Chapter 3 Cell Structure and Chapter 4 Body Tissue
Chapter 3 Cell Structure and Chapter 4 Body Tissue BIO 1004
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This 6 page Bundle was uploaded by Juliane Notetaker on Monday January 25, 2016. The Bundle belongs to BIO 1004 at Mississippi State University taught by Jeffery Echols in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see Anatomy & Physiology in Biology at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 01/25/16
Chapter 3 Cell Structure and Function The Plasma Membrane o Separates the interior of the cell from the environment 0 Made of Bilayers of phospholipids and associated proteinsglycoproteins Glycoprotein protein with a carbohydrate attached 0 Phospholipids 0 Provide structural organization 0 Are amphipathic o Composed of glycerol bonded to 2 fatty acids and 1 phosphate 0 Proteins 0 Carry out speci c functions Integral proteins eg transport proteins signaling proteins Peripheral proteins eg adhesion cell recognition 0 Cholesterol 0 Temperature quotbufferquot against changes in uidity 0 At warm temperatures 37C makes membrane less uid 0 GlycolipidsGlycoproteins o Carbohydrate chain bonded to a protein or a lipid 0 Function in cellcell recognition Cells recognize one type of cell from another 0 Protect membranes from damage 0 Fluid Mosaic Model 0 The membrane is a uid structure with a mosaic of embedded proteins 0 Proteins and lipids can drift laterally in the membrane Plasma Membrane Transport 0 Selectively permeable 0 Passive Transport 0 The plasma membrane is selectively permeable o Diffusion movement from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration Passive diffusion no energyfaciitated diffusion channel needed 0 Osmosis movement of water across a membrane from an area with more water to an area with less water lsotonic concentration of water and solutes is the same on both sides Hypotonic solute concentration lower water higher Hypertonic solute concentration higher water lower 0 Filtration diffusion aided by pressure capillary beds 0 Active Transport 0 Active Transport movement against a concentration gradient low concentration to high concentration Requires energy Eg maintenance of membrane potential for nerve impulses Endocytosis and Exocytosis o Exocytosis materials packaged in vesicles released from the cell 0 Endocytosis materials brought into the cell in vesicles The Nucleus o The cell39s genetic library 0 Contains most of the DNA genetic material Nuclear Envelope 0 Separates the nuclear contents from the cytoplasm o Composed of a double membrane with nuclear pores Chromatin 0 Genetic material is organized into chromosomes 0 Chromosomes composed of chromatin Chromatin DNA wound around histone proteins Nucleolus 0 Makes ribosomal subunits o Composed of ribosomal rRNA and proteins Ribosomes and Protein Synthesis 0 Ribosomes carry our protein synthesis cell39s protein factories 0 Translate the genetic code in mRNA into the primary structure of a polypeptide The Cytoplasm o Coordinating region for metabolic activities 0 Organelles membrane bound space with a speci c function Endoplasmic Reticulum Biosynthetic Factory and Detoxi cation 0 Smooth ER Lipid synthesis carbohydrate metabolism detoxi cation calcium ion storage 0 Rough ER Synthesis of secretory proteins proteins glycosylation Golgi Apparatus Shipping and Receiving Center 0 Modi es ER products and sends to other destinations Eg modi es carbohydrate chains of glycoproteins and adds identi cation tags to send to correct location Peroxisomes Oxidation 0 Transfer hydrogen to oxygen producing hydrogen peroxide 0 Reactions have many functions Break down fatty acids into smaller molecules Detoxify alcohol Lysosomes Recycling Centers 0 Contain around 40 digestive enzymes Can break down all of the cells macromolecules for recycling Also digest products of phagocytosis o Defects in the digestive enzymes result in lysosomal storage diseases Eg TaySachs disease 0 Mitochondria Energy Factories 0 Site of aerobic cellular respiration Break down organic food to generate ATP 0 Centrioles 0 Produce cilia and agella aso involved in cell division Cilia and Flagella o Locomotive appendages o Produced from microtubules 0 Move uid over the surface of tissue propel cells through uid Chapter 4 Body Tissue Epithelial Tissue o Tightly packed cells 0 Lining of body cavities skin Reproductive track Urinary track Digestive track Circulatory system Types 0 Squamous at in structure 0 Cuboidal cube shaped o Columnar column shaped Strati cation 0 Simple 1 layer of cells thick 0 Strati ed more than one layer 2 or above 0 Transitional transition from one shape to another 0 Pseudo strati ed false strati cation One layer of cells which appears to be in multiple layers Basementmembrane connective tissue found at the lowest level of all epithelial tissue regardless of type Connects epithelial tissue to other tissue types Connective Tissue Loose Connective Tissue cells aren39t tightly packed together 0 White bers exible provide exibility 0 Yellow bers elastic stretches and returns to original form 0 Adipose tissue fat cells One nds white bers yellow bers and lipids Found beneath the skin and surrounding the heart and kidneys Fibrous Connective Tissue o Colagnous ber stronger more rigid than loose connective 0 White and yellow bers 0 Tendons and ligaments are found in this tissue Cartilage 0 Solid exible matrix 0 No direct blood supply 0 Heals very slowly Bone 0 Rigid matrix hard 0 Calcium found in matrix Constantly being removed and replaced in the matrix 0 Compact Spongy bone spongy is the strongest Blood 0 Liquid matrix only one with it 0 Only connective tissue where the matrix is not produced by the cells foundinit o The liquid in the matrix is picked up from the digestive system 0 Blood cells are produced by bone Matrix O O 0 Space between the cells Produced by the cells found in it Determines the type of connective tissue Muscular Tissue movement Skeletal Muscle cells are packed tightly together 0000 0 Individual cells can have more than one nucleus Voluntary control for movement Striation indicate relative strength of the muscle Cylindrical in shape Are attached to bone 0 Smooth Muscle O O O O OO Lacks striations not as strong as skeletal muscle Single nuclei per cell Spindle shaped ends are tapered thinner than the middle Found in digestive track circulatory system veins and arteries and reproductive system Involuntary control Fatigues slowly hard to wear it out but recovers quickly 0 Cardiac Muscle 0000 0 Single nucleus per cell Branched structure Deep striations really strong strongest muscle type Nonfatiguing Found only in the heart 0 Covers all 3 muscle types 0 O O O O O 0 Function movement Can either contract or relax Can39t lengthen In order to contract they require calcium from bone and an electrical stimulation from the brain Nervous Tissue Overall function is communication with other body parts Communication through electrical impulses 2 types of nervous tissue 0 Neurons O O O O O O can generate and transmit an electrical impulse each one is connected to many other neurons Has a cell body that contains the nucleus and other organelles Processes extensions from the cell body 2 types axons and dendrites Involved in electrical transmissions between neurons lmpulses travel down the axon of one neuron and to the dendrites of adjacent neurons o Neuroglia Cells 0 000000 Support neurons Don t transmit electrical impulse Provide scalping physical support for neurons Bring in nutrients Remove waste products Protect neurons from damage Are more numerous than neurons 0 Internal Membranes Serosa O 0 Associated with internal cavities Internal cavities are lined with Serosa All produce uids not blood 4 types of Serosa Pleural Cavity has a serosa that linescovers the lungs Pericardium has a serosa that surrounds the heart Peritoneum found in the abdominal pelvic cavity surrounds the intestinal track 0 All serosa produce uids to limit friction Meninges found in the dorsal cavity surrounds the brain and the spinal cord 0 Does not produce a uid only ones that don39t 0 Designed to retain uid Fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord is produced by the brain
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