General Anatomy Notes
General Anatomy Notes BIOL 214
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This 9 page Bundle was uploaded by kgrunwaldt on Monday January 25, 2016. The Bundle belongs to BIOL 214 at Truman State University taught by Dr. Guffey in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and Physiology I in Science at Truman State University.
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Date Created: 01/25/16
General Anatomy An Overview of Anatomv and thsioloqv Anatomy studies the structure of body parts and their relationships to one another 0 Topics of Anatomy I GrossMacroscopic Anatomy the study of large body structures visible to the naked eye such as the heart lungs and kidneys I Regional Anatomy all the structures in a particular region of the body I Systemic Anatomy study of the body systems I Surface Anatomy the study of internal structures as they relate to the overlying skin surface I Microscopic Anatomy deals with structures too small to be seen with the naked eye I Cytology the study of cells I Histology the study of tissues I Developmental Anatomy traces structural changes that occur in the body throughout the lifespan I Embryology concerns developmental changes that occur before birth Physiology concerns the function of how the body parts work and carry out their lifesustaining activities 0 Topics of Physiology I Renal Physiology concerns kidney function and urine production I Neurophysiology explains the workings of the nervous system I Cardiovascular Physiology examines the operation of the heart and blood vessels Principle of Complementarity of Structure and Function the theory that function always represents structure Levels of Structural Orqanization Chemical Level the simplest level of the structural hierarchy o Atoms combine to form molecules which form into organelles Cellular Level the simplest living creature Tissue Level groups of similar cells that have a common function Organ Level a discrete structure composed of at least two tissue types Organ System Level organs working together to accomplish a common purpose Organismal Level represents the total sum of all structural levels working together Necessarv Life Functions Maintaining Boundaries 0 Every living organism needs to maintain their boundaries so that its internal environment remains distinct from its external environment 0 The integumentary system helps to protect us from our environments 0 Helps to protect our organs from drying out bacteria and the damaging effects of heat sunlight and chemicals Movement 0 Includes the activities promoted by the muscular system as well as propelling blood foodstuffs and urine through our internal organs 0 Contractility the muscle cell s ability to move by shortening Responsiveness 0 Also known as irritability o The ability to sense stimuli in the environment and respond to them 0 All body cells are irritable Digestion o The breaking down of ingested foodstuffs to simple molecules that can be absorbed into the blood 0 Nutrient rich blood is distributed to all body cells by the cardiovascular system Metabolism 0 Includes all chemical reactions that occur within the body cells 0 Catabolism breaking down substances into simpler building blocks 0 Anabolism synthesizing more complex cellular structures from simpler substances 0 Cellular Respiration using nutrients and oxygen to produce ATP energyrich molecules that power cellular activities 0 Depends on digestive and respiratory system for nutrients and oxygen 0 Regulated by endocrine system Excretion o The process of removing wastes from the body 0 Disposes of indigestible food residues nitrogencontaining wastes and carbon dioxide Reproduction 0 Occurs at the cellular and organismal level 0 Cellular Reproduction original cell divides producing two identical daughter cells Growth 0 An increase in size of a body part or an organism 0 Usually accomplished by increasing the number of cells Survival Needs Nutrients 0 Contain the chemical substances used for energy and cell building Oxygen o All nutrients are useless without oxygen 0 Chemical reactions that release energy from foods require oxygen Water 0 6080 of our body weight 0 Most abundant chemical substance in the body Normal Body Temperature 0 Necessary to allow chemical reactions to continue 0 37 degrees Celsius or 986 degrees Fahrenheit 0 When body temperature is too high chemical reactions occur rapidly and proteins lose their shape and function 0 When body temperature is too low metabolic reactions become slower and slower and finally stop Appropriate Atmospheric Pressure 0 The force that air exerts on the surface of the body 0 Necessary for gas exchange Homeostasis The body s ability to maintain relatively stable internal conditions even though the outside world changes continuously Indicates a dynamic state of equilibrium Homeostatic Control 0 Receptor first component some type of sensor that monitors the environment and responds to changes 0 Control Center where the receptor sends its information via the afferent pathway I Determines the set point or the level or range at which a variable is to be maintained 0 Effector provides the means for the control center s response to the stimulus I Either reduces it negative feedback or increases is positive feedback Negative Feedback Mechanisms o The output shuts off the original effect of the stimulus or reduces its intensity 0 Examples sweating when it gets hot or shivering when it gets cold 0 Endocrine system helps by releasing antidiuretic hormone ADH Positive Feedback Mechanisms o The response enhances the original stimulus so that the response is accelerated 0 Results proceed in the same direction 0 Examples contractions during pregnancy or blood clotting Directional Terms Superior cranial toward the head end or upper part of a structure or the body 0 The head is superior to the abdomen lnferior caudal away from the head end or toward the lower part of a structure or the body 0 The navel is inferior to the chin Ventral anterior toward or at the front of the body 0 The breastbone is anterior to the spine Dorsal posterior toward or at the back of the body 0 The heart is posterior to the breastbone Medial toward or at the midline of the body 0 The heart is medial to the arm Lateral away from the midline of the body 0 The arms are lateral to the chest Intermediate between a more medial and a more lateral structure 0 The collarbone is intermediate between the breastbone and the shoulder Proximal closer to the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk o The elbow is proximal to the wrist Distal farther from the origin of a body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk o The knee is distal to the thigh Superficial external toward or at the body surface 0 The skin is superficial to the skeletal muscles Deep internal away from the body surface 0 The lungs are deep to the skin Reqional Terms Axial makes up the axis of our body includes the head neck and trunk Appendicular consists of the appendages attached to the body s axis Bodv Planes and Sections Sagittal Plane a vertical plane that divides the body into right and left parts 0 Median Plane a sagittal plane that lies exactly in the midline O Parasagittal Plane a sagittal plane offset from the midline FrontalCoronal Plane a vertical plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior parts Transverse Plane runs horizontally from right to left dividing the body into superior and inferior parts 0 Also known as a cross section Oblique Plane cuts made diagonally between the horizontal and vertical planes Bodv Cavities and Membranes Dorsal Body Cavity protects the nervous system organs 0 Cranial Cavity subdivision of dorsal cavity that protects the brain 0 Vertebral Cavity subdivision of dorsal cavity that runs within the bony vertebral column Ventral Body Cavity holds thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities and the vuscera o Thoracic Cavity surrounded by the ribs and muscles of the chest I Pleural Cavities cavities surrounding the lungs I Mediastinum medial cavity I Pericardial Cavity encloses the heart and surrounds esophagus trachea and other organs 0 Abdominopelvic Cavity begins underneath the diaphragm I Abdominal Cavity contains the stomach intestines spleen liver I Pelvic Cavity lies in the bony pelvis and contains the urinary bladder reproductive organs and the rectum Serous Membrane covers the walls of the ventral cavity thin doublelayered membrane 0 Parietal Serosa serous membrane that lines the cavity walls I Parietal Pericardium lines the parietal cavity I Parietal Pleurae lines the walls of the thoracic cavity I Parietal Peritoneum associated with the walls of the abdominopelvic cavity 0 Visceral Serosa serous membrane that covers the organs I Visceral Pericardium covers the heart I Visceral Pleurae covers the lungs I Visceral Peritoneum covers most of the organs in the abdominopelvic cavity 0 Serous Fluid thin layer of lubricating fluid that separates serous membranes 0 When serous membranes become inflamed their surfaces roughen and causes organs to stick together and rub together I Pleurisy inflammation of the pleurae I Peritonitis inflammation of the peritonea Abdominoloelvic Regions and Quadrants According to the subject s point of view the order is Right Upper Quadrant Left Upper Quadrant Right Lower Quadrant and Left Lower Quadrant Umbilical Region centermost region deep to and surrounding the umbilicus 0 Contains small intestine Epigastric Region located superior to the umbilical region 0 Contains stomach Hypogastric Pubic Region located inferior to the umbilical region 0 Contains urinary bladder Right and Left lliac lnguinal Regions located lateral to the hypogastric region 0 Right Contains appendix 0 Left Contains initial part of sigmoid colon Right and Left Hypochondriac Regions located lateral to the epigastric region 0 Right contains liver and gallbladder 0 Left contains the diaphragm Other Bodv Cavities OralDigestive Cavities 0 Oral cavity contains the teeth and tongue 0 Part of and continuous with the cavity of the digestive organs Nasal Cavity 0 Located within and posterior to the nose part of respiratory system passageways Orbital Cavity 0 Located in the skull house the eyes and present them in an anterior position Middle Ear Cavities o Lie medial to the eardrums 0 Contain tiny bones that transmit sound vibrations to the hearing receptors in the inner ears Synovial Cavities 0 Joint cavities o Enclosed within fibrous capsules that surround freely movable joints of the body 0 Membranes secrete a lubricating fluid that reduce friction
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