABLE  y=mx+b o r max will be treated as b o –r maxK is treated as M  Graph – is a straight line with a negative slope  N on the x­axis  1/N * dN/dt on the y­axis  rmax is the y­intercept  K is the x­intercept   robserved N * dN/dt  increase in density is translated instantaneously into decrease  in per capita growth rates (no time lags)  time lag – lag between when something instantaneously  happens compared to when it actually happens  resources are replaced exactly as used at K Graph  x­axis = time  y­axis = N  dotted line = k  dN/dt = rmax N (K­N t­x  Increase, Peak, Decrease – repeat (hills) **NOTEBOOK NOTES** Tilmans’s Model incorporates the concept of niche Grinnell – range of environments in which a species occurs; a habitat or distributional  concept distinct from niche  Think of habitat as the kind of place that a species occurs  Vegetation type, soil type, water type, elevation – are all things used to  describe an organism habitat ▯ ▯ Blue Gray Gnatcatchers  Small, long tail insectivorous bird  Two studies; size of the prey and height of which the birds forge o Forging height is the niche dimension ▯ ▯ Human Analogy for niche  Professor; found in a lecture hall, at home, in car ▯ ▯ Tilman was really interested in interspecific competition  Tilman’s model explicitly incorporates niche – an advance over L­V approach  The model: o Plot resource space o Define zero­inclines in resource space ▯ ▯ Competition Exclusion Principle   Complete competitors cannot coexist o For competing species to co­exist there must be niche differences  Robert MacArthur  o Made a curious observation – coniferous forest in Maine and found five different Warbler species co­existing  Dividing up space where, space is the critical niche dimension  Birds don’t compete because they divide up space in the  tree Evolutionary responses to interspecific competition  Should natural selection reduce interspecific competition? o If YES: there is trait variation; one form of the trait reduces extent of  competition more than other form of trait; trait is heritable ▯ ▯ Let’s look at the issue as one of niche breadth…  Members of a given species in a single niche dimension; no overlap of food  item size – the species are not competing in this dimension; intraspecific o When there is only intraspecific it will tend to expand the niches  Trade off between inter and intra – specific  ▯ ▯ INSERT MISSING NOTES ▯ ▯ Simple predator­prey Models (Lotka­Voltera Model) ▯ ▯ Population Dynamics – Rosenzweig and MacArther Model  GRAPHS IN NOTEBOOK


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