HIST 172 Sheridan COMPLETE SEMESTER Notes
HIST 172 Sheridan COMPLETE SEMESTER Notes HIST 172
Long Beach State
Popular in Early United States History
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
CHM 11500 - 001
verified elite notetaker
ASTR 151 001
verified elite notetaker
Popular in History
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Jamestown 1607 02032015 Named after the English king as well as the river the company becomes known as the Virginia company joint stock company that sends over ships Arrival of the English Finding what becomes the James River Importance of early settlers and eventually Capt John Smith quotThe naturalsquot interaction with the Powhatan tribe 0 the leader was named powhatan 0 his daughter is Pocahontas the life legacy and myths of Pocahontas her right name is Matoaka o marries a white man Pocahontas actually marries John Rolfe NOTJohn Smith Rolfe came to the new world around when Jamestown was founded born 1585 came over in his mid twenties He gets introduced to Pocahontas Marries Pocahontas Introduction of tobacco First went to the Caribbean Discovered tobacco Wife and child died needed a new start so went to Jamestown 16111612 Brought tobacco Orinoco tobacco 0 Sustainable and grows and becomes a staple crop in the region of Virginia Longterm signi cance 0 Economic angle 0 The success of this particular form of tobacco will lead to a large form of labor in Virginia Leads to the different forms of labor contracting Clips from the lms Pocahontas and The New World 16TH CENTURY FRANCE 02032015 One way of explaining European context Problems religious wars 0 100 ish years that happen usually Catholics v protestants 0 external ghts between different statescountries 0 internal ghts civil wars French Wars of Religion 15621598 Tremendous problems between French Huguenots and French Roman CathoHcs o Catholics lived in the cities central eastern and northern France Huguenots lived in rural places south western France 3 Major Families Valois the French Royal Family Bourbon the Huguenot family from Navarre kings of Fr Province of Navarre Guise family FR noble family strongly Roman Catholic 0 Valois family ruling French royal family catholic been on the throne for 100 years cared about being catholic but were more concerned about keeping the throne Bourbon Huguenot family Calvinist family from rural Navarre they are the cousins of the Valois Salic law only men could be ruling kings if Valois died out bourbon would take over protestant Guise family dukes part of French nobility very prominent and important at the French court This lm develops many of these themes Major characters Henri de Bourbon maries Margot sister of the French kind Charles the mother of Margot and Charles Catherine de Medici she arranges the marriage Admiral Gaspard de Coligny Huguenot advisor to the king even though he is protestant This marriage is a huge moment in French history and in religious strife this takes place at Notre Dame Leads to the St Bartholomew s Day Massacre Aug 1572 takes place at the Louvre palace of French kinds Massacre of several thousand protestants Full scale massacre in coming weeks throughout France up to 50000 Eventually Henri de Navarre inherits the French throne but converts back to Roman Catholicism in order to do so quotParis is worth a massquot he says shows religious exibility Relgious intolerance political instability economic issues all lead to immigration Examples of why various European people would have immigrated Edict of Nantes 1598 issues by Henri de Navarre when he is French king gives limited religious toeration to FR Huguenots 1685 it is repealed by the future French Bourbon kings leads to persecution of Huguenots and immigration to North America by French colonists Native Americans 01222015 1100025000 years ago arrival from Siberia across the Bering Sea not really quotnativequot there is a debate about when the rst peoples came to the Americans These people were not native they came from Asia 0 Came across a land bridge that existed because of the cold iced Bering Sea 0 Walked from Siberia to Alaska to N America Central America and S America THEME all humans that live in the Americas are on some levels migrants to this set of continents 5001500 CE complex societies developing We don t know much about the earliest peoples that lived in the Americans 0 Not much artifactsdocumentations 0 So we must guessestimate about their lives We know they hunted both large and small 0 Mammoth deer sh They began to gather goods 0 Berries fruits By 500 we know that other types of societal developments are happening complex society 0 Family political structures kin unity religious beliefs cultural rituals Native Americans were living here with complex societies 1000 years before Europeans showed up 0 Native American culture has a much longer story than European Big diversity within the Native American group Mogollon Hohokam AnasaziSouthWest o All lived in the American SouthWest o Mogollon lived in Eastern Arizona amp Southern New Mexico 0 Dry mountain area 0 Lived in sunken pit houses Houses built into the ground Allowed them to have protection of the elements a COLDHOT o Hohokam lived in south central Arizona 0 Lived in sunken pit houses Anasazi 4 corner states 0 Around 1100 they began to live in dwellings in the cliffs Carved out of the ledges and ridges of the mountains Hopewell Mississippian Northern lroquoian Hopewell lived in Ohio western Illinois 0 Traded by using the Ohio river 0 Mississippian starts at the Mississippi delta Alabama Mississippi 0 Used the bow and arrow 0 Had a central staple crop corn o Built these mounds above the ground 0 Northern Iroquoian new England to the mid atlantic Maryland Virginia 0 More of a complex set of groups 0 Heavily embedded in agriculture Planted crops traded with each other This is a brief set of understandings These people did live here for 10005 of years Their narrative is dif cult The contact between EuropeanAfrican and Native Americans was extreme Early explorers Christopher Columbus Amerigo Vespucci John Caboto o 2 major states that are involved Spain and Portugal 0 others will develop too French Dutch and England Amerigo Vespucci sponsored by Spanish 0 his name is chosen in the 16th to name the Americas chosen by a mapmaker John Caboto sponsored by English Why the exploration at this juncture Europe was going through a transformation Renaissance rebirth o Facilitated many changes investment of exploration expanding knowledge 0 OLD World view religious reasonconcern Replaced with rational thought scienti c calculation and careful observation of the outside world a Connect to exploration 0 Development of technology compass graphs instruments boats and navigation Three major rivals rise of England 1 English 2 Spanish 3 French They will struggle and one will emerge as the most in uential on the US England Protestant reformation key player John Calvin and Calvinism French Huguenots English Pilgrims Scottish Presbyterians Dutch Reformed Martin Luther 95 Theses Why people would want to leave Europe 0 Religious strain religious strife Religion Roman Catholic Christianity 0 Many began to break away from this Protestant Reformation 0 Movement about protest and reform Martin Luther was catholic priest amp lived in present day Germany 0 Goes through a series of spiritual transformations and decides to make a clear protest against the Roman Catholic church 95 theses 0 Challenges Roman Catholic subtle Leads to a breaking apart of the larger macro whole of Roman Catholic church 0 Creation of different groups 1540 ish They break off from the dominant Christianity in the Western World These people didn t create new religions just broke off John Calvin French Lawyer from Paris and begins to radically challenge the basic tenants of the Roman Catholic Religion Heretical church and France aren t happy w him Leaves to Geneva 0 You don t have to base your life on doing good works instead he argued that faith and grace were crucial to your salvation and whether or not you went to heaven Moves toward the more interior Christianity 0 Believed in predestination your soul was predestined to go to heaven or not no free will 0 Calvinism 0 His beliefs get developed and understood and these followers immigrated to America 0 PEOPLE WHO FOLLOWED HIM French Huguenots English Pilgrims gt Puritans Scottish Presbyterians Dutch Reformed OO O Protestant Reformation transforms Europe in many ways amp the counterReformation RC C Reforms back Show severe division between Protestant and Roman Catholic This con ict spills over into other areas social ideological economic political period change and war Europeans think quotmaybe we should live somewhere else 1564 Fort Caroline Admiral de Coligny French decide that they will send people to settle in Florida French Huguenots were sent led by Admiral de Coligny protestant Decided to attack through the Atlantic Ocean During their battle there s a hurricane 0 They get thrown off and end up at the Matanzas quotMatanzas Massacrequot the French were threatened to convert most didn t so they killed them and threw them into the water 1565 St Augustine importance of its founding Spanish decide to send people too 30 miles away 0 Philip H sends 1000 people to create a settlement 0 Goal to get rid of French 0 They decided to attack through the interior river route 0 Attack French Fort and kill majority of settlers at Fort Caroline Oldest continuously inhabited European Settlement Early explorations in the seventeenth century 1607 Jamestown Chesapeake region of VA English Settlement Created by the Virginia Company 0 Named after the queen of England Elizabeth I virgin queen 0 James comes after Elizabeth 1609 New Amsterdam today New York Dutch settlement 0 Gets sold to the English and becomes new york 1620 Plymouth at Cape Cod MA English Settlement English settlers who were trying to escape religious persecution NOT create religious freedom There are a lot of different European ethnic groups that came to the Americas for many different reasons Myths what did they actually encounter 0 NA was hideous and desolate wilderness full of wild beasts and wild men 0 Not a wilderness cultivated land planted crops by Native Americans 1st part of the land hillside of cultivated land w wheat corn peas and barley o Supposed wild men there were only a few Native Americans Has already been wiped out before hand Diseases brought by Europeans killed them too Two native Americans came out to greet the earliest settlers amp knew some version of English Pests and disease a No new diseases from Americas Europeans brought diseases Europeans brought ies cockroach grey rat harmful seeds weeds 3 key differences from England a wood more trees 0 1st crop sent back to England for money Fast running streams o Allowed explorations Limitless vacant land 0 Allowed for settlement 0 Makes them connect to individualism differently Longterm questions and signi cance 0 Roger Williams Anne Hutchinson 02172015 Founding of Rhode island 1635 rst Baptist Church idea of separation of church and state no a basic level Anne Hutchinson English tries to reform the Puritan movement itself Importance not religious liberty for all they wanted religious liberty to worship the way they wanted particularly New England Puritans but let any type of religiosity to ourish These stories tell us something about 17th century American history 1 There was not religious liberty for all 2 Not any type of religiosity can ourish in the MBC 3 There were groups of people attracted to the ideals of Anne Hutchinson inner side of grace 3 groups attracted merchants women who questioned the male domination of religious teaching male tradition younger people gt25 0 Harvard was found because of the pushing back of these people in the Puritan society 0 Originally a way for males to become puritan minister 0 They put anne on trial for contempt found guilty and banished from the colony rst goes to Roger Williams colony then moves to the NY Hudson Valley amp dies in a Native American Raid in 1643 o IDEA Virginia from 1607 Founded for speci cally economic reasons Named after virgin queen Elizabeth I Jamestown colony Maryland from 1632 o Shifts to the north of Virginia colony George Calvert and the Calvert Family Lived in 162030 as an advisor to the English king 0 He was catholic 0 England was protestant 0 Was a minority couldn t worship 0 He was accepted even though the rest of the court was protestant 0 Given a title Baron of Baltimore 0 The king gives hi a charter of land 10 million acres and named the area Maryland after Charles I wife 0 This gave him and his heirs unprecedented power in this colony o Calvert family seal is in the Maryland ag 0 In particular would be a place where religious freedom would be accepted any colonist followed Jesus Christ as their lord and savior both catholic and protestant One of the places where there were a larger amount of Catholics French Dutch English all move to challenge Spanish claims in North America this is done by 1660 THEMES Occasional attempts to persistent ones to accomplish permanent colonization Competing versions of Christianity 0 See different forms of Christianity that are trying to establishroot themselves 0 Protestant different forms of protestant catholic jewish Wasn t clear which one was going to adhere The English protestant version of colonial expansion begins to emerge English colonial claims develop numbers economic production etc o More English women came over so population grew 0 Economic production begins to emerge as stronger than the other colonies Distancing of English colonies from other colonies NYC city of diversity even in the 18th century 0 Census of 17th century 10 Huguenots 8 African 0 Every single colony at one point practiced slavery We have already talked about the English some others FR Huguenots and also Acadians 0 French Calvinists Edict of nats is revoked and leads to the coming of FR Huguenots to NY Colony and South Carolina Acadians Canada Scots Calvinists Presbyterians 0 North Carolina ScotsIrish Settled in northern Ireland 0 Kentucky Virginia 0 Germans Germanspeaking groups 0 Swiss Germans Aus Germans ALL of these groups settle on the Eastern Seaboard Issues of frontier wars 0 Massachusetts quotplace where 39civilization endedquot Trials take place in Salem Village not the same as Salem Town in Essex County MA Danvers Cities named after England cities 0 Troubling episode in American History Concepts of witchcraft 0 Way of explaining misfortune and things happening in their lives It ts into this puritan culture they believed it was very real 0 Happened in this puritan protestant culture 0 Important 1 puritan culture was very patriarchal 2 was a culture that put a lot of emphasis on how you look to your neighbors How do we make sense of this 0 We have to deal with a degree of doubt uncertainty and unknown 0 History is not just about one person s point of view Slavery 02262015 Roots in the early modern period 0 Longest lasting historical phenomenon slavery Slavery existed as a world wide phenomenon o Slavery exploiting African workers by bringing them into the New World against their will 0 Deep involvement in a set of systems Shift periodically economically socially towards an enslaved system 0 Changes the course of world history 0 There was a relationship between religion and social status 0 They could purchase and enslave infidels 0 But people who were Christians frowned upon enslaving fellow Christians 0 They have to shift who they de ne to who can be enslaved o Shift from cultural understanding to a racial understanding o It wasn t clear at the beginning early 16005 that slavery was going to gain a prominent place in North America 0 No signs The Chesapeake 0 Lower region of Virginia Maryland Chesapeake Bay region close to Atlantic 0 Virginia colony There were these large estate and farm owners Tidewater elite The rise of the Slaveholding Tidewater elite Laws and change in colonial Virginia 1640516605 Most fundamentally important set of laws that changes the impact of American history Laws get passed in colonial Virginia that start to target the concept of race people of African decent LAWS 0 You cant own a weapon if you re an African male 0 Taxed African women work as eld hands in a way that was differently taxed than white women They set the ominest precedent of using skin color as a distinguishing marker with law There is a speci c labor crisis Allow someone to ship them over and work for a lil bit and paid to work then you get to be free Most of them poor white European native Americans The labor sources of indentures were becoming scarce White European slave owners come up with ideas Shift labor force from indenture gt hereditary slavery 1662 The Virginia General Assembly set a reversal of precedent 0 Under English commonlaw children have the right to inherit their father s status 0 LAW Now any children born in Virginia and Maryland would be determined by their mother socially economically politically Any child born to an enslaved woman would become a slave Larger changes from indentured servitude to hereditary slavery Has nothing to do with religion and everything to do with race quotNot Christianquot to quotnot Europeanquot Along the West African Coast 14401840 1517 million people captured and brought over against their will 1011 million made it to the Americas Abduction for several hundred years Forced migration Largest and longest lasting deportation of humans to new areas in history The 5 stages 1 Capture to the coast 3 Used African traders went into the interior of Africa and captured them in their native villages lnitial loss of freedom beaten hands bound First time leaving village Forced to march over strange landscapes Hungry fear anxious Tend to escape futile sale and imprisonment the coast captured Africans reach the sea and held on the boat could take several months inspected bodies looked at and evaluated branded with some sort of stick that they would be burned o marker that allowed them to know immediately that they were a slave people would put up big nets around the ship because people would try to escape suicide or swim back THE MIDDLE PASSAGE trapped in a large wooden hull crowded disgusting rst time they were in the ocean cha ng of wood on their skin there were 27000 middle passages The trip can take 6 weeks or 2 months Late November early may 0 June November hurricane season Women were subject to physical and sexual abuse men were emotionally and physically abused Used human bodies as bait huge shing poles 0 Caught sharks WORSEHORRIFICINHUMANE human experience human tragedy 4 Arrival and sale in the New World The actual selling from the slave traders to the plantation owners slave owners They would be examined again Cleaned up and buttered up with oil to make their muscles more de ned People were bidding on them Sold off 5 Seasoning Salt water slave came across the middle passage Learned English Fed well Allowed recovery PTSD Learned their fate Would be broken down to a degree emotionally and physically to destroy thoughts and hopes to every leave slavery Obedience Statistics and conclusions Modern phenomenon By 1750 250000 slaves Slaves in every single colony 30000 slaves in north America trend more towards southern parts of the united states 1810 1840 slave trade abolished majority of slaves came mid 18th century 100 year process 0 Clips from Amistad Key Statistics 02192015 75 of those accused were women Historically has been imagined as witches but men have been too 0 Most beyond childbearing age 0 Over 35 or 40 years old 0 Perceived that they could not have children Widowed or single quotold maidquot 0 They lived in their household alone 0 There was not an adult male in their immediate household who could protect them from the community accusing them 0 Economically marginal Poor not much income Over 200 accused over 20 executed Not all were executed or went to trial 1692 young girls af icted 0 Symptoms hallucinations convulsive ts tormented psychologically lost hearingsight Accusations emerge from the household of Rev Samuel Parris Original accusations from puritan minister SAMUAL PARRIS 0 From his daughter and neice who begin the sets of accusanns 0 First people accused Tituba and John Slaves couple 0 From Barbados Caribbean 0 Some of their natural belief systems pagan 0 Supernatural Both get accused of being witches Allowing of quotspectral evidencequot changing judicial precedent Some religious magistrates from other places came and started the trials evidence came from the af icted they began to expand the span of evidence 0 Spectral evidence 0 Shifted judicial English law was based on physical evidence Changed judicial custom and tradition Easy way to gain English precedent power Giles Cory stoning o Majority of them were hung BUT Giles Cory was stoned One of the few men that was convicted and stoned He was stoned to death because he refused to enter a plea answer the charge Stoned lay on ground and place large stones on him until he is crushed These historical events allow us to understand how history is practiced and changes over time Various interpretations Food poisoning causing encephalitis Causes in ammation of the brain hallucinations and stuff I o If it was about affecting children s brains why did it only affect girls brains and not boys Political factions o This was a political maneuver by a series of families that wanted political control from other families Social class 0 Geographical landscape Majority of the people who did the accusations lived toward the middle of the town and didn t have much land Accused people lived on outskirts of town and had a lot of town o It wasn t about money it was about how much land your family owned 0 If convicted you cant pass off your land to your kids Posttraumatic stress interpretations PTSD Scholars have been able to trace a few important details of the people who accused people 0 Many of them had been through a lot 0 Niece was living w minister because her parents died in W King William s war frontier town of York in what is today Maine 0 Several of the young orphans moved to Salem village 0 Half of them lost at least one parent in the frontier wars Frayed community in wartime Film clips Three Sovereigns for Sarah The Enlightenment and British Identity 03032015 The Enlightenment movement in the late 17th and 18th centuries Human reason can explain the world 0 Huge impact on how the people who left Britain understand the world Gov law declaration of independence constitution The philosophes Someone who thinks connects and engages the ideas of the enlightenment Write about it and exchange ideas about it 0 Many of the political leaders Identity and the emergence of British traditions and in uence 0 previous reference spectral evidence laws that were passed inherited status from mom 0 The British Aisles 0 Not a given that these British traditions would prevail The Act of union 1707 Great Britain formed 0 They were one united country kingdom of Scotland and kingdom of England same sovereign state later Irelandwales too 0 Makes English traditions predominant A common identity British traditions prevail Towns the ways towns are named County 26 historical counties in England Importance of language law and custom 2 house system 0 legislature law diet and ways people ate 0 Europeans tend to eat later in the day for dinner between 8 10 pm 0 English people eat dinner 57 pm 0 Types of food 0 Patterns of Dress how people clothed themselves 0 Furniture bedding tables sofascouches 0 Architecture 0 The acceptance of English as the language of communicationgovernment English common law legal system judicial system functions 0 Put hand on bible and other hand up 0 One state not English common law Louisiana FrenchEnglish rivalry in the 17405505 0 Period of time of rivalry between France England Spain Leads to a series of wars Beginning of FrenchIndian War Seven Years War 0 Larger war Seven Years War actually lasts 9 years 0 The French and the Indians were aligned together against the English people 13 colonies 3 different locations 1st global war N America Europe India Competing claims in the Ohio Valley Crisis at Fort Duquesne arrival of George Washington young ambitious war leader 0 Pittsburgh a for the French built southern most Troublesome for the people who were living in Virginia 0 They form the Ohio company Owned by a series of land owners wealthy Virginians Given to them by king 0 Two of major investors Lawrence and Augustine Washington George Washington s older brothers 0 Send their brother George to the fort He was ambitious decided he would be a military leader to make a name for himself 0 Not through land or business through military Leads to a series of con icts 7 years war 0 French know they will be attacked and are ready and hear another set of troops will be coming led by General Edward Braddock experienced and is assisted by George Washington 0 Native American spies warn them and they march out to meet them 0 9000 casualties injurydeath 0 Washington was ghting and his horse was shot and another soldier picked him up and got out of there Braddock was killed 0 French emerge victorious it really made the legend of George Washington Sighted for bravery valor leadership promoted to general 22 yo of the head of the Virginia armies Shows how dif cult it was for the British to ght when they got into the interior of north America vulnerable a Best uniforms weapons etc but still vulnerable Toward war French India con icts with BritishAmerican colonials Major battles Fort Duquesne and Quebec 0 Quebec and Montreal are conquered by British Results and signi cance of British victory 1st part British are vulnerable and lose 2nCI part British strong and conquer Quebec and Montreal able to take land from France and given to Spain 0 NA lands went to English Treaty of paris shifts the power control and cultural control from French to English Outright rebellion Lexington and Concord 03102015 War breaks out in New England April 1775 0 Lexington ehh Concord winning 0 They defeat the British and the British walk back to Boston The events start of guerilla warfare 0 New hazard like type of warfare people being attacked behind bushes trees 0 British viewed this as ungentle men like Lord Dunmore39s VA solution use of ablebodied slaves 0 VA was worried that same thing would happen 0 Dunmore if VA tries anything like Massachusetts he would recruit the slaves to the British army 0 A few African slaves get drafted amp were promised their freedom 0 Even though the British lost they were freed o Moved to Canada and few 10005 of them returned to Africa Brings up the very uneasy issues that related to slavery and t revolutionary war 0 The war had insecurity and not being able to understand What is happening With slavery Conclusions nal thoughts on the rst part of the American Revolution trying to debunk some myths 2quot I continental congress Takes place in May 1775 in Philadelphia Loyalist hesitation and their role selection of George Washington as commander Choose George Washington of the continental army 0 Because he was from VA and the Massachusetts was worried that most of this was coming from Boston o Symbolic more widespread for the rebellion Good commander and good at inspiring people good leadership 1776 Thomas Paine39s Common Sense Enlightenment thinkers had a lot of ideas Paine wrote it all down quotYes the American colonies should break away and form a new government and not replicate a monarchyquot o Representational government where people are elected to serve o Reconception of political authority Pamphlet was sold and consumed by the people JuneJuly 1776 the vote for independence comes from 2 July to 4 July 1776 Must make a statement must separate themselves and vote to separate themselves Committee drafts a document Jefferson headed the committee Finally vote to break with Britain on July 2 Adams says quotAmericans will always rememberJuly 2 0 There were several colonies that didn t vote to agree with breaking away NEW YORK conservative colony more loyalists I Voted that they would abstain Unanimous vote on July 4 The Declaration of Independence signi cance and discussion Important document Beautifully written argument Jefferson created was persuasive Problems slavery The idea that all men were equal 0 All people European men Failures doesn t clarify that slaves should not be held in subjectivity o Frames the next 80 years 0 Beautiful and important but troubling and paradoxical Northeast Theater Long Island Fort Lee and Fort Washington fall of 1776 important all won by British 0 Because fought in traditional style of warfare Battle of Trenton reversal of fortune Christmas Day 1776 0 George Washington surprises the British troops Chose Christmas day because most of the soldiers were mercenary soldiers not British most were Hessian Christmas was not a big holiday secular or religious in English cultural tradition but in Germanic culture it was HUGE 0 Most Europeans celebrate on Christmas Eve 0 Knew they would celebrate and party hard and would be hungover the next day 0 Surprise attack on the next day the British troops were caught off guard o Shifts the moral of the American battles 0 Were losing but now reassurance Summing up early battlessigni cance Clips from The Patriot differences in battle plans and entrance of guerilla warfare 0 British liked traditional style where you would stand in front of each other and re 0 Americans liked guerilla warfare hiding behind trees and stuff The Tea Act Boston Tea Party 03052015 Tension and revolt Dec 1773 the party itself Tea party comes in reaction to a series of acts most important the tea act 0 Try to make north Americans buy British tea Ship comes into Boston harbor amp don t unload cargo MUST UNLOAD CARGO Sons of Liberty have a lot of discussions about what they should do Sam Adams suggests old south church quotno time for discussion time for action Dress up as native Americans and 5060 of them march on ship and destroy the barrels and dumped the tea took 3 hours to dump 10000 pounds of British sterling For Americans act of rebellion For British illegal destruction of property The Coercive Acts Intolerable Acts the Quebec Act and its signi cance 4 acts 0 close down the Boston port 0 rewrote the charter of Massachusetts gave royal governor more power 0 no more trials of British soldiersof cials in colonies must be done in England 0 Soldiers could be quartered could be stationed anywhere Must let them stay anywhere in colonial American s households Quebec act push back against British colonists even though you lost ghting us we will protect your rights can use French Civil law able to practice Catholicism Offered them the land that had been taken away 0 Why French culture still exists in Quebec The First Continental Congress Decide the colonists will meet Takes place in Philadelphia because it was equidistant for everyone First time ever delegates decide to meet Met for 7 weeks talked it out then said we will meet again in fall 1775 one year later Philadelphia Sept 1774 Leads to Revolutionary war battles begin in spring 1775 Loyalists Tories wanted to stay loyal to the British empire so they moved to Canada War breaks out in New England April 1775 0 Lexington and Concord early months of 1775 0 British knew they were collecting weapons and training men minute men men who would be ready to ght the British in a minute The British were trying to nd a place where they were storing the weapons The War Debt 03052015 17605 new king George III young unprepared comes to the throne only at 22 Unprepared his grandfather was the previous king George II his dad passed away when he was 13 knew he would be king when grandfather died 0 King for 60 years til 16205 0 Relies on prime ministers 0 George Grenville New nance minister George Grenville Chief minister created nancial policy as a cabinet memberas an adviser to the king DEBT 0 War is expensive 0 How to pay for this debt they got after ghting the seven years war Reprosecution of the molasses Act 1733 0 First created in 1733 30 years before 0 Tax when you bought run from a different state or country 0 Discourage north American colonists from buying from other countriesstate The Sugar Act 1764 0 There would still be a tax but lower than the molasses tax 0 Increased the consequence if you were smuggling 0 Trying to transform colonial Americans to law abiding shippers 0 And not have them be smugglers Details of the act Why so offensive to conceptions of liberty You re not a citizen you re a subject 0 As English subjects they had a series of rights that were given to them they had been a country for a while and these rulesrightsexpectations had developed 0 one of them had to do with revenue 0 tax could not be required by the monarch 0 tax was given as a gift of consent to the monarch o the parliament would consent to taxation gift to crown from people to support them 0 King parliament was looking out for ALL of the united kingdom virtual representation Sam Adams and the Sons of Liberty 0 Important town politician from Boston 0 Political action group upset about the taxations Protest the stamp act 0 Meeting public meetings argue that its unfair attack one of the people who were supposed to administer the stamp Sets up the rst major controversial Affected everyone Stamp Act into law Nov 1 1765 0 Most important of the 3 acts 0 Act that dealt with putting a form of a tax on any paper used for legal matters 0 Marriage license govt pamphlet Groups form in other colonies as well Leads into discussion 0 Local stamp act is repealed goes into law Protest and violence August 1765 Boston Limits of understanding Stamp Act revealed No larger complaints before Stamp act is repealed and taken away Signi cance end of its implementation Larger understanding Major challenge to British authority 1 2 3 4 Sets the stage for future con ict about representation trying to 5 It is a failure in terms of revenue debt issues Expends their political capital makes colonists unhappy understand the relationship between British Crown and their 13 colonies Authority a Who has authority to do what and what types of authority do they have Boston site of Revolutionary Fervor Boston Massacre 1770 The month before in February there was a British customs official Ebenezer Richardson who got into a ght w the Sons of Liberty he res his musket into the crowd and ends up hitting an 11 year old boy and kills him rst known violent death of the American Revolution Beginning of march 1770 there were a series of soldiers who were guarding the customs house Sons of liberty were there there was a lot of snow snow storm one of the soldiers slips on the ice and falls dramatically and the crowd makes fun of him and the soldier was mad and then shooting breaks out 11 people wounded 5 killed martyrs o 4 European 1 African descent Huge elaborate funerals martyrs for the cause of north American colonial freedom Soldiers are put on trial in Massachusetts moved into the harbor kept for safety Thomas Preston was the captain head of soldiers him and other 8 soldiers go on trial John Adams Josiah Quincy Good friends families connected to each other by marriage Powerful elite attorneys Defend the soldiers Preston is acquitted of any charges no murder charges 2 soldiers were convicted of manslaughter their punishment didn t have jail time they were branded on their thumbs amp released got off easy Larger signi cance 1 wanted to show British govt that everyone deserves a fair trial even in the colonies we respect English common law 2 the Boston elites were now lawless but actually defenders of British liberty and British law 18th century Courtship 03122015 This is a social and gender history 0 How people interacted on a social level particularily not elites How gender factors in courting marriage Getting into the topic how 0 Look at documents and historical records 0 Martha Ballard s diary most 18th century people didn t keep a diary and were illiterate and didn t know how to write Looked at marriage records and court cases 0 How marriage had changed during the 60s but its not that simple 0 Marriage hasn t always been rigid and there have always been a variety of reasons of why people got married Demographic detail 0 Premarital sexual relations was somewhat common in colonial times 0 3035 of women in colonial America were pregnant when they got married Breaking up myths 0 Reasons for marriage cultural class money loveromance We tend to talk about the universality of this 0 We don t know much about the southern colonies particularly Georgia and the Carolinas We must be speci c about that don t group 0 As you move away from the larger towns to the interior the less documentation there is Away from coast 0 Idea of emotional attachment picture of guy breaking up young couple Clear differences between different social and economic classes 0 Not everyone was positioned in a marriage the same 0 Not everyone could be put into the transaction the same way Upper class concerns and importance of dowry Property Economic relationships One thing important for upper class womengirls must have a contribution dowry One thing we know from documentation LOVEROMANCE didn t factor at all in quotmodernquot upper class courtshipmarriage We see a lot of parental in uence match making how to bring two families together Lack of human agency had to do it for family or parents Lower class concerns quotworking class didn t have as many concerns with issues relating to family property or dowry allowed them to have different concerns as they entered into the marriage contract develop different types of rituals connected to marriage verba de praesen ti Spoken marriage that developed Arrangement where a couple could have a common law marriage and it would allow them to connect Helped people who didn t have parental consent allowed people to be outside of 0 Didn t have to have a minister priest marriage or marriage Hcense 0 Can happen in less formal places garden ail house Verbal contract larger cultural meaning Allows us to see the ways these lower class marriages social practices quothandfastingquot bringing together of two hands connecting to them even though its not necessarily legal Lower class marriages cultural power Lessening of parental in uence Both in upper middle and lower classes Why people are able to enter into relationships There are layers of degrees of upper class people but begins to lessen as we move into colonial republic times Class we do see in general that a larger theme that parental control lessens regardless of class Development of spousal de future The 18th century version of a modern engagement A relationship that developed possibly pregnancy could happen Spoken contract that the marriage will be consummated and will happen later People could have a emotionalphysically connection and was legally and morally accepted Social practice of bundling A young man and woman were allowed to spend the night together Slept in the same bed bundled in a sack but separated with a lining or a board to see if they could be compatible There were examples of intimacy and is a practice that developed a bit of social commentary There are different types of waysrituals people got to know each other The idea that marriage is static is not true Contextualize that marriage had meaning Concluding interpretations and ideas 1 Social patterns change are not static not ahistorical constantly being rede ned and recontested 0 We can see this today same sex marriage 0 Different types of reasons why people got married 0 We cant assume that romantic love existed or ever existed not the norm until 19th and 20th century 0 2 premarital sex was a reality 0 cultural patterns pressure of couple to marry baby involved 0 dating courting and marriage were active and alive and changing over time 0 was never static We know there are speci cs about how people entered into marriage gender class region Final Important Battles 03102015 Saratoga October 1777 0 Most important battle of the revolutionary war General John Burgoyne British loss at this battle Gentleman Johnny 0 Humiliating loss for British and traditional style of battle 0 British troops had to surrender and become prisoners of war Larger signi cance 0 Word gets out internationally Convinces French and Spanish to invest in the Americans 0 Through military and revenue sources to Americans 0 Troops and supplies Akes it clear the Americans have a chance Going international Other nation states recognizing them Securing French and Spanish support 0 Knowledge of the French troops were key from the knowledge of attacks by Washington George Washington and the Comte de Rochambeau Surrender Oct 9 1781 Benjamin Lincoln and the Washington anecdote Treaty of Paris 1783 0 When US became independent o It gives the territory that was formerly controlled by Britain to the new United States of America What next 0 No blueprint or architectural structure for future 0 Many issues about what is going to happen next 0 Next 2030 years are very tentative not clear we would succeed Who fought Large signi cance Yorktown and its Aftermath 03172015 George Washington and the Comte de Rochambeau War has been going on for 56 years 0 French and Spanish got involved after the battle of Saratoga o Shift of having a lot of international support 0 French sent supplies and troops and military advisors over Most famous marquee de Lafayette French count Washington was trying to decide how bold he should be in 1780 Comte de Rochambeau said you need to march your troops down in Virginia and you might be able to defeat them Finally convinces him and this battle occurs 0 Climatic battle Surrender Oct 9 1781 Benjamin Lincoln and the Washington anecdote Americans emerge victorious Cornwallis leader gives up head of british troops Must surrender 0 Usually have a ritual exchange swords 0 But Cornwallis was a snob and wasn t gonna show up 0 Sword ceremony continues and instructs his second in command to give the sword to the Comte de Rochambeau because he felt more equal to him Rochambeau says no give it to Washington Washington says no and points him to Washington s second in command Benjamin Lincoln Treaty of Paris 1783 Of cially what establishes the US as a independent nation sovereign state International community rati es that the US is an independent state and has separated from Britain What next Who fought Larger signi cance Postrevolution now what What kind of national union We cannot foist onto the past our understanding of what it means to be American The 18th century is very different than the 20th century One very different thing how people thought of themselves 0 Didn t priviledge that the US is their 1 loyalty National identity identify with your nation sate Always identify yourself by county the county you belong to was really powerful county rivalry Can identify themselves by town Series of regional identities that overlapped Colonystate identity 5th or 6th place US ldentity was not processed in the same ways Even though some didn t have a sense of what it means to be American they were still ghting for it AHISTORICAL THINKING you cannot map present day understandings and map them along the past The Articles of Confederation Nov 1777 approved rst constitution First constitution Framed issues Thought of themselves as a confederation NOT a nation 0 Not as a federal state like we think of in the 20th century Approved in 1777 working on it during the second year into war Problems with the articles of confederation This document is problematic US Constitution with all of its faults is still pretty remarkable AOC isn t that remarkable o Lasts 10 years 1 One branch legislative branch a National congress that could meet and create law b No executive branch orjudicial branch c They could try to create bills and political laws d They could create currency h They couldn t do a series of treaties with other states They couldn t create a coherent federal trade policy with other international states They didn t have ability to create federal tax how are we going to pay for anything The confederated nature of this document created problems federal power was weak Northwest ordinance Helps settle what territory was going to become the northwestern state How you go from a territory gt state All these states would be free states 0 Tips balance OH Ml IL The Constitutional debates 1787 May They met again with the intent of reforming the AOC Series of intense debates by founding fathers Realized that they need to redraft a new document Constitution Leading gures George Mason drafted a series of documents related to the principles of freedom of Virginia James Madison one of the most underrated individuals in all of American history o Called upon to draft a new version of this document 0 Not one of the biggest presidents 0 His version of the document gets known as the Virginia plan 0 Great thinker slave owner great writer clear sense of conceptual political lawtheory 0 He studies history examples 0 Decides there needs to be more than 1 branch of government 0 Must be 3 different types of government Legislative already existed Executive idea of a chief executive Judicial federal judiciary n Layers state district supreme 3 Branches VA plan rati cation Crafted by Madison 0 Looks to British history bicameral legislature o 2 different sections of the legislative branch allowed there to be representation of small and large states Senate upper 2 per state same representation in the senate House of Representatives lower decided by population every state would have at least 1 Least amount 3 2 senate one House of Rep 0 Debate about population how to count slaves o What it can tell us about the understandings about human beings 0 Executive branch federal executive that would head the executive branch that would be elected o The founding fathers thought it was crazy that all Americans could vote for the president 0 Would have elections every 4 years for the executive This special college electoral college would vote on the president 0 Founding fathers didn t think that al Americans were educated enough to vote women non Europeans European 0 Couldn t decide what to call the person who was elected to the chief of office Washington recommended majesty Madison looks back at roman history and Latin term and suggests PRESIDENT Judicial branch allowed there to be a set of new legal systems outside of a countytown o Allowed people to have a case where they didn t know the judge or lawyer 0 Created an idea that there should be a supreme court based in Washington DC because it would be able to stay away from politics and operate outside of in uence 0 They decided that the persons who would go onto the supreme court would be connected to the other two branches 0 Would be nominated by the executive branch and approved by one section of the legislative branch Stayed for life 0 Normal judges must be elected or appointed NOT SC judge federalists and antifederalists series of pretty serious debates what the constitution would look like 0 Creation of two different factions Federalists comfortable with giving the government a strong central authority Antifederalists people who were more individual rights focused 0 Bill of Rights rst 10 amendments of the constitution o Talks about things that Americans are still very concerned about today VERY POWERFUL o Establishes that the constitution is a living document 0 can be amended and transformed The constitution is a malleable document it is NOT xed in time because then women couldn t vote there would be slaves still Establishes the judicial precedent of CHANGE Could argue because we have that creation that the constitution can be changed is why we still have the constitution no revolution Creates its strength Early Presidents 03172015 Issues around George Washington39s presidencies 17881796 0 First presidential election 1788 o No political parties 0 George Washington 8 years 0 There was nothing in the constitution that referred to political parties what they should look like how they should operate Most founding fathers thought political parties were dangerous As time moved on it was clear that political parties were developing Federalists and Democratic Rep 0 There was nothing in the constitution that said that you couldn t serve more than 2 terms 0 Washington decides that he should step down after 8 years and anything more than that would be leaning towards leading by hereditary right 0 Gave farewell address in 1796 quotWashington s farewell addressquot 0 Beware of political parties 0 Thought the idea of serving 2 terms max would be respected 0 They respected this till 1940 ex Jefferson madison FDR WWII is going on so its exceptional must be continuity at the top of American government wins 4 terms 0 John Adams second president 0 1 term defeats Thomas Jefferson his rival they said nothing about how the vice president would be elected 0 1st most amount of electoral votes president o 2nCI place vice president 0 not same party con ict 0 1800 second election most attested election Electoral votes tie o neither of them are the sitting president 0 Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr 0 Same political party democratic republicans o On the 36th ballot peope shifted their votes from burr and vote forJefferson o Aka had problems with each other working together 0 In 1804 they passed the 12th amendment 0 There should be separate baots for the president and the vice president 0 Emergence of early two party system Federalists Leader Alexander Hamilton 0 Knowledgeable on federal trade policy and nancial DemocraticRepublicans quotThe republicansquot led by Virginias Thomas Jefferson and James Madison concepts of republican simplicity Jeffersonian America Jeffersonian republic Jefferson favorite there should be these sturdy and responsible farm owners who supported localism cared about what is happening in their county maybe state Earliest democratic republicans wanted the earliest ideas of the US to be formed around the idea that the Federal government should NOT have a lot of power Sharply limited power most people would live on private property and agriculture would be the center of this early American state Rooted to your county family s traditions Jefferson would be like Wow that s not what I expected US developed urbansuburban Moves in the direction that having a simple agrarian Technology is going to change industrial revolution 0 Development of factories 0 Development of boats powered by steam How Americans receive goods 0 Railroad o Trains 0 Why they won the civil war they have more railroad linestracks laid north wins US Union There will be tension between industrial v agrarian values Jefferson s actions give the federal government more power not what he was for o Particularly the executive branch Where to put the capitol o Negotiations federal debt and state debt they decide that they need to move the capitol look at the map at where majority Americans are going to be living too up north wont work move capitol to the south 0 There was a place between Maryland and Virginia on Potomac river undeveloped land but George Washington in particular thought it would be well suited 0 Federal district independent of control from the various states Washington DC district of Columbia 0 City laid out by Pierre L Enfant designs capitol bases most of it on Paris 1st time they built it 3000 people living in DC one thing that akes US different DC has never been the nation s nancial center or population center NY is Executive mansion old name white house Jefferson the man Came from an elite Virginia family 0 Active Architect 0 Built Monticello Can see the university of Virginia view 0 University of Virginia 0 One of the most intelligent and creative presidents Educator o Taught for a period of time o lnventor 0 Interested in making money off of patents 0 Farmer o Owned a series amount of thousands of acres 0 Cultivated a variety of crops including tabacco o Slave owner quotall men are created equalquot owns a lot of slaves freed some slaves but not all a female slave sally Hemings biracial slave part white we know now that he had a prolonged sexual and romantic relationship with her a bares children with her Jefferson is paradoxical Writer 0 Helped craft the Declaration of Independence Ambassador o Lived in France 0 Experienced the political revolutions that were happening in Europe Politician 0 One of the most preeminent politicians of all time 0 Active in Virginia politics 0 1796 VP 0 1800 1804 President didn t like the pretensions of office 0 didn t wear wigs didn t dress up in imperial manner wore regular clothes 0 decided to walk to and from his inauguration had con icted about race and how native Americans should t into American culture 0 writes philosophical documents lndians can t into the American culture need to be removed he is incredibly important person of American history he is a sign of complexity and paradoxes All men are created equal 1804 2quot I term for Thomas Jefferson decision to endorse the trip to explore the Louisiana purchase 1764 Spain late 17805905 France buys it back from Spain 180203 there are a lot of big problems with that territory Mississippi river who owns it two states on either side Napoleon Bonaparte leader of France 0 Makes a series of public statements France will build empire in NA 0 Were going to capture Europe and the Louisiana territory will become the new center of France Robert Livingston sent ambassador to France negotiate to buy the rights to New Orleans 0 Would allow the US to use the Mississippi river allow trade 0 Livingston is listening to the French and gets a sense that Bonaparte is iffy about building in NA will be willing to give over more land 0 A secondary of cial shows up in Paris James Monroe Arrives in marchApril of 1803 Virginian becomes president later slave owner quotlets go for it and see what Bonaparte is willing to givequot Bonaparte is willing to sell all Louisiana territory Weren t even sure who had power to buy and acquire territory Agreed to this deal 1803 US would pay 80 million French Franc 15 million American dollars to the French government France would maintain commercial privileges at the port of new Orleans could still use port people of New Orleans would become American citizens immediately 3 cents per acre 0 President hears about it but in uncertain about it but after talking about it under treaty making the president 0 Louisiana territory will be divided up into a series of states 1st of those is Louisiana Themes 1 doubles the size of the U5 practicaly overnight 2 shows that the US could treat bargain a treaty on the world level 3 sets up exploration of the west through the rocky mountains sets up drama of the U5 4 brings up issues of sa very Meriwether Lewis and William Clark trip to the Paci c and back 1804 1806 Signi cance of the journey and its larger implications Rise of democracy as we now know it 1824 rst presidential election with a popular vote new democratic political culture Andrew Jackson Rise of the second party system Federalists and Republicans become Whigs and the Democrats in the 18205 2nCI party system Rise of mass politics and the trappings of such Details about Andrew Jackson eventually personi es the rise of the quotCommon Manquot His life and legacy particularly native American removal o It is a two tired process one part in this class the part where NA are forced in a variety of steps to leave NA 0 Early 1830405 o Pushing them out into quotIndian territoryquot Oklahoma territory 0 2nol part 18605905 when the Americans move to the west policy of concentration reservations Process that is happening in two tires Issues related to the removal of NA 0 Not just one removal PROCESS Started as treaties gt force Various tribes Choctaws Creeks Cherokees Chickasaws and the Seminoles They are all being moved from a variety of places and spaces 0 Sent them to OK because it was a dif cult land to live in living patterns hunting patterns cultural shock Trail of Tears with the several of these tribesactually the quottrail where they criedquot starting in 1830 with the Choctaw and ending with the Cherokee tribe in 1838 Terminology created by American English BETTER TERM the trail where they cried 0 Even the terminology to describe this dif cult life changing event came from the perpetrators Choctaw were rst Cherokee most advanced civilized last have a series of rebellions The only major tribe to resist and ght back were the Seminoles of FL series of Seminole Wars several hundred are never captured in the 18405 and 18505 became known in their estimation as the quotUnconquered Tribequot Seminole tribes mixture of variety of tribes and mix of African slaves who escaped slavery actively resisted the removal Florida centralsouthern Several hundred of them were never captured and were never forcibly removed and continued to live in the area of Florida quotunconquered tribequot Their tribe gets separated majority who were removed to OK minority who stayed in Florida Issues of racial terminology and emphasis on the quotsavagequot cannot assimilate into Western culture according to these theories Our ideas about race are not xed Native Americans savage when the Disney people made their movie savage the color their skin 0 17th century people didn t think about skin color like 19th century people do 0 idea of race doesn t stay static o more and more commentators most white American men talk about how NAs cant assimilate into white American culture they talked about CULTURAL differences the gap could be bridged people could be assimilated or educated beginning of 19th century wasn t just about culture it was about BIOLOGY who s blood was too different than white blood quotsavage likequot biological explanation becomes the norm biological racism becomes accepted 19th century hardening of radicalized ideas continued discussions of people of African background because they are not on the same level biologically blood wise The Rural South 04142015 Recurring theme slavery how it happened then and now forced labor early 17th century v 19th century Slavery continues to be a factor Larger developments from the beginning of the nineteenth century particularly Slaves continues to exist in all colonies Tobacco rice sugar indigo Carolinas cotton Most white Southerners did NOT own slaves Demographic reality 0 Key point Stimulus of slavery through the emergence of cotton 0 18101850 international demand for cotton soared 0 Europe Middle East Leads to a desire for more land where cotton can be cultivated Places where slavery becomes more persistent and more pro table quotKing Cottonquot and what the crop suggests Moving away from the Chesapeake into the quotDeep Southquot particularly What does this shift suggest 0 1 history of slavery is very transformative 0 history as an institution is not stagnant always changed dehumanized yes but ways that it was practiced continued to change institutional history transforms itself 0 2 Gives more economic power quotDeep Southquot from quotUpper Southquot 0 3 Further concentrates the South s dependence on slave labor 0 The time every other place is becoming more diverse the south is becoming more dependent on cotton cant diversify How South becomes distinctive when compared to other areas of the USA Demographics The South had little economic development and manufacturing little industry developing Factories weren t being built Manufacturing sectors weren t happening in south Ability to put down railroads Steel Dependence on cotton hurts development New Orleans only major city had 170000 at the time of the American Civil War Only different city Only 110 Southerners lived in a town or city at the beginning of the Civil War 0 90 lived in rural places NC AL MI AK TX were all states that did not have a citytown in 1860 that had more than 5000 people living in it IMPORTANT before mass transit trainscar etc Issues of education and access to education In a society that is rurally based development of schools are non existent NO free public secondary education K 12 Majority of Southerners didn t get any public schooling Most who did were sonsdaughters of wealthy plantersestate owners 0 Hired private tutors who would come to their home OR sent their children to a small city where they had publicprivate schools boarding school AVERAGE SOUTHERN WHITE CHILD SPENT ONLY 20 15 AMOUNT OF TIME IN SCHOOL V NOTHERN CHILDREN llliteracy all sorts of cultural issues DEMOGRAPHICS 1850 South 20 illiterate 80 literate Mid Atlantic 3 illiterate 97 literate New England 04 illiterate 996 literate 1820 slavery had dramatically developed 5 its center in the Deep South permanently southern institution Suggestions and signi cance of these facts Sectionalist con ictdiscord is a consistent theme 0 News doesn t travel in same ways 0 No access to different types of storiesknowledge As cotton continues to develop most slaves work w agriculture labor in rural areas wasn t always like this weren t always working in elds FINALLY BECOMES THE NORM ex house slave handy men maid cook 0 HOW TO DEFINE SLAVERY quotquotquot BASELINE DEFINITIONAL QUALITYAS T0 WHAT SLAVERY WAS Development of the plantation system 0 The scale of this plantation system to function macro level couldn t be possible without the use of slaves Possible because of the need for cotton 0 Particularly clothing curtains fabrics 0 World demand rises Incredibly pro table Slavery statistics Typical slaves worked from the age 154555 1 slave could produce 78 of cotton per year In 1860 there were 15 states in the US where slavery was legal Total of 12 million people living in those 15 states 23 of them 8 million were white southerners and 13 of them 4 million were black slaves amp a small percentage of quotfree blacksquot 0 not every single black person was a slave MOST were but not ALL of the 8 million white southerners 2 million 14 or 25 owned slaves 6 million 34 or 75 didn t own slaves We know from demographic numbers that 200 southern families owned 100 slaves or more De nition of a planter Someone who owned more than 20 slaves We know from demographic numbers that 200 southern families owned 100 slaves or more 0 They owned 90 of the wealth in the South everyone else owned 10 of the wealth Description of a quotfancy maidquot AVG Cost of a slave 10001200 most expensive slave was a quotfancy maidquot Very young 1220 yo always biracial lighter skin color explained or descried as beautiful bought for sexual purposes Large mansions between Charleston and Columbia SC 0 Most of them existed in this area Majority of them lived in 1 story unpainted wooden frame houses a quotIf you wish to see people worth millions as if they were not worth hundreds of dollars come to the land of cotton and negroes Real statistics and getting rid of myths Descriptions and discussions of both these titles and positions PLANTATION MASTER Adult white southern male conducted this complex agricultural thing slavery O O O Handled investments expenditures bought the slaves or had a representative to buy for him decided who would be sold or traded decisions about the machinerytoolstechnology quotmaster of his crops his family and his slavesquot inaccurate what was recorded benign paternal characteristics caring fatherly inspired loyalty from his slaves by the way that he treated them MASKS the true reality of what the true function of the plantation master was REAL characteristics violent racism exploitation of spiritlabor o PLANTATION MISTRESS Upper class Southern white woman who is married to the plantation master 0 O 0 If the mother died youngin child birth then the role is taken by the eldest daughter Born into an elite background Life of leisure pampered when she grew up When she married the plantation master her life of gentile living ended life transformed Spends time of late teens early 305 pregnant Responsible for nursing the sick including slaves made clothing ability to be a seamstress in charge of immediate garden area around the house supervised the work of domestic slaves she would work night and day even when the slaves stopped working she was continuing to work into the night even when the plantation master was relaxing The role of the mistress on the plantation quotthe most complete slave on the plantationquot quoted by northerner observer Yes she did do a lot of work Yes in theory but not in reality Overstatement For a very long time the history of slavery was written by a very BENIGN point of view Historiography how different historians have talked about different events over time In the last 3045 years new view of slavery Role of mistress in relationship to work 0 Role of mistress in relationship to hypocrisy 0 We know a lot about the plantation mistresses through diaries wrote things down and wrote what they were feeling but not slaves 0 Never questioned the role of slavery or the plight of the slaves o Showed very little empathy Yes she did have slave like attributes but at the end of the day she was an elite white woman must be reluctant to compare the two positions Issues of the miscegenation and sexual abuse Miscegenation when two people of two different races have sex 0 Sexual violenceentanglement the white overseer often had sexual relations with various women on the plantation including African American slaves 0 One of the things that happened the plantation mistress would have her children and then there would be the biracial children too 0 These plantation masters could do whatever they wanted 0 There were no legalcriminal or social penalties for having sex with a female slave even if it was rape Did recognize against white women o If the plantation mistress would have sex with a slave she would loose everything loose social responsibility charged with adultery loose all access to children 0 White southern women had to deal with all types of repercussions double standard related to sexuality 0 There was no discussion about it 0 QUOTE from southern plantation mistress about sexual misconduct quotAny lady is ready to tell you who the father of the mulattoes biracial children one sees in everybody else s house but her own those she seems to think dropped from the cloudsquot 0 Gossip but nothing being discussed outright 0 Serious issue that brings up larger framing we can think about we need to be very clear about the reality of slavery on 1 physical level n a what happens to your body when you are forced to do labor day after day for 40 years n b sexual assult rape 2 Emotionalpsychological reality African American culture an ethnicity is created under these dif cult situations 0 Most were illiterate so our degree of evidentiary understanding is much smaller than other people of the slave experience not enough recordevidence Most evidence comes from whites observing them on the estate 0 Difficult to get this from the point of view of African American slaves themselves 0 We now can talk about the development of African American back American culture 0 Because there have been several hundred years of experience of African American culture 0 Ex cant say quotAfrican Americans came to the new worldquot Family and kinship issues Crucial to the triumphsurvival Didn t have the agency so they had to rely to other types of networks to help them get through the days Most often families were broken up ex children were sold to other places Despite these issuesvulnerability they developed a large support system gt why African American culture becomes so central speci cally in the 18th or 19th century Vulnerability an the dif culty of slave life Access to types of food medical care shelter were not available Role of religion and religiosity This is a big part of one of the ways African American culture developed on the plantation Allowed them to express themselves Offered them a voice they didn t have otherwise For the rst 100150 years or so most African American slaves were not brought into the Christian religion not really concerned about the personal religious values of the slaves 19th century 2ND GREAT AWAKENING revival of religious belief should be converted baptized and converted into the mainstream of Christianity religion allowed them the ability to express themselves in terms of joys of their lives and express pains lament majority of slaves were converted into 1 Baptist and 2 Methodist They were expected that on Sunday mornings they would go to church the larger estate would have a chapel or church and the majority people on the plantation would attend church including slaves 0 Always pushed to the back or balcony 0 Lead by a white minister or preacher 0 Also other white officials that oversaw the African American slaves African Americans had to experience church under the eye and supervision of whites Sunday nights African Americans would be able to have their own religious experiences within their slave quarters met secretly met outside in the woods still on plantation 0 Not under the watchful eye of their owners 0 Allowed singing dancing 0 In the context of that is when spiritual and slave songs develop Spiritual and slave songs One way they had the ability to articulate themselves Began to develop these religious texts lyrics that had these hidden ideas and motifs Talked mostly about the old testament Associated themselves with the Jewish slaves and Egypt quotgoing over the riverquot quotcrossing overquot freedom quotSteal Away to Jesusquot motifs of the Promised Land someone would say lets start singing this song and would pass throughout the entire plantation actual meaning would be a secret devotional meeting that night allowed one of the very few ways they could openly express themselves Religion serving as a comfort but also strengthen sense of togetherness and purpose 0 Gave slaves comfort and identity 0 Identity and identity formation Sense of connection to each other 0 Not all blacks in the South were even slaves 0 There was a very small but signi cant portion of people who were not slaves 0 250000260000 were actually free most lived in the upper South 0 MA VA NC 0 Most lived in towns and cities NOT RURAL o Literate levels of literacy were much higher 0 Many of them were biracial Some of them became slave owners themselves 0 And in large cities much as Charleston and New Orleans 0 All major cities did have freed blacks 0 Issues and cultural problems 0 They were above black slaves but were below whites even if they were more economically securitypower or more money Role in larger Southern society Role was very tenuous Couldn t vote hold office testify in court against white people could if it called African Americans had restrictions to meetassemble in ways white Americans did 0 Cant think of the African American experience SOLELY from the position of slavery This position was out of the but had cultural limitations of sa very Slavery had this hold on southern culture but had a distinct difference from other area of America Cultural differences have a very distinct peculiarity Will have a large impact that leadslinks to the American civil war A Civil War 18611865 04282015 REFER TO AS AMERICAN CIVIL WAR ACW allows us to see that US isn t the only country that had this experience At the beginning Know the date 18611865 5 years to ght lengthy South had con dence Very clear in the north newspapersdiaries that people didn t think that this war would last long NO ONE thought that this war was going to take forever Degree of con dence 0 NORTH Union American solidiers Federals United states Blue 0 SOUTH Confederates Rebels Confederacy Grey Divided by north or the south ehhh people who were ghting for north didn t necessarily live in the north Colors uniforms 0 Blue N Grey S First major battle ManassasBull Run july 1861 The rst battle breaks out in mid July Union army is sent out from DC and marches into Northern VA and engages with confederate troops in Manassas and the river Bull Run 0 Two names from union and confederacy Word got out that the rst battle was going to take place there all these politicians and wives wanted to go see it union army marched past congress members and sightseers in carriages and brought blankets and picnic blankets Began at dawn on July 21 Confederates Pierre Beauregard head Union Irvin McDowell head Farm eld Details of this rst battle Union troops pushed through the confederates and the confederates started to retreat Some of the witnesses thought it was over At that moment reenforcements were on the war from Maryland state that didn t secede and heard the cannons and shots and the commander said to run to the battle eld and shored up the line of confederates 1 there were a series of troops at one side of the battle eld controlled by General Jackson confederate and were holding strong and weren t giving in 0 quotlook at Jackson s troops they are standing like a stone wallquot 0 HowJackson got his name Stonewall Jackson 2 reinforcements came pushed back to the woods and reinforcements came out of the woods and yelled rebel yell 0 High pitched crazy yell that the confederates would yell as they would attack the union soldiers Psychological What it was like to face the rebel yell quotThere is nothing like the yell on this side The peculiar sensation that it sends down your backbone under these circumstances can never be toldquot Turned tides of the battle union gets pushed back Began to retreat along the battle eld and march back to DC in disarray Cannon hits farm house older southern woman wouldn t leave her home and is the rst known civilian casualty of the ACW Walks back up next day dawn that it is not an easy war will be a lengthy war SIGNIFIGANCE This battle sobered the north Their illusions of crushing the confederates were over and Lincoln underestimated OO 00 Won by convincing fashion by the confederacy Lincoln calls up more troops Political leadership was crucial he was powerful and important and dealt with a bunch of problems 0 N advantage Lincoln was way better than Jefferson Davis average Details of war advantages and disadvantages Economical issues industries north factories ability to move supplies around 0 Why people call this war THE FIRST TOTAL WAR o It involves all of society Political leadership economic and industrial concerns scale of what was happening and what it took for 50000 soldiers to be fed AdvantagesDisadvantages South had strategic advantages they didn t have to win the war they just had to not loose 0 Had to defend their land 0 North had to defeat the south and bring them back in union with the north 0 The South had good military leaders 0 Robert E Lee Stonewall Jackson 0 North had a difficult time to nd a match 0 North had more population more people to draw upon for their military Blockade on southern coast restricted southern trade economicalindustrial power technologyweapons Role of cotton crop and the Union blockade The south hoped that the pressure of need of cotton would lift the blockade or other states to recognize the south as a international trade 0 Egypt and India other sources of cotton Continued Territorial Expansion 04232015 Themes and issues in the 18305 and 18405 0 US literally has grown Concepts of quotmanifest destinyquot o It was the destiny of this new country to expand itself over the full NA 0 Natural boundaries paci c ocean and Atlantic ocean 0 US needs to stretch from SEA to SEA 0 American citizens are becoming less patient as time goes on and push the narrative forward 0 Through negotiation and outright con ict Acquiring Texas California and the lower half of the Oregon Territory NORTHERN BORDER 0 Paci c NW issues between US and British Both US and Britain claimed they had control over Oregon Territory After a series of negotiations they come to an agreement and divides the Oregon territory in half JUNE 1846 SOUTHERN BORDER 0 Texas Larger themes o It shows diplomacy and negotiation shows that THEY DON T HAVE TO GO INTO WAR Solidifies northern boundary of US Paci c Northwest 49th parallel June 1846 Use the 49th parallel as the border Divides US British territory 0 Lower US 0 Higher British EXCEPT pungent sound US had control over the waters Texas admitted to the Union as a slave state after a decade as its own republic They were an independent nation before they were a state Settled by a bunch of white pioneers from the American south Moved down into Texas from 1820305 Decided they wanted to be independent from Mexico Texas ghts a war with Mexico in 1836 and emerge victorious against Mexican state and become a nation state that is independent from Mexico as the Republic of Texas Allowed for slavery to continue at a time when there were many abolitionists and supporters of slavery Continues to ourish as a republic for about a decade They feel exposed and don t feel protected by a larger nation and don t have a military and try to get admitted as a slave holding state into the US in 1845 Now the US border is directly between US and Mexico Mexico never fully recognized Texas s independence gt leads to series of debates that argue about the Southern border Issues with Mexico border dispute between the Nueces and Rio Grande is Texas part of US or not Dispute about the southern border Leads to MexicanAmerican War in 1847 General Win eld Scott James Polk the president endorses the war though many Americans were divided over it 0 There wasn t an unanimous support of going into war at this time 0 Not about the bordersovereigntyexpansion was about slavery Moral lethical debates about it o LEADER of US troops that marches down into Mexico heart of Mexico Mexico city Win eld Scott 0 Capture Mexico city in September of 1847 and US makes the Mexican govt surrender Issues W border patrol immigration smuggling The Mexican govt feels that this war was one of U5 aggression narrative power a The war is costly for both sides 0 97 million dollars EXPENSIVE o 13 thousand Americans were killed ghting in the Mexican American war 0 Pok s popularity soars then when things settle down brings up discourse over the reality ethical and moral dimensions of slavery o Other examples NW territory Louisiana territory everyone was pretty much on board the 5 W territory was not as simpleeasy or concretey endorsed by the American public 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo and its major points Treaty is passed by congress the US is able to acquire the provinces of New Mexico Arizona and what is called as upper California Alta California US paid Mexican govt 18 million dollars Completes the concept and idea of manifest destiny Because now from the East coast to the West coast US controls territory Development of parts of California Brings California into the American mix This is important California has crucial impact to the US 2nCI largest city economics agricultural lm industry TV cultural Cultural narrative of the US comes from Southern California California s entrance is obviously going to be a huge buttress for the US on a variety of levels Perhaps the US couldn t be as powerful in the 20th century without California Role of San Francisco a global city in the 18505 Example of above Becomes a global city Reason why 1849 s gold rush The gold rush opens up California as a destination of a place for immigration to connect to SF develops as a city as a very diverse and international avor Distinctive ethnic groups in California Asian Americans Latinos White Americans and African Americans Asian Americans speci cally ChinaJapan Latino American Southwest Spanish settlers intermarriage White Americans Still largest group of Americans that live here now but very few when it was controlled by Mexico African Americans You could hear 1015 different languages in 5F 0 Russian Spanish Chinese English Concepts of the American nation state The idea of American nation state as pluralistic and diverse is NOT from 20th century This is important IN 1850 there was a presence of diversity in California DIVERSITY 5 CLEAR in the 19 h century in the 18505 in the northern parts of California There is diversity of ethnic groupings EX culture and languages since the beginning There already was visibility from 17505 and 18505 Example of this 17505 NY 18505 SF Slavery isn t the only issue that creates the American civil war but it is important Issues of Liberty THEME What is the relationship between this state between the state and the rest of the nation and what is the relationship between the federal government and the individual Rights People who live in the slave states if there is con ict between the federal government and the states then the states have the authority SLAVERY CENTRAL TENSION wont go away Concept of popular sovereignty senator Stephen Douglas and his role Senator from IL Democrat ran in a senatorial election against Abe Lincoln Republican and won 0 Had a series of debates about popular sovereignty 0 People of the state should be able to decide whether it is a slave state or a free state The popular will of the people who lived in the state Sets up this situation which was rife for con ict how Kansas entrance to the US would be Kansas Bleeding Kansas in 18505 Closest to Atlantic not too far Will decide if Kansas is a slave state or free state based on a referendum Slave supporters and abolitionists moved to Kansas to in uence the vote First American Civil War series of violent confrontations of Americans who are killing each other Sectionalist violence is breaking out in the 18505 The idea of popular sovereignty was idiotic BrooksSumner Affair on the Senate oor 1856 Sectionalist violence Heating up between different factions slavery disagreement affects politics An actual altercation of violence breaks out on the senate oor Charles Sumner MA US senator VERY Antislavery and gave many speeches about it He began to name some of the SC slave owners One was related to Preston Brooks House of rep from SC He marches from the House chamber to the Senate chamber and beats up Sumner with his cane This caused brain damage Many people become horri ed because these are politicians SYMBOLLIC horri ed about the violence that broke out what it said about the quorum Horri c behavior Some slave supporters were relieved and were like FINALLY someone is standing up for us Viewed it as heroic Shows that violence actually came to the center of the US politics Allows us to read this event by the reactions as well as the events o This is a symbolic prelude for the violence that is to come amongst Americans With each other Civil War Development of the Republican Party 0 The development of the third party system 0 Democrats and republicans 0 Development of the republican party out of the Whigs 18605 two major candidates are republican and democrats 18060 republican party are now making a xture on the political world 0 Lincoln runs for republican party in 1860 John Brown and his role 0 Symbol that leads us to sectional division 0 Abolitionist white American connections to religion ery gure 0 Gave political speeches about the of slavery Decided that he was one of the people popular sovereignty who decided that it was important enough for him to move his family to Kansas to help turn Kansas into an antislavery state 0 Traumatized by it 0 Returns to VA in 1857 and decided that there should be no more waiting for slavery end He needed to make something happen to make slavery end 0 Incite a slave rebellion Catalyzeinstigate Attacked the institution of slavery itself 0 Had 5 free slaves who joined his movement 0 Rise of abolitionist sentiment Harpers Ferry Oct 1859 Prelude to 1860 election Lets us think about what the political climate would be like in the 1860 elections They seized a federal armory place where federal weapons were held so slaves would hear about it and whip up proantislavery movement And would spread like wild re throughout the south PROBLEM armory was in a place where there were very few slaves were N VA not many heard about it They take the armory and then the federal govt hears about it and the US govt sends troops to Harper s Ferry The person who was the commander of the US troops was Colonel Robert E Lee later becomes head of the confederacy Captured and put on trial for treason against the US govt and for inciting a rebellion Series of trials John Brown was found guilty and hung to death 0 HUGE MEDIA CIRCUS Signi cance and analysis of his raid and execution Important as an abolitionist antislavery HUGE impact He became a martyr for the abolitionist cause in the NORTH anti slavery 0 Church bells moments of silent o Treated like a political martyr SOUTH they were aghast he was a traitor and was guilty of treason and were shocked by these displays of sympathy that normal Americans were showing sympathy for someone who was executed by the American govt Fraying at the seems South Many southerners became convinced that this newly created Republican party was behind this raid in order to whip up anti slavery sentiment in the US SIGNIFIGANCE one more blow for civil discourse one more step towards further disagreementsectionalism Antietam and the Emancipation Proclamation 05072015 Battle at Antietam Sept 1862 Maryland First time the south ventured into the north Literally more people died on that day more than every other day in the war Took place at 4 different locations Shifts the values and rationale away from preserving the old union and towards the emancipation proclamation quotl have this big victory and momentum lets make this statementquot The Emancipation Proclamation and its signi cance 1 January 1863 Issues on the rst day of 1863 new start new day new year Stated all slaves would be freed unless the southern states returned to the union What it didn t do didn t address the border states 0 Didn t free one slave didn t affect the border states and the southern states ignored it 0 Didn t change the legal or social position of one slave What it did it was a huge symbolic statement quotthis is what we re ghting about nowquot made it clear to the union that we weren t ghting for the old union but a new US Transforms the US Role of African American soldiers Union soldiers It was announced that they would be accepted into the army and navy o No AA have served in the army After Antietam they decided that they would allow to have negro set of regiments 0 Many were former slaves 200000 served in the union army segregated units o All units were segregated by race 0 US military was segregated through the American civil war WWI WWII 1947 when president Truman said that we must integrate troops Robert E Lee and his leadership Battle at Chancellors Ville May 1863 death of General Stonewall Jackson 0 It was a very bloody difficult battle in Virginia Confederate victory Stonewall was killed by his own men mistake Gettysburg two days of ghting June 1863 Most important battle for several reasons Cemetery Ridge Lee39s mistake Decided to send a majority of his troops up this steep hill 0 Almost all of them are killed 0 The beginning of the end for the Confederacy The union oose 23000 people confederates oose 28000 people the south was never able again to go on the offensive the beginning of the end 0 Can never dictate must react Ulysses Grant becomes the head of the Union troops Union had found a match of Robert E Lee Multiple wins for the union against the Confederacy in the South in 1864 Capturing Atlanta Gen William T Sherman39s quotMarch to the Seaquot Was the center of the railroad line Middle of the south Then they march towards Savanna Sherman union general who became Grant s replacement 0 Does whatever itself to cause wanton destruction 0 Stole slaves twisted up railroads took guns 100000000 in damage only 20000000 was necessary Lincoln running again rst example of a democracy that was experiencing a civil war that continued to have a scheduled election even if they were experiencing trauma etc Chose someone to run on his ticket Andrew johnson who was republican VP different political beliefs owned sa ves BIPARTISAN Appomattox Court House VA April 1865 Lee surrenders to Grant 0 THIS IS THE WAR39S CONCLUSION Finally the confederacy s will to ght ends in Spring 1865 Lee surrenders Appomattox Court House pinned down It wasn t that they couldn t ght anymore they ran out of supplies 0 Food shoes Grant was very gracious with his leadership of the union troops of the American Civil War 0 NO CELEBRATION Will start that healing and reconciliation No shooting of guns quotAn awed stillnessquot because the war was over and no one was celebrating it Southern troops were able to hold onto their horses and their guns Relatively kind sets of actions by grant Assassination of Lincoln at Ford39s Theater April 1865 Shot in the box looking down at a play 0 Shot by Booth actor Lincolns character problematic views on race political leadership pushing through the 13th amendment is pretty extraordinary One of the reason why there is an uproar his replacement is not like Lincoln Beginning of Reconstruction 18651877 0 Period after the war The states come back into the union Difficult period of the time Jim Crow and the black codes come back reasons why race is tumultuous for the next hundred years partially Political power of white conservative southerners Review of the course themes clips from Gone With the Wind a nd Glory 0 Americans start referring to themselves as one plural singularuni ed O 0000 Shifts identity of how people understood themselves Grammar Prior used as plural Shifts the understanding of the title of the US Important in terms of language and how people understood themselves 0 UNION WON Getting ready for the nal Political Confusion Lincoln s Election 04282015 1860 Presidential Election very formative and important Severe break out of the democratic party referring to slavery state rights and relationship to the federal govt They cant decide for one candidate so picked two more moderate candidate Steven Douglass and New republican party Abe Lincoln For the rst time there was a disagreement about what the ballot looks like Several candidates for both parties Douglas Lincoln and a few others The rise of the Republican Party Lincoln39s victory and the response Lincoln won but received less than 40 of the popular vote lowest ever The fact that you have an overwhelming majority that voted for the actual president person who won Showed that there was a new party 0 the scene and their party won shocking Nobody voted for Lincoln from the South literally because he wasn t on the ballot Signi cance of the election larger issues Literally the election results are literally sectionalized Beginning of the end of the union ONLY one section is being represented There was a big lag time between elections and inauguration NOVEMBER TO LATE MARCH 0 The US splits up confederate states of America is born What to do Larger concerns Even before Lincoln takes the Oath of Of ce the South starts seceding Center of South was able to commute with upper south and deep south Conduit of information 0 December of 1860 cradle of the confederacy SC is rst all from the lower south to Texas 0 In the aftermath of the original secession everyone in the deep south begin to secede Upper South does not secede at rst Hesitation A LOT of discussion in particular VA about what to do about secession 0 Very close to the north north most state and could almost throw a stone from DC to VA Can see the nations capitol from Virginia 0 Slavery diminished in the 18005 but eventually all these states secede Colonies from VA secede from VA WV 0 Slavery EXISTED north above DC 0 Capitol of Confederacy Richmond Very close to DC Finally CA TN AK and NC secede in spring of 1861 0 Set up for the rst major con ict April 1861 First shot at Fort Sumner creation of the Confederate States of America CSA Confederate soldiers said get off this is our land now the American soldiers disagreed said it was American soil Beginning of the American Civil War April 12 1861 0 Lincoln had been president for 35 weeks less than a month and is burdened with a huge political crisis that no other politician had to deal with o Psychological element what he had to deal with to negotiate with his party and existing states and most importantly the confederacy former brothers and sisters of the USA 0 Think about the challenges he faced both politically with his party and the larger picture and psychologically Tries to steer the US DIFFICULT
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