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Date Created: 01/25/16
American Government in a Multicultural World 22715 809 AM EXAMS Email him a couple days before the exam and let him know youre taking it on Friday everyone else will take it Wed 0 Email him about power point slides We have a constitutional democracy republic democracy sovereignty rests in the people Popular sovereignty Democracy is ruled by the many Sovereignty ultimate governing authority Form of Government 0 Democracy The People have ultimate power ruled by the people Monarchy King Dictator ruled by the one Aristocracy ruled by the able few 0 Forms Systems Political system 0 System of Government Unitary system who wields the power puts it into practice the national government Confederal system Confederacy confederation subnational state government wields the power 0 Federal System Federalism sharing of powers between the national and subnational what the united states has the founding fathers founded this practice Supremacy Clause federal law is supreme o The federal government wields the power of the US 0 States are semisovereign don t have full power 0 Political Economy Economic System 0 Who owns the means to produce the means of goods and services Private pro t public the public interest 1 Capitalism system what the US has 0 Far right conservative view of an economic system 0 Private sector private individuals in the hands of the people 0 Competition Sherman AntiTrust Act Monopolies can not exist because it messes up the competition if there is no competition the economy will fall 2 Communism System Classical Socialism Far left 0 The government owns it 3 Socialism The public and private sector about 50 50 shared 0 Moderate system in the middle Learning to Think Politically Political Thinking o lnvolves the careful gathering and sifting of information to form a knowledge view about a political issue not an opinion 0 Have to be educated 0 Mass media keeps us informed 0 Private Sector they tell us what we want to hear because the underline purpose is money 0 Important for responsible citizenship 1 power in the world wealthiest country in the world Ranked 37 or 38 of school system in the world Barriers to political thinking 0 Main Barrier Unwillingness of citizens to make the effort to selfinform 0 Changes in media consumptions more people consume biased cable television and internet blogs 2nOI Barrier Catering to what you wanna hear Spin by political leaders and government entities Research shows faulty perceptions becoming more prevalent What political science can contribute to political thinking 0 Political Science The systematic study of government and politics 0 A descriptive and analytical discipline can increase ability to think politically What Political science can contribute to political thinking 0 Political science can provide deeper analysis 0 Shows that America s culture of individualism was an import obstacle to wholescale healthcare reform ie Affordable Care Act 0 lndividualistic culture has roots in colonial wilderness society quotpull yourself up by your boot strapsquot Govern ourselves practice own religion 0 Polls show continued strength of individualism most American s say as a whole that they value individualism Political Culture 0 Derived from a country s traditons elimate of time o De nes the relationship between citizens and government 0 America s core ideals are rooted in the European heritage of the rst white settlers May ower Compact 1620 0 Political Culture American s Enduring Beliefs Core Political Values 0 Liberty Freedom 0 Individualism o Equality Not to be confused with Equity 0 Selfgovernment Core Political Values 0 Liberty Individuals should be free to act as they choose within limits We are free to act as we chose as long as we don t violate the social contract Unsettled land fostered freedom through migration Many ed to Europe to escape religion persecution o Individualism The individual is paramount government is secondary Governments role is to serve the people Government of the People by the People of the People shall not perish from the earthquot Abraham Lincoln Tocqueville Americans chief aim is to quotremail their own mastersquot Popular sovereignty a form of democracy 0 Equality European aristocratic ruled by the able few privilege versus American equal treatment under the law Fourteenth Amendment Perplexing ideal in the early years of the nation Some were free while others were enslaved Differing opinions on the meaning of equality persist o SelfGovernment American colonials had substantial self determination Vision of a self governing nation with powers from the consent of the governedquot Concessio Latin By the consent of the government John Locke legitament government is found through the consent of the governed which means we have popular sovereignty Quarenato whats your legitamicy The limits and power of America s ideals 0 America s cultural beliefs are idealistic you can never meet them perfectly o Failures to meet the high ideals include Slavery Postslavery jim Crowquot era Racial immigration and property restrictions 0 Reaching to meet the high ideals Abolition and suffrage movements Emancipation Civil rights movement Public education Higher education 0 Politics and Power in America Politics The means by which society settles its con icts and allocates the resulting bene ts and costs All about power win the election Power The ability of persons groups or institutions to in uence political developments Authoritarian and totalitarian governments nondemocratic repressive regime types Hitler Table 12 in book A democratic system 0 System in which the people govern by direct or representative means 0 In practice majority rule through the free and open elections of representatives 0 Majoritarianism the majority effectively determines what government does Restraints on majority power Pluralism the preference of the special interest that largely determines what government does Authority The recognized rights of of cials to exercise power Elitism high elite of cials have the power o A Constitutional System 0 The Constitution Elaborate checks and balances Bill of Rights 0 Constiutionalism Idea that there are lawful restrictions on government s power Lawful restrictions on governments powers governments power is not absolute o Restraints on majority power 0 Judicial action channel through which ordinary citizens can exercise power Separate 3 Branches for checks and balances between all 3 of them Civil Liberties Individual freedoms Civil Rights Group freedoms A Free Market System 0 Operates mainly on private transactions 0 Some government intervention through regulatory taxing and spending policies 0 Tax rate much lower in US than in European countdes 0 Corporate Power In uence rms have over policymakers o Elitism Power exercised by the in uential few 0 Who does govern 0 De ning characteristic of American politics Widespread sharing of power 0 Women and minorities initially excluded Their power will steadily grow over time Demographics not economy Hispanic largest growing minority 0 Before the Constitution Colonial and Revolutionary Expedences Before the Constitution 0 Colonial experiences with democratic institutions English Parliament and colonial charters o The quotrights of Englishmenquot including trial by Jury o Repeal of the Stamp Act A tax on colonial newspapers and document 0 Enactment of the Townsend Act Tax on tea King of Parliament s decision because he could 0 First Continental Congress Talk about issues 0 Declaration of Independence o A call to revolution Liberty equality individual rights selfgovernment and lawful powers Foundational document for the Constitution May be a test question 0 Declares American independence from the tyranny of King George the Ill 0 Philosophy ofJohn Locke lnalienable natural rights Life liberty and property Protect n lnalienable God given based on our personhood we all have the same that exist in us a God gave us Life so you cant take your own life because God gave them too us which is why suicide is illegal Social Contract Government has responsibility to preserve rights We give up some of our rights 0 Thomas Jefferson All men are created equalquot Just powers derive from the consent of the governed Articles of Confederation o Adopted during the Revolutionary War 0 O O 0 Created weak national government States retained quotsovereignty freedom and independencequot Prohibited Congress from interfering in states commerce policies Prohibited Congress from taxation 0 A nation dissolving O O O Raised fears about the weakness of the national government Weakened Congress Nation dissolving Farmers led by Daniel Shays marched to prevent foreclosures on their land Congress unable to raise army to quell rebellion Motivated Congress to authorize a convention in Philadelphia to revise Articles of Confederation Propose a whole new system Federal System 0 The Great Compromise a twochamber Congress 0 Bicameral Legislature Virginia largestate Plan 0 Representation based on population number 0 Greater power to larger states Equity fairness You either have power or you don t always a ght for power 0 House of Representatives larger states have more representatives New Jersey smallstate Plan Each state would have one vote Equal power to large and small states Equality Senate upper chamber each state two senates Nebraska is odd why 0 They are the only state with a unicameral legislative system Great Compromise twochamber Congress 0 House of Representatives proportional representation 0 Senate equal representation Nebraska is odd whyonly state to have a unicameral legislative The ThreeFifths Compromise issues of slavery and trade 0 Congress agreed not to tax exports only imports Congress agreed not to outlaw slavery ThreeFifths Compromise three fths of enslaved population counted for apportionment of taxes and political representation Bene ted the south 45 of represented 35 person 25 property A strategy for rati cation Constitution submitted directly to the states Federalist proponents of the Constitution James Madison head Federalist federalist papers AntiFederalist against a strong national government Lead by Thomas Jefferson John Adams antifederalist papers argued against the radi cation of the constitution against strong national government 0 The rati cation debate AntiFederalists raised arguments that still echo in American politics 0 The national government would be too powe ul 0 State selfgovernment and personal liberty at risk 0 The Federalist Papers Alexander Hamilton James Madison and John Jay AntiFederalist had a stronger case not to ratify constitution The framers39 goals test question Table 21 0 1 Government strong enough to meet the country s needs 0 2 Government not threatening existence of the separate states 0 3 Government not threatening liberty protect civil liberties 4 Government based on popular consent consent of the people 0 Grants and denials of power 0 Grants 0 Limit government by stating speci c powers in the Constitution 0 Total of seventeen powers ie expressed or enumerated written in black and white For instance coin money declare war interstate commerce Denials Limit government by stating speci c prohibitions in the Constitution eg to imprison without habeas corpus Constitution difficult to amend Thousands proposed only 27 0 Using power to offset power power to offset power Montesquieu s concept of separation of powers Madison s Federalist No 10 and the problem of overbearing majorities ie ambition offsets ambition The framers special contribution separate but overlapping powers Federalist System sharing of powers power offsetting power Table 22 in book Bill of Rights test question 0 Separated Institutions Sharing Power Checks and Balances Separation of Power divid power of government Shared institutions checks and balances 0 Shared legislative powers congress checked by the president supreme court 0 Shared executive powers president checked by congress supreme court 0 Shared judicial powers courts checked by the president congress 0 Bill of Rights 1St 10 amendments to constitution Protects rights of citizens such as 0 Freedom of speech 0 Trial by jury of peers and legal counsel 0 Freedom of religion 0 Limits power of government 0 Judicial review 0 By Traditon Courts determine if governmental institution is acting within its constitutional powers 0 Established by Chiefjusticejohn Marshall in Marbury v Madison 1803 0 Democracy versus Republic 280 v 220 gt 280 decided the fate of Socrates Framers feared the overbearing power of the majority in a democracy Framers preferred concept of a republic where people rule through elected representatives Majority rule in a republic is limited to protect minority rights 0 Limited Popular Rule 0 People participate indirectly in process of Government through election of of cials Indirect election of president through Electoral CoHege o Founding fathers introduced this to add a layer of protection between the president and the people 0 Each state has a certain number of electors in the Electoral College based on population in the state Public delegates Indirect initially election of senators Federal judiciary appointed not elected Altering the Constitution more power to the people Jeffersonian democracy 0 Government belonged to all not just elite small print in theory Jacksonian democracy 0 States give electoral votes to winner of the popular vote 0 The Progressives 0 Direct election of senators referendums and initiatives 0 Delegates carry out wished of the voters Constitutional power gained through elections to be exercised in accordance with law and with due respect for individual rights Democratic provides for majority in uence via elections Republic mix of deliberative institutions each of which moderates the power of the others Federalism National and State Sovereignty The argument for federalism Authority divided into two levels national and regional Protects liberty Moderates government powers by sharing states are semisovereign Strengthens the union 0 The powers of the nation and states National enumerated powers Seventeen powers including measures for secure defense and stable commerce Supremacy clause 0 National implied powers Necessary and properquotquoteasticquot clause make laws in support of enumerated powers Tenth Amendment established reserved powers powers not delegated to the national government are reserved for the states ie the reserve clause 1st Era An indestructible union 17891865 0 Main issue is slavery The nationalist view McCulloch v Maryland 1819 clear ruling in favor of national power and supremacy clause federal law is supreme supremacy clause is iron clad The states39rights view the Dred Scott decision 1857 ruling for states rights in con ict over legality of slavery federal law is supreme but they don t have absolute power 2nOI Era Dual federalism and laissezfaire capitalism 18651937 Deregulation removing or reducing state regulations Laissezfaire capitalism aka hands off capitalism Dual Federalism Separation of national from state power completely separate The Fourteenth Amendment and state discretion Arguably most important Amendment equal protection clause under the law Judicial protection of business Supreme Court limited national power corporations are people money is voice National authority prevailspower of the purse strings The economy has become a national one eg WWII Great Depression gt result is that the federal government gets more power Brown v Board of Education 1954 gt separate but equal doctrine court didn t have a problem with the theory but in reality it wouldn t be equal National citizenship Wicked problem is a complex social problem unsolvable gt crime poverty and pollution 3rOI Era lnterdependency and intergovernmental relations IGR Cooperative federalism shared policy responsibilities National state and local levels work together Joint funding administration and determination of programs Vertical IGR federal government to state government Horizontal IGR state to state Diagonal IGR Government revenues and intergovernmental relations Exchange of money purse strings Fiscal federalism Federal funds tax used for state programs power of the purse strings Categorical grants Federal funds restricted to certain state programs Block grants Federal funds for state programs addressed to a general concern meet the interest of the public Grants are free money that you do not have to pay back Devolution The idea that American federalism can be strengthened by a partial shift of power from national government to state less power for federal government more power to the states Belief held more strongly by Republicans than Democrats ie ideological argument Dramatically increased with Republican Revolution of 1994 eg Newt Gingrich s led House 0 Supreme Court has advanced devolution especially in later decades of twentieth century Devolution movement ended with presidency of George W Bush education and security policy Kills devolution takes power away from states and gives it to the federal government Expands federal government power 0 Department of defense gt largest employer 0 Department of homeland security gt second largest employer Roosevelt s New Dealquot Jobs during the Great Depression Lyndon Johnson s Great Societyquot Increased social services in 1960s Medicare 0 Republican Revolution Rolled back federal authority in 19905 0 Recent public backing of huge federal stimulus in 2009 Le TARP gt TARP money federal money for states Political Socialization The Origin39s of Americans Opinions Public Opinion Opinions of citizens that are openly stated Political Culture The characteristic and deepseated beliefs of a particular people about government and politics Political socialization process Childhood learning is paramount upmost importance Process is cumulative political af liations usually grow rmer with age build on our knowledge ongoing Primary political socialization agents Family Family is the strongest of all agents of socialization Schools Church Scholars have not studied the effects of religion as well as schools or family but it is a powerful in uence Secondary political socialization agents Peers Media Leaders Events Frames of Reference Reference points by which individuals evaluate issues and developments Party Identi cation Party Identi cation Emotional loyalty to a political party not formal membership 13 Republican 13 Democrat and 13 Independent Not voter turnout Major shifts in loyalty rare Concentrated among younger adults Can lead to selective perception The tendency to screen out information with which we aren t comfortable or that we do not consider relevant Political Ideology A coherent set of political beliefs Few Americans have true political ideology Ideological leanings Economic liberalsconservatives Social liberalsconservatives Populists and libertarians 80 are moderate 10 are far right 10 are far left Group Orientations Religion Economic class Region Race and ethnicity Gender Generations and age Crosscutting groups The measurement of public opinion Traditional method Election results Still used today Public opinion polls Primary method Measure public opinion using randomly chosen population sampes and carefully constructed interviews Samples Estimation of population s views random so it is fair Accuracy of a poll Expressed by sampling error 2 or 3 Not all polls are equal poor science bad research Problems with polls Increasing refusal to participate in telephone polls Polled individuals unfamiliar with issues Dishonesty by respondents Poorly worded questions yes or no questions double barrel questions and poor question order Nonopinions Disagreement over how much public opinion affects policy and how much it should affect policy Limits on public in uence Inconsistencies in citizens policy preferences Citizens lack of understanding of issues Mastery of issues not necessary for opinion to be value but some issues require understanding Party Competition and Majority Rule The History of the US Parties The rst parties not the same as parties today Federalists RepubHcans Republicans transform into Democrats 1968 the Civil Rights Era gt 1 Civil Rights Era 2 Exploitation of racism based on fear Richard AndrewJackson and grassroots parties AndrewJackson common man bottom up power Dependent upon voter support Democrats versus Whigs Whigs were a grassroots party Why do we have a twoparty system TEST Because of the singlemember district system of election the primary reason that is based on choice that ensures a two party system Multiparty system based on proportional representation Other countries 537 of ces but only 2 national contested of ces are voted on President and VP Republicans versus Democrats realignments and the enduring party system Enduring twoparty system since Civil War Partisan realignments during crises rare Realignment four basic elements Divisive issues disruption of existing political order Election voters shift support strongly toward one party Major change in policy brought about by that party Enduring change in party coalitions to favor dominant pa y History of realignments Civil War Republicans gain control Divisive issue is slavery amp succession from the union 1896 Republicans solidify control 1932 Democrats gain control The nature and origins of today s party alignment Repub cans Dominant in South Controlled presidency twice as often as Democrats since 1968 Controlled both houses of Congress a third of the time since 1968 Missteps of Nixon Watergate scandal and George W Bush weakened power Republican party looses loss of con dence Democrats Dominant in the Northeast Civil Rights stance caused loss of power in South Less dominant party since 1968 Analysts divided on which party will have greater power going forward Parties and the vote Strength of party identi cation Rarity of true independents Straightticket Voting all Republican or all Democrat and splitticket Voting some Republican and some Democrat voUng Plurality singlemember district system of election Contrast with multiparty system and proportional representation Encourages twoparty system Politics and coalitions in the twoparty system Seeking the center median voter theorem Party coalitions Broad and overlapping but far from identical Gendergap Minor third parties Singleissue parties Green party Factional parties Tea partyRepublican Ideological parties Reform parties The weakening of party organizations Nominations Loss of party control to candidates Progressive era reforms Primary electiondirect primary Hinder strong party organizations Loss of party power over patronage Trading favors for votes The structure and role of party organizations Local party organizations State party organizations Similar to national paid staff National party organizations Structure of the national parties Major role in campaigns is raising and spending of money 0 Hard money Money that the candidate can spend on the campaign and themselves regulated by the law small amount of money 0 Soft money Not as well regulated candidate can not have direct say how that money is spent 0 Campaign funds Money chase Organization and strategy Political consultants Hire own staff Packaging Highlight aspects of candidate s positions and background thought to be attractive to voters Voter contacts Pitched battles Soft money Air wars Main battleground Advertising thought media Commercials Ground wars Door to door Web wars Technology amp internet In retrospect The consequences of the last war Prospective voting In advance well informed about Candidate informed voting preferred Retrospective voting Most of Americans tend to vote this way if they do something we like we vote for them again if they don t we vote for the other candidate more emotional voting Stronger relationships between voters and representatives Weaker relationships between voters and representative institutions Candidatecentered campaigns add exibility Candidatecentered campaigns decrease accountability
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