Organizational Behavior Part 1
Organizational Behavior Part 1 BUAD309
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Date Created: 01/25/16
Organizational Behavior Part 1 Notes Chapter 1 0 Developing managers interpersonal skills helps organizations keep and attract highperforming employees makes workplace more pleasant 0 Leadership and communication end up being more important than technical skills 0 Social relationships w coworkers and supervisors are strongly related to overall job satisfaction 0 Good work places usually better financial performance Managers get things done through other people make decisions allocate resources direct activities to attain goals planning organizing commanding coordinating controlling planning defines an organization s goals establishes a strategy organizing determines what tasks are to be done and who is to do them leading to direct coordinate motivate and direct activities choose the most effective controlling monitoring comparing and potential correcting interpersonal roles figurehead leadership liaison informational roles monitor disseminator spokesperson decisional roles entrepreneur disturbance handlers resource allocators negotiator technical skills the ability to apply specialized knowledge to expertise human skills the ability to understand communicate motivate and support other people individually and in groups conceptual skills ability to analyze and diagnose complex situations organize a plan and execute it integrate new ideas with existing processes and innovation 4 managerial activities traditional management communication HR management networking promotions are not based on performance but more so networking and political skills 0 managers much develop people skills to be effective and successful organizational behavior a field of study that investigates the impact individuals groups and structure have on behavior within organizations so they can approve it 0 studies individuals groups structures 0 basically what people do and how that affects an organization s performance systematic study looking at relationships attempting to attribute causes and effects and basing conclusions on scientific evidence evidencebased management EBM basing managerial decisions on the best available scientific evidence intuition gut feeling big data the extensive use of statistical compilation and analysis psychology seeks to measure and explain the behavior of humans and other animals social psychology blends concepts from psychology and sociology to focus on peoples in uence on one another change study of group behavior power and con ict sociology studies people in relation to their social environment or culture org culture formal org theory and structure org tech comm power and con ict anthropology study of societies to learn about human bings and their activities org culture org environment differences in cultures contingency variables situational variables that moderate the relationship between 2 or more variables challenges that allow managers to use OB concepts 0 responding to economic pressures 0 stress decision making coping 0 responding to globalization 0 increased foreign assignments 0 working with people from different cultures 0 overseeing movement of jobs to countries w low cost labor 0 adapting to differing cultural and regulatory norms workforce diversity the concept that organizations are becoming more heterogeneous in terms of gender age race ethnicity sexual orientation and inclusion of other diverse groups duties include positive work environment working in networked orgs enhancing employee wellbeing improving ethical behavior positive organizational scholarship behavior studies how organizations develop human strengths foster vitality and resilience and unlock potential understanding employees at their best inputs variables like personality group structure and organizational culture that lead to processes process actions that individuals groups and organizations engage in as a result of inputs that lead to certain outcomes outcomes the key variables that you want to explain or predict and that are affected by some other variables individuallevel outcomes attitude stress task performance citizenship behavior withdrawal behavior group cohesion group functioning productivity survival organizational survival evidence that the organization is able to exist and grow over the long term Summary managers need to develop their interpersonalpeople skills in order to be effective at their jobs OB impact that individuals groups and structure have on behavior within an org focusing on how to improve productivity Lecture 1 Organizations and Management 0 organizations are pervasive 2 types of organizations social meet members affiliation needs primary purpose is social task provide product or service gov business nonprofit hybrid organization a consciously coordinated social unit composed of 2 or more people that functions on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or set of goals people social unit purpose achieve a common goal division of labor consciously coordinatedon a relatively continual basis differentiation breaking down a large job into smaller tasks integration coordinating those tasks to complete the larger job management process planning organizing directing controlling decisionmaking is park of each function planning setting goals and ways to attain them organizing arranging tasks people and resources at the right time directingleading focusing on people resource controlling monitoring and adjusting organizational behavior field of study that looks how people behave in organizations at different levels micro individual level psychology meso group level social psychology sociology macro organizational level sociology anthropology econ polisci org resources I management process I organization performance efficiency using resources wisely keeping costs low effectiveness measure of task or goal accomplishment productivity combo of efficiency and effectiveness summary measure of work performance Lecture 2 Organizational Behavior Manager gets things done through other people 0 emphasis on interpersonal skills leadershipcomm Skills 0 good places to wor better financial performance Mintzberg managerial roles Interpersonal 0 figurehead represents the organization or a unit of one in ceremonialsymbolic duties 0 leader guides and motivates performance 0 liaison maintains networks of contacts outside the organization Informational 0 monitor scanning environment for info internalexternal to the organization 0 disseminator provides info to members of organization 0 spokesperson provides official statements to people outside the organization Decisional 0 entrepreneur searches for opportunities and initiating projects 0 disturbance handler takes corrective action during disputes 0 resource allocator distributes resources to achieve outcomes 0 negotiator bargains to benefit the organization or unit Managerial skills 0 technical skills knowledgeexpertise in a specific field more important in lower hierarchy 0 human skills ability to work well w people important at every level of management 0 conceptual skills ability to think abstractly more important in higher hierarchy Lecture 3 Past and Present management is ancient systematic management began more in the industrial revolution factories meant efficiency and w more people working together more management needed Classical management thought I scientific management best way to do a task or individual job I administrative principles best way to manage I bureaucratic organization best way to organize 0 best most efficient 0 machine view of organizations people are cogs in a machine requiring few and repetitive motions Today There are few universal explanations or rules that can apply everywhere Contingency variables situational factors that moderates relationships between independent and dependent variables I no best way to organizelead I some methods are more effective than others in certain situations I input I process I output I more organic exible adaptable view I effective gt efficient ChallengesOpportunities for OB I economic pressures I globalizations I diversity I customer service I people skills I positive work environment I ethical behavior I networked organizations I employee wellbeing Lecture 4 SMART Goals Planning I function of management linked to controlling I important at all levels step 1 establish goalobjective end outcome provide direction and evaluation criteria step 2 plan means and how to get to the goal at each level Wellwritten goals are I written in terms of outcomes I quantifiable I clear with time frames I challenging but attainable I written down I communicated to everyone SMART Goals Specific Measurable Acceptableattainable Realistic but challenging Time frame Lecture 5 Control Control I function of management linked to planning I process of measuring performance and taking action to ensure desired results I monitoring to make sure plans are working I helps managers know if organizationsl goals are being met or not I protects organizations assets and minimize chances of errors Step 1 establish standards of performance based on goal statement Step 2 measure actual performance Step 3 compare result with standards Step 4 take corrective actions Maintain status quo results standard Investigate actual results gt standard Improve process actual results lt standard Change standard actual results are abovebelow standard Control process monitors organizational processes to detect and correct deviations Appendix Research concerned w the systematic gathering of information Variable general characteristic that can be measured and that changes in amplitude intensity or both Hypothesis a tentative explanation of the relationship between two or more variables Dependent variable a response that is affected by an independent variable the one the researcher is interested in explaining Independent variable presumed cause of some change in the dependent variable Moderating variable increasesdecreases the effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable the contingency variable Causality the direction of a cause and effect relationship Correlation coefficient indicates strength as a number between 1 perfect relationship and 1 perfect relationship Negative relationship when one variable increases the other decreases Positive relationship when one variable increases so does the other Theory a set of systematically interrelated concepts or hypotheses that purports to explain and predict phenomena also referred to as models Lecture 1 Terminology amp Research Design Current benefit foundation on which theories in text are built Future benefit better able to understand reports of research and how to assess their value Intuition gut feeling Systematic study looking at relationships attempting to attribute causes and effect drawing conclusions based on scientific evidence a means to predict behaviors Correlation coefficient expresses the strength of relationship between 2 variables Multiple regression when research is looking at the relationship between more than 2 variables Correlation does not causation I there might be a relationship between 2 variables but you cannot assume that one causes the other Validity is the study measuring what it claims to measure and are the conclusions free from alternative explanations Reliability consistency of measurement Generalizability study results can apply to groups not studied Research Designs I Case Study in depth analysis of one setting obtained through observations interviews and company Plus detailed descriptions Minus too subjective limited generalizability I Field Survey interested in a relationship among 2 or more variables with survey or interview analyze relationship of variable of interest Plus efficient easily quantified and analyzed Minus response rates potential bias lack of depth of info I Experiments researched manipulates the independent variable to observe the effect on the dependent variable certus parabus Plus Bc conditions are controlled the researcher can infer causation Which is better field or lab Neither is better than the other Lab greater precision and control less generalizability Field greater generalizability less control I Aggregate quantitative review quantitative approach to synthesizing a large group of studies on particular phenomena Metaanalysis allows researcher to look at results from a large of studied and the apply a formula to them to see if they produce similar results If results are consistent relationship is valid I seen as an objective way to summarize literature Lecture 2 Research in Action CBS Google Video good example of I Research process in organization I EBM evidencebased management 0 Incorporating databased evidence into managerial decision making process Chapter 2 0 Managers need to recognize and capitalize on differences Surfacelevel diversity differences in easily perceived characteristics such as gender race ethnicity age or disability that do not necessarily re ect the ways people think or feel but that may activate certain stereotypes Deeplevel diversity differences in values personality and work preferences that become progressively more important for determining similarity as people get to know one another better Biographical characteristics personal characteristics such as age gender race and length of tenure that are objectives and easily obtained from personnel records and are representative of surfacelevel diversity 0 Older workers tend to be more satisfied with their work report better relationships and are more committed to their organizations 0 Older workers have less job turnovers 0 No consistent malefemale differences in problemsolving analytical skills competitive drive motivation sociability or learning ability 0 Female students prone to accept occupational stereotypes 0 Managers still in uenced by gender 0 Women who succeed in usually male dominated things are seen as less likable more hostile and less desirable O Males have more opportunities for promotion 0 maternal wall bias 0 discrimination leads to increased turnover 0 employees w disabilities receive higher performance evaluations but also have lower expectations and are less likely to be hired 0 tenure expressed as work experience is a good predictor of employee productivity 0 the longer a person is on the job the less likely she is to quit Intellectual ability dimensions 0 number aptitude 0 verbal comprehension 0 perceptual speed 0 inductive reasoning 0 deductive reasoning 0 spatial visualization 0 memory general mental ability an overall factor of intelligence as suggested by the positive correlations among specific intellectual ability dimensions diversity management the process and programs by which managers make everyone more aware of and sensitive to the needs and differences of others 0 collectivistic cultures similarity to supervisors is more important 0 individualistic cultures similarity to peers is more important Diversity biographical characteristics ability diversity programs 0 diversity must be an ongoing commitment in order for it to stick Lecture 1 Surfaces versus Deep Level DiversitV Surface Level AGE 0 no relationship between age and performance 0 older workers are less likely to resign 0 absent less frequently GENDER 0 few important differences between men and women 0 women lower levels of commitment satisfaction higher turnover RACE 0 most research focuses on white vs African American 0 African Americas farer less favorably higher turnover rates more positive views of affirmative action DISABILITY 0 Strong bias against those w mental disabilities 0 Less likely to be hired 0 Lower performance expectations TENURE 0 Senority time on a particular job 0 Positively correlated w performance and job satisfactions 0 Negatively correlated w absenteeism and turnover rates 0 Longer in the organizations less likely to leave and more satiasfaction Deeplevel matter more than surface level Ability intellectual and physical INTELECTUAL helps predict job success matching the right people to the right jobs is important Lecture 2 Diversity Management 0 Differences among people can create energy and excitement but also con ict 0 Many ways employees can differ surface and deeplevel diversity Diversity management 0 Must be ongoing commitment across all levels 0 Policies are effective as long as they touch ALL perspectives 0 Encourage fair treatment 0 Educate mangers on legal responsibilities 0 Contain personal development practices acknowledging how different perspectives can be utilities strengths 0 Transparency of programsopportunities 0 Diversity training encourages fair treatment of all workers but does not ensure success 0 Trainees must be motivated to consider a new perspective 0 Diverse environments engages employees and attracts new workers 0 Diverse perspectives Chapter 5 Lecture 1 Personalitv Personality the sum total of ways in which an individual reacts and interact w other the measurable traits a person exhibits 0 Helps organizations make effective hiring decisions 0 Helps managers understand and more effectively manage the people that work Measure personality 1 selfreport survey most common 2 observerratings surveys independent assessment and better predictor MyersBriggs Type Indicator 0 Most widely used 0 4 dimensions to determine one of 16 personality types 0 extroverted or introverted O sensing or intuitive O thinking or feeling 0 perceiving or judging 0 lacks reliability and validity Big Five Model 0 extroversion agreeableness conscientiousness emotional stability openness to experience 0 better framework for prediction 0 develop better job skills best predictor of performance 0 transfers across cultures Core SelfEvaluations 0 selfesteem 0 locus of control belief of ability to control things 0 emotional stability 0 selfefficacy ability to perform specific tasks successfully 0 high and positive core selfevaluations better performance Machiavellianism pragmatic emotionally distant people who believe that ends justify the means manipulative persuasive competitive Selfmonitoring ability to adjust behavior to meet external situational factors higher performance review more likely to be a leader Situational strength theory classifies situations into strong clear expectations and no variability vs weak no consequences or constraints strong less opportunity for personality to show weak more opportunity for personality to show Trait activation theory situations provide cues that trigger a trait No one set trait is universally helpful Conscientiousness is most important Lecture 2 Values Values basic convictions on how to conduct oneself or live one s life ideal as to what is considered good and desirable traits describe behavioral tendencies while values describe a person s beliefs can rank individual s values in terms of their importance creating a hierarchy Personjob fit fit between personality and job John Holland claims people congruent to their jobs will be more satisfied and less likely to leave organizations Personorganization fit how well a person s personality and values match the organization s values or culture high personorganization fit leads to higher job satisfaction and lower stress Cultural values by Hofstedes 5 dimensions 0 old data based on only one company still popular 1 power distance 0 low distance relatively equal power between those w status and those wo status 0 high distance extremely unequal power distribution between those w status and those wo status 2 individualism vs collectivism O individualism the degree to which people prefer to act as individuals rather than as members of groups 0 collectivism a tight social framework in which people expect others in a group of which they are part of to look after and protect them 3 masculinity vs femininity O masculinity extent in which a society values achievement power and control assertiveness and materialism 0 femininity the extent in which a society values harmony and equality 4 uncertainty avoidance 0 low society tolerates ambiguous situations and embraces them 0 high society feels threatened by uncertain situations 5 longterm vs shortterm orientation 0 longterm emphasizes future thrift and persistence O shortterm emphasizes the present Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness GLOBE 9 dimensions of national culture 0 Human Orientation how much society rewards people for being generous 0 Performance Orientation how much society rewards improvement and excellence Chapter 6 Lecture 1 Perception Perception process by which we give meaning to our environment by organizing and interpretation sensory data 0 People s behavior if based on perception of reality not reality itself 0 Perceptions I behavior 0 Perceptions can be awed or biased 0 Managers who understand what perception is can ensure more accurate perceptions which will increase likelihood that actions toward subordinates will be fair and appropriate Attribution theory when we observe a behavior we attempt to determine whether it was caused internally or externally determined by 3 factors Internally caused believed to be under the personal control of the individual Externally caused resulting from outside cause 1 distinctiveness displays different behaviors in different situations 2 consensus behaves same as other s in that situation 3 consistency behaves the same way over time observations I interpretation I attribution of cause fundamental attribution error tend to blame the person first and not the situation selfserving bias success internal factors while failures external factors selective perception people interpret what they see based on what they like halo effect drawing a conclusion about someone based on one characteristic contrast effects evaluating someone by comparing them to other people recently encountered who rank higher or lower on the same characteristics I all result in less accurate impressions stereotyping judging shortcut based on a group of which someone might seem to belong 0 managers must understand how people see things and manage those perceptions Lecture 2 Decision Making in Organizations Problem discrepancy between actual and desired situation Problem solving process of identify discrepancy and taking action to change that Decision a choice among various alternative courses of action Decisionmaking model 1 identify and define problem identify decision criteria allocate weights to the criteria develop alternatives evaluate alternatives select preferred solution conduct ethics double check implement the decision 9 evaluate the results Decision models 1 classicaleconomicrational model a normative the way decisions should be made b maximize value economic motive c perfect and complete information d well defined goals 2 administrativebehavioral model a descriptive the way decisions are made emphasized bounded rationality incomplete and imperfect information social and economic motives choose to satisfice take the alternative that will do satisfactory rather than best 90809 0909 f how we actually make decisions g recognizes that we simplify complexity in order to make decisions Intuition I valuesethics subconscious mental process experience based affectinitiated cognitivebased 0 should be supported with objective data and rational analysis Lecture 3 Decision Making Biases Decision Making Conditions Certainty have all necessary info Uncertainty lacking info but can define problem goal known Risk can establish a probability Objective derived from data Subjective derived from experience Ambiguity wicked decision Cannot define problem Goal unclear Decision Biases amp Errors Overconfidence bias individuals whose intellectual and interpersonal abilities are weakest are most likely to overestimate their performance and ability Anchoring bias fixating on initial info as a starting point and failing to adequately adjust for subsequent info Confirmation bias type of selective perception seek out info that reaffirms past choices and discount info that contradicts past judgments Escalation of commitment stay w decision when there is clear evidence that it is wrong most likely to occur when someone view themselves a responsible for the outcome Randomness error tendency to believe we can predict the outcome of random events and try to create meaning out of random events Risk aversion tendency to prefer a sure thing instead of risky outcome usually used for positive outcome Hindsight bias tendency to believe falsely that one has accurately predicted the outcome of an event after that outcome is already known Availability heuristic vivid events are remembered more easily and more available when making judgments Representative heuristic people compare descriptions of their mental images rater than consider the probabilities of the situation 0 the way a decision maker describes the situation has a significant impact on the outcome Regression toward the mean any single extraordinary event is likely to be followed by a more ordinary event To reduce biases and errors 0 focus on goals 0 look for info that disconfirms beliefs 0 get observationsinfo from different people 0 don t create meaning out of random events 0 increase your options Lecture 4 CreativitV Creativity the ability to produce novel and useful ideas 0 different from past and also appropriate 3 stage model of creativity 1 causes of creative behavior a creative potential and environment 2 creative behavior a problem formulation info gathering idea generation and evaluation 3 innovation creative outcomes a novel and useful
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