Organizational Behavior Part 2
Organizational Behavior Part 2 BUAD309
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This 14 page Bundle was uploaded by Alicia Burtha on Monday January 25, 2016. The Bundle belongs to BUAD309 at University of Delaware taught by DianeFerry in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Organizational Behavior in Business Administration at University of Delaware.
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Date Created: 01/25/16
Part 2 Chapter 3 Main components of attitudes Cognitive component a description of or belief in the way things are Affective component emotional or feeling segment of an attitude Behavioral component describes an intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something I Helps companies understand the potential relationship between attitudes and behavior 0 Attitudes determine behavior causal Cognitive dissonance any incompatibility between two or more attitudes or between behavior and attitude Festinger reduce dissonance elements Importance In uence Rewards 0 Attitudebehavior relationship is likely to be stronger if an attitude refers to something with which we have direct personal experience Maj or Job Attitudes 0 Job satisfaction a positive feeling about a job resulting from evaluation of its characteristics 0 Job involvement measures degree to which people identify psychologically w their jobs 0 Psvch010gical empowerment employee s beliefs in the degree to which they in uence their work environment competencies and meaningfulness 0 organizational commitmen an employee identifies w a particular organization and its goals 0 perceived organizational support degree to which employees believe the organization values their contributions and cares about their wellbeing 0 employee engagement an individual s involvement with satisfaction and enthusiasm for the work they do 0 having a good manager feeling appreciated by a supervisor Measuring Job Satisfaction 1 single global rating 2 summation of job facets 0 positive coreself evaluations usually have higher job satisfaction Responses to dissatisfaction 0 exit leaving the organization 0 voice actively attempting to improve conditions 0 loyalty passive but optimistically waiting 0 neglect passively letting conditions worsen Strong negative relationship between job satisfaction and job turnover and attitudes give managers warnings for potential problems Lecture 1 Job Satisfaction Attitude evaluative statements or judgments concerning objects people or events 0 Important be they predict behavior Cognitive the opinion or belief segment of an attitude Behavioral an intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something Affective the emotional feeling or segment of an attitude Moderating variables explain why and when attitudes are the way they are contingency variable strengthen or weaken the relationship between 2 variables iob satisfaction a positive feeling about one s job resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics 1 Single global rating a Not diagnostic or informative b all in all how satisfied are you with your job 2 Summation score a More diagnostic b Counts all parts of a job and scores them Facets of satisfaction tend to be less satisfied w pay and promotion opportunities than other facets Causes of job satisfaction 1 nature of job a challenge variety independence 2 social context a relationships w supervisors coworkers 3 pay a only in uences to a point b may increase motivation but does not guarantee satisfaction personality people w negative outlooks on life tend to be dissatisfied positive core self evaluation are more satisfied w their jobs Effects of job satisfaction Job performance more productive Organizational citizenship behaviors more likely to engage in citizenship behaviors Customer satisfaction satisfied workers satisfied customers Absenteeism less likely to miss work Turnover satisfied employees are less likely to quit Deviance less like to be deviant Lecture 2 Other Work Attitudes Job involvement degree to which employee identifies psychologically with their job and considers their performance important to selfworth positively correlated with performance and OCB and performance Employee engagement degree of involvement with satisfaction with and enthusiasm for one s job passion for work still debating usefulness Organizational Commitment Affective emotional attachment and degree of identification and what they stand for and maintain membership want to positive performance lower absenteeism and turnover Continuance economic value of staying have to Normative moral or ethical obligations should Perceived Organizational support degree to which employees believe their organization values their wellbeing positive OCB positive performance Attitudes other than job satisfaction are important There are overlap but they are distinct enough to be seen as separate concepts Chapter 4 0 moods are less intense than emotions 0 emotions are reactions and more eeting than moods positive affec a mood dimension consisting of positive emotions such as excitement alertness and elation or contentedness calmness and serenity negative affec mood dimension consisting of nervousness stress and anxiety or boredom and fatigue 0 negative emotions are likely to become negative moods 0 negative experiences are easier to recall than positive Dositivitv offset the tendency of most individuals to experience a mildly positive mood at zero input 0 emotions can make people irrational and unethical affect intensity how strongly people experience their emotions 0 time of day day of week stress social activities sleep exercise emotional labor employee expressed the organizationally expected behavior Affective events theorv AET suggests that workplace events cause emotional reactions on the part of employees which in uence workplace attitudes and behaviors Emotional intelligence ability to detect and manage emotional cues and information In favor 0 intuitive appeal 0 predicts criteria that matters high levels usually mean good performance 0 biologically based Against 0 many different definitions 0 can t be quantified 0 just personality Positive moods sound decisions more creativity Lecture 1 Mood amp Emotion Basic Why managers care about emotions 0 potentially important effects on organization History of emotions in OB 0 emotions were seen as irrational disruptive and harmful to productivity 0 focus was on emotionfree environment 0 NOW emotions cannot be removed Moods vs emotions Affect broad range of feelings that people experience emotions or moods 0 Distinct but related 0 An emotion can lead to a mood 0 Mood can cause more intense emotion Emotions 0 Caused by something specific in the environment 0 Shorter than moods 0 Classified by positive or negative Moods 0 Less intense than emotions 0 Not caused by anything 0 longer lasting than emotions Determinants of moods 0 personality 0 affect intensity how strongly people experience their emotions 0 day and time of week 0 happier toward end of week 0 stress 0 social activities 0 sleep 0 exercise Emotional labor Emotional dissonance not being able to show an emotion because of work settings which leads to emotional exhaustion and burnout Affective events theorv how emotions and moods affect attitudes and behaviors 0 one of first OB theories to explicitly recognize role of emotions in workplace 0 pay attention to emotional reactions Moods amp emotions are similar bc both considered forms of affect Both affects by personality stress time of day sleep participation in social activities Lecture 2 Emotion Management and Applications Emotional intelligence person s ability to perceive and understand and regulate emotions in oneself and others 0 high EI know their own emotions and can pick up cues of others 0 supporters of the El construct say E1 is a good predictor of job performance intuitive appeal biologically based 0 those who oppose the E1 construct say it is too vague hard to measure hard to define not rigorous enough basically just personality emotional dissonance inconsistency between felt and displayed emotions 0 surface acting hiding inner feelings and emotional expressions 0 deep acting modifying ones true inner feelings so that they are consistent with the rules less stress and burnout Chapter 18 0 organizational change is often the most stressful part of a work life 0 knowing how people react can help lessen stress and make change more effective 0 stress can be positive m an unpleasant psychological process that occurs in response to environmental pressures challenge stressors associated w workload pressure to complete tasks and time urgency hindrance stressors stressors that keep you from reaching your goals 0 high levels of commitment use stress positively low levels do not demands responsibilities pressures obligations and even uncertainties that individuals face in the workplace resources things within an individual s control that can be used to resolve demands potential sources of stress 0 environmental factors 0 economic uncertainty job security 0 political uncertainty change is implemented in an orderly fashion 0 technological uncertainty change and releaming 0 organizational factors 0 task demands design of the job working conditions physical work layout 0 role demands pressures placed on a person as a function of the particular role he or she plays in the organization 0 interpersonal demands pressures created by other employees 0 personal factors 0 family issues marital difficulties discipline troubles w children 0 economic issues Stress is additive Individual differences Perceptions experience social support and personality Consequences of stress 0 Physiological symptoms changes in metabolism increased heart rate blood pressure and headaches poor immune system functioning 0 Psychological symptoms tension anxiety irritability boredom procrastination 0 Behavioral symptoms reduction in productivity absence turnover eating habits smoking alcohol sleep disorders Individual approaches to stress Time management increased exercise relaxation training social support networks Organizational approaches to stress improved employee selection improved org comm employee sabbaticals corporate wellness programs Goal setting redesigning jobs for more meaningful work job training Lecture 3 Work Stress 0 Negative and positive events can cause stress 0 Stress occurs when outcomes are uncertain and important Demands uncertainties encountered at work challenge stressors pressure to complete task time urgency hindrance stressors keep one from reaching goal resources things under our control that can be used to effectively deal w demands having the right ones can help reduce stress Stressors build up 0 Individual differences moderate the relationship between potential stressors and experienced stress For example 0 Perception interpretation of conditions 0 Social support relationships we form w coworkers and supervisors to help buffer stress Consequences of stress Physiological headaches blood pressure heart disease Psychological anxiety depression decrease in job attitudes Behavioral changes in productivity sleeping and habits Individual stress management time management exercise relax social support Organizational stress management improved employee selection and job placement training increased employee involvement goalsetting wellness programs Chapter 7 Motivation the processes that account for an individual s intensity direct and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal Intensity how hard a person tries Persistence how long a person can maintain effort Hierarchy of needs Maslow s hierarchy of 5 needs 1 physiological hunger thirst shelter 2 safety security protection from physical and emotional harm 3 social affection belongingness acceptance 4 esteem internal factors such as selfrespect autonomy and achievement and recognition 5 selfactualization drive to become what we are capable of becoming lowerorder needs physiological and safety needs higher order needs social esteem selfactualization 0 managers use it be intuitive and easy to understand not research validated theory x assumption that employees dislike work and responsibility are lazy and must be coerced to perform theory y assumption that employees like work are creative seek responsibility and can exercise selfdirection twofactor theorv a theory that relates intrinsic factors advancement recognition responsibility achievement to job satisfaction and associates extrinsic factors with dissatisfaction motivationghygience theory 0 Frederick Herzberg HVgiene factors factors that when adequate placate workers When they are not adequate people will not be dissatisfied Herzberg criticism 0 Relies on self reports 0 Misinterpretation 0 No measure of overall satisfaction 0 Only looking at satisfaction not satisfaction and productivity McClelland s Theorv of Needs a theory that states achievement power and affiliation are 3 important needs that help explain motivation Need for achievement drive to excel to achieve in relationship to a set of standards and strive to succeed Need for power the needs to make others behave in a way in which they would not have behaved otherwise Need for affiliation the desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships 0 Relationship between achievement need and job performance 0 High degree of responsibility and feedback and medium risk strong motivation Contemporary Theories of Motivation Selfdetermination theory a theory of motivation that is concerned with the beneficial effects of intrinsic motivation an the harmful effects of extrinsic motivation Cognitive evaluation theory a version of selfdetermination theory which holds that allocating extrinsic rewards for behaviors that had been previously intrinsically rewarding tends to decrease all levels of motivation if that rewards are seen as controlling Selfconcordance the dress to which people s reasons for pursuing goals are consistent w their interests and core values job engagement the investment of an employee s physical cognitive and emotional energies into job performance 0 Degree to which an employee believes it is meaningful connection between individual and organization values Goalsetting theory a theory that says specific and difficult goals with feedback lead to higher performance 0 Specific goals increase performance difficult goals result in higher performance than easier goals 0 Feedback leads to higher performance than no feedback 0 Challenging goals grab attention help us focus people persist on trying to attain them lead to discover new strategies 0 Goal commitment task characteristics national culture Promotion focus a selfregulation strategy that involves striving for goals through advancement and accomplishment Prevention focus a selfregulation strategy that involves striving for goals by fulfilling duties and obligations Management by objectives a program that encompasses specific goals participation set for an explicit time period with feedback on goal progress tangible verifiable measurable Selfefficacy theory an individual s belief that he she is capable of performing a task 0 The higher the more engaged the lower the less engaged 0 Compliments the goalsetting theory be high goals shows your confidence in them Ways to increase selfefficacy 1 enactive mastery gaining relevant experience with the taskjob 2 vicarious modeling becoming more confident bc you see someone else doing it 3 verbal persuasion becoming more confident be someone convinces you that you have the skills necessary to be successful 4 arousal getting physically psyched up reinforcement theory a theory that says that behavior is a function of consequences operant conditioning theory argues that people learn to behave to get something they want or to avoid something they don t want reinforcement strengthens behaviors behaviorism a theory that argues that behavior followed by stimuli in a relatively unthinking manner sociallearning theory we can learn through both observation and direct experience 1 attentional processes 2 retention processes 3 motor production processes 4 reinforcement processes eguity theory says individuals compare their job inputs and outcomes w those of others and then respond to eliminate and inequalities organizational justice an overall perception of what is fair in the workplace composed of distributive procedural informational and interpersonal justice distributive iustice perceived fairness of the amount and allocation of rewards among individuals procedural iustice the perceived fairness of the process used to determine the distribution of rewards informational justice degree to which employees are provided truthful explanations for decisions interpersonal iustice degree to which employees are treated w dignity and respect exnectancv theorv a theory that says that the strength of a tendency to act a certain way depends on the strength of an expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual 1 effortperformance relationship 2 performancereward relationship 3 rewardspersonal goals relationship Maslow McClelland twofactor theory I focus on needs McClelland is strongest relationship between achievement and productivity Lecture 1 Early Motivation Theories Motivation processes that account for an individual s intensity direction and persistence toward attaining a goal Intensity how hard a person tries Direction where the effort is channeled Persistence how long a person can maintain effort EARLY THEORIES little support but historical perspective amp impact on new theories Maslow s Hierarchv of Needs Theorv selfactualization esteem social safety psychological One cannot move up until the lower level need is satisfied This is popular w managers bc logical and easy to understand however it is not validated or supported McGregor s Theorv X and Theorv Y Theory X humans have little ambition dislike work and avoid responsibility Theory Y workers are selfdirected enjoy work accept responsibility 0 no empirical support Herzberg s TwoFactor Theorv satisfaction and dissatisfaction are not opposites but separate constructs 0 different factors in the work environment impact both entities 0 awed methodology McClelland s Theorv of Needs people w high need for achievement are likely to avoid highlow risk situations 0 high level of power low affiliation moderate level of achievement 0 good research support but not practical Lecture 2 GoalSetting SelfEfficacy SelfDetermination CONTEMPORARY THEORIES Lock s GoalSetting Theorv specific and difficult goals with feedback lead to higher performance 0 relationship between goal and performance depends on goal commitment task characteristics and culture 0 management by objectives systematic way to utilize the goalsetting theory 0 goals much be tangible verifiable and measurable 0 corporate goals are broken down into smaller more specific goals 0 goal specificity participation explicit time performance feedback SelfEfficacy theory individual s belief about their capability to perform a certain task 0 higher self efficacy greater confidence greater persistence better response to negative feedback 0 compliments goalsetting theory 0 increasing self efficacy 0 enactive mastery greater practice 0 modeling observation 0 verbal persuasion O arousal Selfdetermination theory people desire control over their actions 0 anything that makes a previously enjoyed task feel like an obligation will undermine motivation 0 cognitive evaluation theory extrinsic rewards can undermine performance bc external constraint 0 make sure rewards aren t seen as controlling combine extrinsic and intrinsic rewards Difficult goals lead to higher performance High levels of selfefficacy increase the effects of goals Extrinsic rewards are motivating if they are not perceived as controlling Lecture 3 Equity amp Expectancy Theories CONTEMPORARY THEORIES Equity theory focuses on worker perceptions and fairness of work outcomes and inputs 0 3 types of justice 0 distributive outcomes 0 procedural process process control and explanations O interactional quality of interpersonal treatment 0 compare ourselves to referent I equity I maintain 0 compare ourselves to referent I inequity I motivation to reduce inequity 0 reduce inequity by changing inputs changing outputs change perceptions of selfothers choose different referent leave field 0 less likely to perceive something as unfair or inequity if the process is fair Expectancy theorv workers are motivated by three key relationships 1 expectancy effortperformance relationship 2 instrumentality performancereward relationship 3 valence rewardspersonal goal relationship Perceived injustice can negatively impact work attitudes and performance Managers can impact motivation by maximizing distributive procedural and interactional justice Expectancy theory suggest that organizations offer valued rewards clearly linked to high performance and ensure that employees have proper training and control over their performance Chapter 8 Job design the way elements in a job are organized Job characteristics model a model that proposed that any job can be described in terms of 5 core job dimensions skill variety task identity task significance autonomy and feedback 0 J CM model shows as motivation that employees receive internal rewards when the learn that they have personally performed well 0 Generates higher and more satisfying job performance Job rotation periodic shifting of an employee from one task to another J ob enrichment the vertical expansion of jobs which increases the degree to which the worker controls the planning executions and evaluation of the work 0 Reduces absenteeism and turnover costs also increases satisfaction Flextime exible work hours Job sharing allows two or more individuals to split a traditional 40 hour a week job Telecommuting working from home at least 2 days a week on a computer that is linked to the employer s office Employee involvement a participative process that uses the input of employees and is intended to increase employee commitment to an organization s success 0 Participative management process in which subordinates share a significant degree of decisionmaking power with their immediate superiors 0 Representation participation system in which workers participate in organizational decision making through a small group of representative employees Variable Dav Drogram a pay pan that bases a portion of an employee s pay on some individual andor organizational measure of performance 0 Piecerate Dav plan a pay plan in which workers are paid a fixed sum for each unit of production completed 0 Meritbased Dav plan a pay plan based on performance appraisal ratings 0 Bonus a pay plan that rewards employees for recent performance rather than historical performance 0 Skillbased Dav a pay plan that sets pay levels on the basis of how many skills employees have or how many jobs they can do 0 Profitsharing plan an organizationwide program that distributes compensation based on some established formula designed around a company s profitability 0 Gainsharing a formulabased group incentive plan 0 Employee stock ownership plan a companyestablished benefits plan in which employees acquire stock often at belowmarket prices as part of their benefits Flexible benefits plan that allows each employee to put together a benefits package individually tailored to his or her own needs and situation Employees who are recognized feel valued and have the opportunity to work in jobs tailored to their strengths will be motived to perform at their best Employee participation can increase productivity commitment to work goals motivations and job satisfaction Lecture 1 Job Design Job Characteristics Model J CM 5 core job dimensions 0 Jobs designed w high levels of core dimensions positively affect psychological states leading to increased motivations performance and job satisfaction moderator variable Growth Need Strength skill variety degree to which job incorporates of skills and talents task identity able to do many jobs and what that entails task significance how job affects people inside and outside the organization autonomy how much freedom and independence feedback direct and clear information about the worker s performance MPP PE39 Critical psychological states 1 meaningfulness 2 responsibility 3 knowledge of actual results 0 moderator variable Growth Need Strength Motivating Potential Score MPS skill variety task identity task significance 3 x autonomy X feedback 0 benefits to J CM lower absenteeism and turnover increased job satisfaction mixed impact on job performance 0 cautions note all workers desire enriched jobs 0 importance of growth need strength I CM relates to need theories Maslow and higher order needs I CM relates to Herzberg s motivator factors I CM relates to intrinsic motivation ie Growth development greater responsibility Job Redesign 0 job rotation shifts employees to different tasks w similar skill requirements 0 helps reduce boredom 0 helps increase understanding of work and worker skills 0 helps managers schedule 0 job enrichment expansion of job by increasing degree of work Lecture 2 Alternative Work arrangements Social Context and Employee Involvement 0 alter job context not content Flextime allows employees to choose the hours they work within a period of time Job sharing allows 2 individuals to split a traditional 40 hour work week Telecommuting allows workers to work from home at least 2 days a week on a computer linked to the employer s office 0 higher productivity and morale 0 lower turnover and costs 0 accommodate family 0 less supervision 0 difficult to coordinate 0 increased isolation 0 out of sight out of mind Social Context of Work Important characteristics interdependence and social support help increase positive moods provide work roles and assistance Employee Involvemen a participative process that uses employee s input tot increase their commitment to the organization s success 0 more control more motivation I greater individual then org performance 0 Participative management individual managers include employees in the decision making process 0 Informal 0 Mixed results 0 Representative participation redistribute power by putting labor and top management on a more equal footing 0 Formal 0 Decisions on behalf of workers 0 Works councils groups of nominated employees who must be consulted when management makes decisions involving personnel 0 Board representative an employee sits on a board of directors and represents the employees Employee involvement I motivational theories Job context is important in in uencing motivation and performance some forms have potential to strike intrinsic qualities of work Lecture 3 Variable Pay Programs Variable pay pay plan that bases a portion of an employee s pay on some individual group or organization measure of performance To be effective 0 Must be accurately measured 0 Pay must be valued 0 Must have strong performance to outcome belief 0 Must be seen as fair Advantages 0 Pay based on employee contributions 0 Effective for increasing motivationproductivity 0 Reduces expenses when performance and profit isn t great Individual level Piecerate fixed sum per unit of production completed Bonus lump sum payments at the end of a period of time based on individual performance 0 More cost effective Meritbased pay increases based on performance appraisal results Group Gainsharing paid for improvement in group productivity from one period to another 0 Shared monetary benefits Organization Profit sharing distributes a portion of organizational profits to individual employees 0 Rewards based on profits not productivity 0 Not usually cash Variable pay can be effective motivation Organizations may use a mix of programs Effectiveness depends on implementation Lecture 4 Recognition Programs amp Managerial Implications Advantages of intrinsic rewards 0 Inexpensive 0 Effective Criticism of intrinsic rewards 0 Misuse and abuse can lead to rewards being seen as meaningless which could undermine effectiveness 0 Susceptible to political manipulation rewards to favorites Employee motivations managerial implications 0 Recognize individual differences 0 GNS O Valence different rewards valued 0 Create job challenge and meaningfulness O J CM 0 Relationship job design 0 Use goals and feedback 0 Allow employees to participate in decisions 0 Link performance to valued rewards 0 Clarify path to high performance 0 Ensure fairness in reward allocation and interpersonal treatment
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