PSY Notes for FALL2015
PSY Notes for FALL2015 PSY 100
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This 45 page Bundle was uploaded by Aldila Sutjiadi on Tuesday January 26, 2016. The Bundle belongs to PSY 100 at University of Kentucky taught by Jonathan Golding in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 53 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Kentucky.
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Date Created: 01/26/16
Wednesday Sept 2 2 Correlation Method 0 Investigate relationship between two variables to determine whether they occur together or not in a systematic way 0 Correlation coefficient is calculated value between 1 and 1 correlational coefficient Correlation does not equal causality Example A positive correlation between success in college and eating chocolate chip cookie dough ice cream does not mean eating this ice cream will cause you to do well in college 0 Could be other way around or some other factor may be involved 3 The Experimental Method Establish cause and effect Manipulate independent variable to see the effect on the Dependent variable Example Hypothesis watching TV when studying lowers test grades 0 INDEPENDENT VARIABLE vary it independently of other factors variable that we are going to manipulate or change 0 IV is watching TV or Not experimental groupwatching tv vs control groupnot watching tv 0 Random assignment into groups DEPENDENT VARIABLE varies depending on what occurs during experiment 0 DV is exam score What do your result mean Watch TV 768 No TV 905 supported the hypothesis but we need to go beyond the data Evaluate of ideas based on probability 0 No statement of certainty it s all probability 0 What is the probability that I got this result by chance 0 BEST to have a result where the probability of getting a result by chance is less then 5 in 100 p lt 05 o In other words you are at last 95 certain that your result is NOT due to chance Problems in psychological data collection 0 Ethical consideration in conducting research shock deprivation aggression Practical considerations in conducting research 0 Length of time to conduct study may be too long 0 Amount of money required may be too much eg buying equipment 0 Too many participants may be needed Friday September 4th Physiological Aspects of Psychology 0 Question 0 What are the internal mechanisms and structures that determine how any given behavioral sequences operates o Nemo short term memory loss Why she had this problem 0 Connection between psychology and physiology 0 How do we know so much about the physiologypsychology relationship 0 RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH Neurons 0 Estimated to be over 100 million neurons in the human nervous system 0 An individual cell is called a neuron 0 Multiple neurons serving a single function is called a nerve Neurons consist of three parts 1 Cell body somametabolism occurs here 2 Dendrites many short bers from soma that receive activity from adjacent cells receive 3 Axon single ber extending away from soma that transmit activity to other neurons muscles or glands away a May be 23 feet long b Glial cells form a myelin sheath around axon protective coat that helps speed neuron impulse i Hardening of myelin sheath leads to less ability to transmit nerve impulse multiple sclerosis Transmission of Neural lmpulses Synapse junction between neurons slight physical separation they never touch one another 0 Example in class actvity IV grab shoulder or ankle DV time Shoulder is faster We can t do the experiment only one time because of chance Answer shoulder should have been faster because of the distance between shoulder to neurons shorter transmission distance Electrochemical process How does electrochemical process start OR How do neurons communicate Neurons communicate via chemical messengers called neurotransmitters that are stored in synaptic vesicles 0 The neurotransmitters cross from one neuron to another at receptor sites to excite and inhibit one to the other Example of Neurotransmitters and their function Acetylcholine ACh enables muscle action learning and memory 0 Fewer neurons that produce Ach in Alzheimer s patients Serotonin affects mood hunger sleep and arousal 0 Low levels tied to depression Prozac and other drugs raise serotonin levels Wednesday September 9th The effect of drugs on neurotransmitter activity Antagonist a drug that binds to a cell and blocks an action from occurring Example curare blocks receptor sites for the muscles including the heart Agonist a drug that binds to a cell and triggers a response by the cell Example some opiate drugs eg morphine produce a temporary high by amplifying normal sensations of pleasure Organization of the Nervous System 0 Central Nervous System 0 Brain Spinal Cord simple re exes The Brain 0 3 Layers of the Brain 1 Brainstem a Medulla breathing heartbeat b Reticular formation helps to control arousal i Researchers in 1949 found that if you electrically stimulate the RF in a sleeping cat the cat almost immediately becomes awake and alert IV stimulating RF vs another part of brain DV Whether the cat wakes up c Thalamus sensory relay station on way to cortex i Receive sensory into from all senses except smell d Cerebellum processing sensory input motor coordination balance 2 Limbic System ring of structures around brain stem a Amygdala linked to emotion aggression and fear and conscious memories b Hippocampus helps in forming memories c Hypothalamus control of temperature metabolism endocrine balance and linked to emotion and reward including pleasure i When rats allowed to control stimulation of hypothalamus by pressing pedal they would press the pedal up to 7000 times an hour until they dropped from exhaustion 3 Cerebral Cortex outer layer of right and left hemispheres a What we think about when we typically talk about the brain Functions of the Cortex Sensory Functions 0 Includes receiving sensory information and dispatching motor control signlas 0 Motor Functions 0 The right hemisphere controls the left part of the body and the left hemisphere controls the right part of the body 0 Association Areas 34 of cortex 0 Involved in quothigher mental functioningquot such as learning remembering thinking speaking and integrating information Mapping the Cortex Each hemisphere includes several large parts called lobes eg vision occipital lobe at back of brain 0 The cortex is discussed with regard to 4 lobes o Frontal Parietal Occipital Temporal Example Frontal lobe modi es emotions to generally t socially acceptable norms as well as planning reasoning memory 0 Damage to frontal lobes can lead to a person who shows no impulse control 0 Case of Phineas Gage Example of other more de ned areas of cortex Broca s Area damage to this area leads to lose of speech production but speech comprehension not affected Groot Guardians of the Galaxy Language Wernicke s Area damage to this area leads to loss of speech comprehension but speech production not affected Both of those are in the left hemisphere Friday September 1 1th One brain or two brains 0 Besides controlling different halves of the body the functions of each hemisphere are different cerebral ateraization In a typical righthanded person 0 Right hemisphere spatial orientation face recognition music visual imagery 0 Left hemisphere language math logic 0 The hemisphere are connected by bers called the corpus callosum Split Brain Patients cut corpus callosum in cases of severe epilepsy 0 Picture cup projection the left hemisphere the person is asked quotwhat do you seequot and he said quotI see a cupquot 0 Picture of a spoon is projected to the right hemisphere the person is asked quotwhat do you seequot And he said quotI see nothingquot He can t come up with a word Then the person is told to feel the object with his left hand to guess the gesture of the object Peripheral Nervous System 0 Interfaces the central nervous system and the environment 1 Somatic System a Deals with voluntary actions Carries messages to and from sense receptors muscles and body surface 2 Autonomic System a Deals with involuntary actions Carries messages to internal organs from central nervous system Automatic System Examined Further Two divisions o 1 Parasympathetic Division 0 Conserve and protect bodily resources Ex stimulates digestion pupil constriction lower heart rate 0 2 Sympathetic Division quotFight or Flightquot 0 Prepares body in cases of emotional excitement Ex inhibit digestion dilate pupil increase heart rate sweating increases respiration Using the sympathetic division to test for lying A polygraph or lie 0 detector test Measures amount of sweat on ngertips galvanometer more sweat means skin can conduct more electricity heart rate breathing rate pneumographs blood pressure Monday September 14th How people use lie detector give rst question Basic neutral questions eg name to nd base line heart rate sweating rate sweat rate Then they hit you with hard question where you might lie see if you are being truthful or not How to beat lie detector put thumb tacks in your toe so when you answer the basic questions you will set high physiology rate then when you lie it will be in the same physiology rate The Endocrine System 1 Complements and often works with autonomic nervous system a Carries out longterm regulation of basic body functions and helps deal with stress 2 Secretes hormones chemicals directly into bloodstream to act on body Examples Pancreas regulates level of sugar in blood Adrenals adrenaline energy Ovaries and Testes sex drive development Thyroid metabolism bone growth body heat production Sensation and Perception Fact As we live our lives many stimuli bombard our bodies 0 Fact In a silent inner world of utter darkness oats your brain To represent the world physical energy is detected by receptor cells in one of the sense organs and transformed into neutral energy transduction and sensory experience 0 This is called Sensation The selection organization and interpretation of these sensation is called Perception Size Constancy Example of two pictures We sense him but we perceive him to be the wrong side in the picture on the right We perceive things based on our knowledge Sensation For sensation to occur there must be a minimum amount of physical energy eg pounds degrees decibels o This is called a threshold 0 However just because the physical energy is present does it mean that we will actually sense the energy o Sensation at a psychological level The study of how physical energy relates to psychological experience is called psychophysics Absolute threshold 0 Minimum physical energy to activate a given sensory system 50 of the time 0 Not an all or none value 0 Response Bias favor responding in a certain way due to quotnoisequotany extractions sensory form expectations formed by experience reward amp punishment 0 Example radar operator The senses 91615 oz Vision the eye gt Responds to visible spectrum Light is really electromagnetic energy light waves that our visual system experiences and our brain processes into what you see gt How does our eyes transfer light energy into neural messages Cornea transparent light enter Pupil opening in muscular iris colored muscle regulating amount of light getting in Lens focuses light on to retina Focuses light rays by changing its curvature o Called accommodation Retina has photoreceptor cells that absorb light and are connected to nerve cells leading to the brain 0 Light energy triggers chemical changes that spark neural signals Receptors in the eye o Rods 120 million mostly in periphery of eye which allow us to see light and dark gt Work best in low levels of illumination 9 Cones 8 million mostly in center of eye which allows us to see light and dark and color gt Work best in high levels of illumination o Fovea small region at center of retina with no rods and sharpest image Visual pathways from the eyes to the brain takes multiple steps o Retina gt bipolar cells gt ganglion cells gt optic nerve gt thalamus gt cortex of brain Optic chiasm where bers cross over in brain 0 Blind spot where optic nerve leaves the eye no receptors there Seeing color Depends on wavelength of light brain processes information contained in light Hue essential color eg red green 0 Color blindness 10 of men 1 of women Trichromat normal can see all colors Dichromat lack one receptor red or green 9 Monochromat only lightdark receptors 0 O O 0 oz Other senses gt Hearing gt Chemical senses taste smell about 10000 taste buds lose as you get older gt Body senses vestibular kinesthetic Vestibular body orientation with respect to gravity movement of body as a whole equilibrium Kinesthetic muscle tendon and joint senses position and movement of body parts gt Skin cutaneous Perception gt Process through which people understand what is the meaning behind the sensory information How is it that you understand that I am smaller than the screen on the stage OR that if you are sitting in back or room that I really do havelegs gt Perception is active process To hear something we turn our head To determine the shape of something we manipulate it in our hands If there are gaps in sensory information available the brain lls them in 0 Example of cube with dots Without perception the world would be a booming buzzing confusion Perception and magic video Marco Tempest misperception of information gt Important aspects of perception 1 The perception of depth 0 Depth perception is partly innate Research on visual cliff example 0 But it also develops with experience Allows you to judge distance Binocular cues eyes see different views binocular disparity 1 Some depth perception requires both eyes 2 The brain compares the images from your 2 eyes 3 The more distinct 2 images are from objects the further away the objects Monocular cues to depth perception one eye 1 Linear perspective ex Railroad tracks gt As tracks get more distant they appear to converge 2 Texture gradients gt Closer objects seem more rough or seem to have a detailed texture 3 lnterposition superposition gt One object interrupts another close blocks far away 2 Perceptual organization 0 How do we organize and interpret sensations so that they become meaningful perceptions 0 Form perception 0 Region segregation nding the edges to determine speci c forms gt It helps that we have cells which detect edges 0 Impacted by quot gure groundquot gt Objects stand out against a background gt Unclear picture not enough cues to determine the image Wednesday September 23ml 0 Reversible gures contour clear but it is unclear what is gure and what is ground Ex images in the lecture Form perception and grouping o Gestalt viewpoint tendency to organize pieces of information into meaningful wholes Example Most people said 3 sets of line one the rst image Gestalt quotLawsquot Proximity nearest elements Ex People said triangles and circles Similarity similar elements Common fate elements moving in the same direction or at same rate Ex birds Closure see incomplete gures as complete Perception can be affected by many factors gt Motivation 0 When hungry an ambiguous picture is perceived as related to food gt Expectations 0 Ex quotParis In The The Springquot She said what she expect it 0 Ex MAC with other words 0 Ex Unscramble the letters to make a word How you perceive the words quotpea examplequot gt Context 0 Ex Perceiving someone as tall vs short eg someone in our class vs someone on the basketball team 0 Perceiving music as loud or soft o Depends on the surrounding Perception and Optical lllusions Perceptual hypothesis chosen which is incorrect o Ponzo illusion top seems further away and thus longer MuellerLyer illusion Outside arrows make shaft seem further away and thuslonger Chapter 7 Development 0 Matilda When I grow up 0 2 pieces 0 Question Is there any common pattern in the progression that marks the developmental history of each human life If so what is it Methods in Developmental Psychology 0 Same as discussed before AND 1 Crosssectional different ages 2 Longitudinal same person across time 3 Biographical reconstruct past through interviews and investigating the effect of past events on a person s current behavior Prenatal Development 0 Conception 0 Fertilized egg to embryo first 8 weeks to fetus 9 weeks birth 0 Importance of growth of neural connections 0 Problem if teratogens toxic substances from the environment ex alcohol drugs impact the developing body At this point we need to discuss whether development is the result of genetics or experience 0 The naturenurture debate Genetics In uences on Thinking and Behavior 0 Chromosomes double strands of DNA in nucleus of cells that contain genes 0 Genes segments of DNA that contain blueprint and timetables for our development 0 Affect physical and psychological characteristics 0 But many argue that heredity sets an upper limit and learning ie experience affects how closely are limits approached 0 Example I Height heredity sets limit but eating nutrition affects development Newborn Incorrect to think that newborns only eat sleep cry and go to the bathroom 0 They sense the world around them and understand things that are said and done to them 0 Imitate adults In addition we are born with a number of useful re exes 0 Rooting re ex for finger that touches cheek I Grasping re ex 0 Stepping re ex 0 Sucking re ex Infant Sensation amp Perceptual Development 0 Example Vision 0 At rst things look fuzzy to an infant 0 Visual activity develops rapidly so that by 68 months they can see as well as the average college student 0 Infant can see some color even in the first wee of life but they are more interested in contrasts initially e g black amp white contrasts Physical development I In the first year of life a child will grow 10 inches in height and gain 15 pounds 0 Development will show down until adolescence I Body grows differentially 0 Head grows must rapidly at first 0 Why Nervous system developing The physical development of a child follows a regular course known as maturation I An orderly progression with some events occurring before others e g locomotion I Example Order is always the same for everyone I Video Maturation of Motor Skills progression Cognitive Development thinking understanding the world around you I Cognition all of the mental activities associated with thinking knowing remembering and communicating I With regard to development a child s mind is not a miniature model of an adult s mind I Children reason differently than adults I Maturing brain builds schemas 0 Concepts e g cats dogs love into which we pour our experiences and which allow us to understand the world I We use and adapt our schemas based on I Assimilation interpret new experiences in terms of old schemas 0 child has a schema for cow and then calls all 41egged animals cows I Accommodation adjust schema to deal with new experience 0 Come up with new schema for horse Jean Piaget Stage Approach to Cognitive Development 0 Qualitative differences at different stages not just different amounts of intellect 0 Interchange between organism and environment 0 Child understand the world while interacting with it Stages in cognitive development I Stage consistentdon t jump and discrete each stages is unique different each stages I Each new stage involves new schemasconcepts basic units of knowledge that allows a child to interpret concepts and events I Mental growth reliance on appearance to reliance on rules as you get older you know more about the rules in the world 4 Stages of Cognitive Development 1 Sensorimotor birth to 2 years old a At birth sensory impressions and motor reactions No past nor future baby thinks about now No distinction between stable objects and eeting events Only starting to develop object performance image in head representation Example Kids don t understand object performance don t understand the object is still there 2 Preoperational 2 to 7 years old a Child learns to use language b Centrism cannot take Viewpoint of others eg what is someone else seeing c Not yet developed conservation i Cannot take into account more than one perceptual factor at a time ii Example water containers Height amp volume 3 Concrete operations 7 to 11 years old a Achieve conservation mentally transform and mentally reverse sequence i can take into account 2 perceptual factors ii WaterCoins iii Example Video show two same glass with water then pour one glass into slimmer glass that make the water looks taller iv As we get older we can understand the height and volume v First girl only know if the water is taller that means the glass has more water the second girl understand that both water are still the same vi Coins example the girl is still in preoperational stage thinks wider 9999 means more coins 4 Formal operations 11 years old and up a Reasoning apart from concrete situation b Reality seen as one aspect of what might be hypotheses formulated c Example As we get older we think more about the world Social Development dealing with other people I Question How do individuals develop in their relations to other people Social development begins with the first human bond that of the infant s attachment to the person who takes care of himher I Is it sometimes said that attachment lays the foundation for all later relationships with others If there is no attachment due to separation distress may result Research by Harry Harlow I Monkeys separated from their mothers exhibited more of the following than monkeys not separated from their mothers abnormal behavior 1 Huddled in corner 2 Rocked back and forth 3 Bit themselves 4 Would not interact with others 5 Incompetent in sexual matters Origins of attachment 1 Original view of attachment was that it served an adaptive function Parents fulfilled physical needs such as eating and drinking 2 Harlow also showed that love of mother goes beyond bodily needs caregivers give more than just food In experiments he showed that monkeys prefer the security and a safe base from which to explore even though no food 0 contact comfort 0 Wire mother has food 0 Cloth mother has no food but is soft 0 1718 hours a day on the cloth mother only 1 hour on wire mother for food Childhood socialization Process by which a child acquires patterns of thought and behavior that are characteristic of the society in which heshe is born learn what is rightwrong from people around them An important aspect of socialization morality Morality system of beliefs values and underlying judgements about the rightness or wrongness of acts 0 Examples 1 Finding money 2 Helping someone in need 3 Not cheating 4 Primetime couple fighting video 0 Different views on moral development Adolescence Transition period child to adult 0 Approximately ages 1319 Initiation rites in some societies 0 Circumcision 0 Bar mitzvah A Biological changes Physical growth spurt and attainment of sexual maturity Body proportions change hair on body males get deeper voice Puberty condition of being able to reproduce for first time 0 Boys ejaculate for first time and girls begin to menstruate B Psychological changes Breakfast Club movie 1 Maturing of sex attitudes 2 Ambivalence and stress 3 identity crisis Erikson 0 Who are you and who will be your friends cliques 4 Thought no longer dependent on direct experience 5 Become person on one39s own a Committing to basic beliefs 6 Deciding on a preferred social and vocational role 7 Formal thought a can formulate general rules about the world and test them against available facts Adulthood 0 More older citizen A Biological changes 0 Aging is silent 0 Muscle tone loss 0 Vision get worse 0 Decrease in efficiency of heart and lungs B Psychological changes 0 Erikson Intimacy vs Isolation concern for others partner or yourself 0 Marriage prototype of successful resolution of search for intimacy 39 90 of American eventually marry But in US close to onehalf of marriages end in divorce 0 Death and dying 0 Life Review 0 Integrity vs Despair living a meaningful life One view of Social Development Psychosocial development Erik Erikson 0 All humans pass through a series of major crises as they go through the life cycle 0 At each stage there is a critical confrontation between the self and the various demands posed by hisher social and personal setting 0 There are 8 crisis or stages 0 8 stages are going in order and each stage is discrete or unique First stage at infancy Trust vs Mistrust Fifth stage at adolescence Identity vs Role confusion Sixth stage at young adulthood Intimacy vs Isolation Last stage Late adulthood Integrity vs despair Motivation 0 127 hours Aron Ralston He gets out by cutting his hand De nition Need or desire that energizes and directs behavior Two types of motivation o Intrinsic engage in activity for its own sake Extrinsic engage in activity to achieve an external consequences eg a reward Why are we motivated to do certain things Various theories l Instincts as motivators 1 Preprogrammed tendencies that are essential for survival of species 2 Certain behaviors appear at certain points for every member and are not altered by experience eg imprinting about bird 3 Criticism of instincts 0 Not explanations only names 0 Too much emphasis on innateness 0 Human behavior is directed by both physiological needs and psychological wants ll Drive reduction Theory 1 Drives are motivational aroused states that result from physiological needs a We are driven to reduce those needs ie reduce tension and maintain a balanced physiological state homeostasis b Example hunger drive 2 Hunger increases so too does drive to eat a Problem b Human behavior not always motivated by physiological drives to reduce needs c Eg why do we eat d Animal House cafeteria video example 3 Hierarchy of Needs Pyramid of human needs 0 Griggs book Base physiological needs Safety needs need to feel safe and secure Psychological needs eg selfesteem achievement Self Actualization live up to one s potential ful llment 0000 4 Arousal Theory 0 People are motivated to maintain a level of arousal optimal for their functioning 0 Example 0 Some individuals act to increase arousal by riding a roller coaster 0 Kevin Hart amp Fallon Roller Coaster video 5 Incentive Theory 0 People are motivated to attain desirable stimuli and avoid unwanted stimuli 0 Example buying a lottery ticket 0 Winning lottery video Example of Speci c Motives Hunger Critical role of physiological needs with regard to motivation o HUNGER RESPONDS TO A NEED That need is maintaining appropriate nutrients supplies in the body 0 However this is often last reason why we eat Q What would you do to eat when starving Movie Alive Internal signals include o Stomach contractions occur when we are hungry o Glucose form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides major source of energy for body tissues The level of glucose is noted by your liver which monitors whether glucose has been deposited or note Signaling your brain 0 The signals from your liver go to the hypothalamus lf lateral hypothalamus stimulated start feeding lf ventromedial hypothalamus stimulated stop feeding External signals 0 Expected mealtime o Sight of food 0 Smell of food 0 Stress o Boredom Eating too much 0 Can lead to being overweight Excess amount of body weight that includes muscle bone fat and water 0 Can lead to obesity severely overweight Excess amount of body fat I Most health care providers agree that men with more than 25 body fat and women with more than 30 body fat are obese Body Mass Index BMI o 25 299 overweight 0 Over 30 obese Obesity is dangerous 0 Physiologically Higher incidence of diabetes high blood pressure heart disease 0 Psychologically Affects how others treat you Stereotype of obese as slow lazy sloppy ridicule and job discrimination affects how you feel about yourself Billions of dollars are spent on diets drugs and exercise routines to reduce weight 0 Most diets are not successful and those who do lose weight often regain the weight 0 Keep in mind that when you diet as an adult fat cells shrink but never disappear This is because fat cells do not multiply after puberty they simply get bigger or smaller What are the major causes of weight gain 0 Calorie intake obese people tend to overeat when they break a diet eat highfat foods eat more when emotionally aroused are more responsive to external hunger signals 0 Expend too few calories low metabolic rate often due to dieting and high proportion of fat Not enough exercise Too much TV watching 0 Selfperpetuation of weight gain When you gain weight your metabolism and energy expenditures change in a way so as to keep your excess weight at its quotset pointquot 0 Genetics 0 Modeling parents eating habits Treating obesity 0 Establish selfcontrol over eating habits Example reward for not eating 0 Exercise 0 Proper Diet Change foods you eat 0 Social support Eating Disorder Sexual Behavior Sex is not vital to survival of individual organism but it is vital to survival of species quotyou may feel like dying without sex but you will notquot Ex Big Bang Theory 2 video Human Sexual Response It does depend on internal physiological factors However unlike most other animals eg female dogs only mate when they are in quotheatquot where physiology matters MOST in humans sex depends a large amount on psychological factors norms experience attitudes Despite openness in our society about sex many are poorly informed about sex and reproduction Sexual response and physiological arousal Motivational state of excitement and tension brought about by physiological reactions and cognitive reactions based on experience to erotic stimuli 0 Can be external stimulus eg picture or internal eg imagining This state is usually reduced by sexual activities that are satisfying eg orgasm Sexual Response Cycle Started by hormones going into the bloodstream Stages of Sexual Response Cycle 1 Excitement a Physiological arousal eg heart rate increases and blood ow to genitals 2 Plateau peak of arousal 3 Orgasm waves of muscular contractions sweep over body and feelings of intense pleasure 4 Resolution body returns to normal state a refractory period no sexual arousal much longer in males Studying sexual behavior Why study 0 Better understand sexual behavior and use this knowledge to help those who have sexual disorders How is it studied 0 Observation Masters amp Johnson 0 Surveys Positive We need to understand sexual behavior educated young people Negative Response bias only certain people answer the survey people may lie Premarital Sex More accepted than in past for females as well as men 0 Majority of Americans have had sexual intercourse before marriage Statistics 0 O O 0 high schoolers having sexual intercourse 47 Use condom last sexual intercourse 60 did not use any contraception in the last sexual intercourse 13 drunker use drug before their sexual intercourse 22 have sexual intercourse before age 13 6 Personality De nition An individual39s characteristic pattern of thinking feeling and acting Theo es 1 Type Distinct no overlap pattern of personality characteristics assigned to categories a Sheldon somatotypes body types Endomorph short plump sociable relaxed and even tempered Ectomorph tall thin restrained selfconscious fond of solitude Mesomorph heavyset muscular noisy callous fond of physical activity ex Arnold Schwarzenegger b Eysenck lntrovert vs extrovert Type A vs Type B 0 Type A aggressive when frustrated impatient controlling more likely to suffer heart attack 0 Type B easygoing 2 Trait Theories Traits characteristic patterns of behavior or conscious motives 0 Assume that most traits exist in all people to some degree and that we can measure the degree to which a trait exists in a person Thousands of words describe traits o Narcissistic care about yourself beyond limit honest happy affectionate mean obsessive 0 Beauty amp the Beast video 0 How we describe Belle s personality Adventure happy nice person 0 Gaston s personality Narcissistic conceited manly bully Research has shown that various traits tend to cluster or appear together in various dimensions 5Factor Model of Personality o Neuroticism tendency to experience negative affect emotion o Extraversion o Openness o Conscientiousness o Agreeableness Criticism of both Type and Trait Theories 1 Identify but don t explain how behavior is caused how things occur 2 People are not always consistent in different situations eg punctuality on regular lecture days vs exam days 3 Traits may emerge more in familiar situations a When eating dinner at your parents you might be talkative but when eating at your girlfriend sboyfriend s house for the rst time you might be quite 4 No conception of development 0 Still types and traits give us a way to describe individual differences in behavior and types and traits can be regarded as predispositions to respond in similar situations 3 Psychodynamic Sigmund Freud Who was Freud 0 Vienna Austria physician 0 Interested in treatment of nervous disorders eg hysterical blindness o Freud felt that personality arises from our efforts to deal with a con ict between impulse and restraint 0 That is a con ict between our aggressive pleasure seeking biological urges and our internalized social control over their urges To understand the mind s dynamics during this con ict Freud proposed 3 interacting systems 0 Id pleasure o Unconscious unaware below the surface in the ice berg o Operates on the pleasure principle of seeking immediate satisfaction of basic sexual and aggressive drives Does not care about external considerations society s rules or rights of others 0 Ice berg model above the surface conscious mind below the surface unconscious mind 0 Other parts of personality include Ego self above the surface in the ice berg o Operates on reality principle by mediating impulsive demands of id restraining demands of superego and real life demands on external world Tries to gratify id s impulses in a realistic way that will bring longterm pleasure 0 Superego o Represents values and morals How we ought to behave 0 Strives for perfection Produces positive feelings of pride an negative feelings of guilt o A person with a strong superego may be virtuous showing high morals but guiltridden Example of 3 parts working together 0 Mr X sexually attracted to Ms T Id 0 Mr X does not feel he should have sex Superego 0 Mr X joins a club that Ms Y is in so he can be close to her Ego Important to prevent unconscious con icts among the id ego and superego from becoming conscious and leading to anxiety 0 This is achieved by the ego using defense mechanisms to reduce anxiety Some examples are 0 Denial refusal to acknowledge a painful or threatening reality 0 Regression reverting to a childlike behavior eg temper tantrums Read Kolhber Moral Development Personality Development Freud believed that personality is affected by how a child deals with changes in the focus of the id on different parts of the body that lead to pleasure erogenous zones as the child gets older 0 felt that personality formed during life s rst few years Psychosexual DevelopmentStages 1 Oral mouth region 018 months old 2 Anal elimination then retention 18 months to 3 years old a coping with demands for control 3 Phallic pleasure zone is the genitals coping with sexual love toward opposite sex parent 36 years old Freud is talking about little boys a The Oedipus Complex with male children i Family triangle love jealously and fear which is at the root of internalized morality and out of which grows the child s identi cation with the parent of the same sex Oedipus Complex 1 U39lhUUN The child seeks external object for his erotic urges since masturbation is viewed as bad This external object is MOM Problem DAD is in the way Fear of dad castrating him Throws in the towed renounces Mom and identi es with Dad 4 Latency exploring environment and developing skills 6 years old to puberty a No interest in opposite sexdormant sexual feelings 5 Genital sexual puberty a Maturation of sexual interests Fixation at a stage can affect personality later in life unresolved con icts 0 Example 0 Anal xation problems during toilet training can lead to a stubborn compulsive stingy person person who doesn39t want to let go Criticism of Psychodynamic Theory 1 Based only on what he observed with emotionally disturbed adult patients even though it was concerned with developmental 2 Constructs are ambiguousnot clear dif cult to de ne and test 3 Offers afterthefact explanations of behavior not predictive 4 Sexual con icts from childhood are not the only cause of personality But there are positive aspects to his thinking 0 Emphasis on internal con ict 0 Discussion of sex led to the scienti c study of sexuality 0 Scope of theoretical contribution o Unconscious Symptoms of various disorders Personality Family Development Memory Dreams Language Freudian Slips Humanistic Abraham Maslow studied healthy people 0 His theory emphasizes the fundamental goodness of people and their striving toward high levels of functioning and ful llment adapt learn grow and excel o Concern with person s perception of himselfherself in the present no emphasis on childhood 0 Do not like the idea of personality being pushed around by internal instincts Freud Self actualization 0 lnnate push toward growth with all parts of personality working in harmony Look at the triangle needs in motivation Criticisms of Humanistic Theory 0 Concepts are fuzzy unclear about nature of concepts Neglect of environmental variables Neglect of person s past Inability to predict behavior Little to say about individual differences Personality Assessment Techniques 1 Objective Personality Tests a Use a restricted response format i Scale ratings ii TrueFalse response b Example i Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory MMPI ii 567 TF questions iii Example I have wanted to leave home I cannot keep my mind on task I cough a lot c Assesses a number of psychiatric patterns simultaneously i Certain distinct patterns of responding for different types of mental disorders d 3 validity scales and 10 clinical scales i PD psychopathic deviate lack of adjustment to society ii Sc schizophrenia e Charles Manson MMPI example 2 Problem a Person can misrepresent themselves i To check for above questions asked that would require subjects to probably lie I have never gossiped ii For test to be valid must have accurate answers Behavior observation Interviews conversations with a purpose Projective unstructured measures 0 Person projects describes ambiguous picture or pattern personality comes out as you describe what it is you see A TAT a Scoring 0 Does person identify with hero or victim of story they produce 0 Look for certain themes ex Failure B Rorschach test a lnkblots b Scoring i Location contents determinations color shading ii Using whole inkblot indicates integrative thinking iii Using color indicates emotionality and impulsiveness iv Describing movement indicates imagination and rich inneere Criticism of personality assessment 0 Low predictive values 10915 Assessing individual differences 0 Question how do we differ in our ability to learn and behave adaptively 0 Answer investigate individual differences 0 Interest in individual differences is relatively recent 0 The study of individual differences makes little sense in a society in which each person39s adult role is determined by the social circumstances of hisher birth Born to a soldier you ll be a soldier Born to a farmer you39ll be a farmer If your mother was a homemaker you ll be a homemaker 0 Our society however ls more complex and industrialized Many more socioeconomic roles and some mobility across them We therefore try to nd a means however imperfect for selecting the proper person to occupy the proper role 0 Mental tests were meant to supply this means measure individual differences can raise questions Psychological assessment use of specialized testing procedures to evaluate abilities behaviors and personal qualities of people imperfect Basic features ReHabH y 0 Ability of test to produce consistent and stable results 0 Do different parts of the same test produce the same results internal consistency 0 De repeated administrations of the test produce the same results testretest reliability Validity o How well does the test measure what it is supposed to measure Either about a theoretical construct or about future performance Standardization o The test should be administered to all people in the same way under the same conditions ACT test 0 This leads to Norms Statistical standards used for comparison comp score Bellshaped normal curve normal distribution of scores for standardized test 0 Example of assessing individual differences Intelligence 0 What is intelligence Forest Gump movie The capacity to learn from experience solve problems use knowledge to adapt to new situations Allows us to learn and behave adaptively Allows humans to gain dominance over more powerful and numerous animals zoos Just because your intelligent doesn39t mean you will achieve everything Forest Gump isn39t intelligent o Theories of intelligence Spearman39s G Factor 0 G general intelligence ability to reason and solve problems 0 S speci c intelligence taskspeci c abilities such as ability in music Some researchers have argued that this G vs S view of intelligence is oversimpli ed so Sternberg39s Triarchic Theory 0 3 kinds of intelligence 1 Analytical ability to break down problems into component parts for analysis quotbook smartsquot 2 Creative ability to deal with new and different concepts and come up with new ways of solving problems 3 Practical ability to use info to get along in life and become successful quotstreet smartsquot History of intelligence testing 0 Binet and Simon 1905 Hired by French government to detect children who couldn39t bene t from regular school Come up with test to distinguish these children test primarily verbal ability Expectations of each age to complete different verbal tasks 3 year old 7 year old 15 year old Believed intelligence increased with age as you age you can answer more dif cult questions Assigned a Mental Age score absolute level of cognitive capacity for a given age Chronological age CA a person39s actual age in years 0 Mental age MA age at which you can answer questions for if a 3 year old can answer 7 year old questions mental age 7 0 Those children needing remedial help were those whose MA was 2 years behind their chronological age 0 Terman 1916 Revised Binet39s test StanfordBinet test 0 Created standardized test administration and agelevel norms Used notion of IQ score intelligence IQ MACA x 100 IQ 100 is average 0 Compare a score against kids of same age 0 Today most tests of intelligence are descendants of Binet amp Simon39s or Terman39s test Like the originals they are designed to provide as much information as possible in a relatively short time They consist of short problems or questions that are easily scored 0 Adult intelligence 0 The original tests were used mostly with children but it is important to assess adult intelligence 0 This led David Wechsler to construct an intelligence test for adults that includes both verbal and performance subtests Stability of intelligence over age Drury 2004 found a high positive correlation for individuals tested and then retested after 70 years Ex performance test need more thinking not like verbal questions Intelligence and Aging 0 Although our overall intelligence is pretty stable as we get older the type of intelligence we have does change 0 Crystallized intelligence our accumulated knowledge and verbal skills tend to increase with age 0 Fluid intelligence our ability to quickly reason and abstractly eg logic problems tends to decrease in late adulthood Nature nurture and intelligence Nature what you born withsomething innate Nurture environment or experience Intelligencetest performance one of the major foci of the naturenurture debate 0 Clearly intelligence testing is a eld in which the concerns of the scientist impinge on the practical world 0 Since testing began the view that intelligence was due to genetics received strong support 0 In fact in the early 190039s some immigrants were kept out of the US because low IQ scores seemed to indicate that some groups were intellectually weaker as a result of heredity Genetics amp Intelligence Genetic matters 0 How can we nd out whether differences in human intelligence WITHIN a group have a genetic basis within group my family your familynot looking at race 0 Look at correlation between family members for intelligence it should be high It39s generally high 45 0 Look at constancy in IQ over time for an individual It39s generally constant 0 Twin studies Compare identical twins same egg With fraternal twins different eggs If intelligence is primarily due to genetics identical twins should have a higher correlation that fraternal Identical twins reared together correlation is 86 Fraternal twins reared together correlation is 60 o Adopted children studies If heredity is important there should be a higher correlation between child and his natural mother than child and his adoptive mother There is 0 Natural mother and child correlation is 28 Adoptive mother and child correlation is 17 Environmental factors and intelligence 1 Correlation between child and hisher natural mother are not very high 2 Correlation between family members as not as high as we expected 3 Enriched environments eg better education better nutrition greater social interaction lead to higher le than impoverished environments Therefore both heredity amp environment play a role in determining differences in IQ within groups 0 Genes may set intellectual limits for a person in a given environment but even these limits may be changed by changing the environment Chapter 9 Abnormal Psychology People are fascinated by abnormality as it relates to psychological disorders 0 Why 0 It may be partly because we see something of ourselves in the abnormal eg we all get depressed anxious withdrawn antisocial o It may be because many of us have felt bewildered and have felt the pain of a psychological disorder personally or through family orfdends Abnormality Psyc Deviating from what is normal and usual Question Is Michael Phelps the swimmer abnormal Yes he is an amazing athlete not many people have that kind of body However we must be de ning abnormality as it relates to psychological disorders Norm Violation a difference in the degree to which behavior or thinking resembles an agreed upon criteria varies with culture and times also often based on statistics 0 Feeling sad for an extended period of time hallucinating Thus abnormality as it relates to psychological disorders involves behavior Considered atypical Considered disturbing to others Unjusti able not a normal reaction eg laughing at a funeral Maladaptive harmful hopathology The study of mental disorders CLINICAL psychology Different views of madness through history Primitive Cultures demonic possession evil spirits Greeks 400 BC disease natural cause imbalance in body uids Middle Ages 5th 16th century AD spiritual context witches and devils 0 Disturbed people in asylums which were like prisons 1793 a critical turning point 0 Philippe Pinel reformed French hospital system 0 Stated that madness was a sickness in response to severe stress and inhumane conditions Models of Mental Disorders 1 Medical Model mental disorders are diseases that have objective physical causes that can be diagnosed and in most cases cured using speci c treatments 2 Psychological Models mental disorders are attributed to the interaction of 3 factors a Biological anatomy and chemistry of the brain and other physiological processes b Psychological unconscious con icts maladaptive ways of viewing the world and learning c Sociocultural abnormality viewed differently around the world Classifying Mental Disorders DSM 5 2013 classi es but does not attribute cause 0 Helps in describing treating and researching the causes of the disorder 0 Assumes medical model 0 Over 200 disorders and conditions are put into 20 major categories Statistics concerning mental disorders 0 National Institute of Mental Health 2008 0 Mental disorders all types are common in the US 0 An estimated 262 percent of Americans ages 18 and older 1 in 4 adults suffer from a diagnosable mental disorder in a given year 0 For 2008 this would equal about 70 million adults 0 Ex Statistics Data 0 3 highest mental disorder in US Phobia lst Alcohol dependence 2 Mood disorder 3rdDepression 0 Men diagnoses in alcohol dependence much higher than women 0 Mood disorder more common in women than men 0 Antisocial personality is more common in men than women Some types of Mental Disorders 1 Personality Disorder gt Longstanding in exible maladaptive patterns of perceiving thinking or behaving Subtypes of personality Disorder A Narcissistic Personality Disorder 0 Need for constant attention respond inappropriately to criticism grandiose of selfimportance Why 0 Person does not grow out of view that heshe is center of worlds B Antisocial Personality Disorder formerly called a sociopath or psychopath Typically male 0 Violates rights of others violent criminal unethical exploitative Why 0 Research has shown that those with personality disorders may have Emotional deprivation in early childhood Learned from parents Arrested moral development Brain abnormalities lnherited the disorder naturenurture debate 2 Anxiety Disorders gt Primary symptoms anxiety inappropriate to circumstances or defenses that ward off anxiety Subtypes of Anxiety Disorder a Phobias lntense and irrational fear no real danger or exaggerated danger of some object or situation 0 Examples 0 Claustrophobia closed places 0 Agoraphobia open places 0 Charlie Brown and Lucy video b Generalized Anxiety Disorders 0 Not focused like with a phobia free oating o Continually tense and uneasy 0 23 women c ObsessiveCompulsive lasts a longtime 0 Trying to deal with persistent thoughts 0 Example obsessive hand washing don t want to touch the hand door d Panic Disorder shortterm each attack lasts a short time Sudden unpredictable feeling of intense fear or terror e Posttraumatic Stress disorder PTSD Anxiety long after an event occurs 0 Example 0 Vietnam War rape Why Anxiety Disorders Psychoanalytic o Unconscious con icts eg fear of parents 0 Behavior that once helped to control anxiety eg washing hands becomes a problem itself Behavioral 0 Associate anxiety and harmful situation 0 Biological o Inherited Observational Learning 0 Observe someone who is anxious in a particular situation and then you become anxious in the same situation 3 Dissociative Disorders gt Some part of memory or personality fragmented from the rest gt Sudden temporary alteration of consciousness Subtypes of Dissociative Disorders a Dissociative amnesia o Selective memory loss brought on by extreme stress b Dissociative Fugue loss of identity c Dissociative Identity Disorder Multiple Personality 0 Ex Sybil Eve Hershel Walker Why Dissociative Disorder Psychoanalytic 0 Block out thoughts typically from childhood that cause anxiety Behavioral o Blocking out of unwanted thoughts is rewarding 4 Depressive Disorder gt Disturbances of mood in which the person is excessively depressed A Depression a Symptoms i Think of oneself as a failure ii quotParalysis of willquot lack of motivation iii Loss of appetite for food and sex iv Don t sleep v General state of weakness and fatigue vi 2 or more weeks of feeling sad Suicide some forms of depression implicated in 4060 of suicides Why Depressive Disorders Psychoanalytic 0 Real or imagined loss of a loved one turns anger against oneself depression Behavioral 0 Lack of reinforcement depression 0 Cognitive O Negative and selfblaming thoughts depression 0 Biological O O Heredity Neurotransmitters 5 Bipolar and related disorders gt Varying episodes of depression loss of interest or pleasure and elation quotManicquot Manic Symptoms Elated and very active emotional state 0 Impulsive Unrealistic optimism High energy 0 Severe agitation Example Silver Lining video no impulse control 6 Psychotic Disorders gt Disorder marked by irrationality with reason or understanding and lost contact with reality gt What is wrong with the person in the video 0 Annick Onset when she was a teenager Howl at the moon hallucinations her talking is not always understood Subtypes of psychosis Schizophrenia Splitmind Out of touch with reality 0 Prevalent 2 of population will have episode during lifetime 0 About half of country s mental health hospital beds are occupied by schizophrenics Symptoms of Schizophrenia O 0000 O Pervasive thought disturbance Fluid thinking Dif culty with selective attention Withdrawal from social contact Delusions misinterpret real events Paranoid some person or group is posing a serious personal threat when there is none Hallucinations no actual stimulus Sometimes bizarre behavior eg catatonic almost like they are dead odd gestures 0 More sensitive to sensory stimuli 0 Why Schizophrenia O 0 Cognitive Inability to keep things in proper focus Biological Viral infection during pregnancy might impair development of fetal brain Heredity Neurotransmitter too much dopamine being transmitted 7 Eating disorders gt Deprive oneself of food or prevent food from being digested gt Most are females A Anorexia nervosa a b c d e f g h i j 1 of all adolescents typical start of anorexia 9095 female Between 520 of individuals struggling with anorexia nervosa will die depends on length of the condition Anorexia nervosa has one of the highest death rates of any mental health condition Typically begins as a weightloss diet i Fanatical dieting selfstarvation lntense interest in food but view eating with disgust Not aware that dieting behavior is abnormal i Feel fat Sometimes excessive exercising Menstruation often affected Weight loss 15 or more below normal weight oz Health Consequences a Selfstarvation i The body is denied the essential nutrients it needs to function normally ii Forced to slow down all of its processes to conserve energy which can have serious medical consequences Example abnormally slow heart rate and low blood pressure risk for heart failure rises as heart rate and blood pressure levels sink lower and lower B Bulimia Nervosa a b Can also be triggered by a weightloss diet Binge on high calorie foods in a short period of time and then purge c Secretive behavior d Aware that behavior is abnormal e Feeling of being out of control during bingeeating episodes f Bulimia nervosa affects 12 of adolescent and young adult women g Approximately 80 of bulimia nervosa patients are female oz Health Consequences o The recurrent bingeandpurge cycles can damage the entire digestive system Example Purging behaviors can lead to electrolyte and chemical imbalances in the body eg loss of potassium and sodium Electrolyte imbalances can lead to irregular heartbeats and possibly heart failure and death Why Eating Disorders 0 Multiple factors including o Psychological eg low selfesteem 0 Social eg Cultural pressures that glorify thinness or muscularity and place value on obtaining the quotperfect bodyquot Treatment of Psychopathology 4 General Steps of Treatment 1 Diagnosis label using DSM5 2 Etiology determine cause 3 Prognosis estimate course of problem with and without treatment 4 Treatment 1 Biomedical Treatment a Prescribed medications or procedures that act directly on a person s physiology i Deal with the body often by changing the brain s functioning b Typically psychiatrist offer biomedical treatment c In the past i Bloodletting ii Dunking in water iii Trephining Today A Drug therapy a AntipsychoticsChlorpromazine eg Thorazine i Block dopamine which has been implicated as a possible cause of schizophrenia b Antianxiety calm and relax i eg Valium and Librium c Antidepressants eg Prozac Zoloft increase norepinephrine and serotonin d Mood stabilizing i Lithium bipolar disorder 0 Problems of drug therapy e Side effects dry mouth blurred vision f Regulating dosage g Drug dependence h Interaction of drugs i Not necessarily a cure B Electroconvulsive Shock Therapy a Originally used with schizophrenics then used with severely depressed individuals b Now used only if drugs are ineffective or person is suicidal c Electrical current put through brain at each side of forehead i Loss of consciousness followed by a convulsive seizure drugs given to minimize muscle contraction ii It s not a one time session treatment average is 6 to 16 sessions d Not clear how it works but may increase norepinephrine which elevates arousal and mood 2 Psychotherapy Use of psychological methods 0 Consists of interactions between a trained therapist and someone seeking to overcome psychological difficulties or achieve personal growth o It involves one or more of the following o Emotional reeducation o Interpersonal learning 0 Having person achieve greater selfknowledge Example 0 Good will hunting He is forcing him to do something that is unusual for the patient 0 Therapists confront their patients You need to do this Types of Psychotherapy A PsychoanalyticPsychodynamic a Problems stem from unconscious defenses pitted against unacceptable urges dating back to childhood b The goal of the therapy i Person must achieve access to his buried thoughts and wishes gain insight and resolve any con ict between the id ego and superego intrapsychic harmony 1 Victory of reason over passion Techniques gt Therapist sits behind patient remaining neutral and mostly silent 1 Free association Say whatever comes to mind It is thought that you are bringing unconscious repressed thoughts into consciousness c These thoughts are interpreted by analyst manifest vs latent content d Example i patient talks about being possessive in a relationship ii Interpreted as due to father abandoning patient as a child iii The manifest content is the actual statement that the patient said iv The latent content is what the therapist interpret the manifest content Interpreting Dreams a Manifest vs latent content horse example b person must not just remember things from the unconscious but must regain access to the feeling that went along with them c this will allow for catharsis emotional release or cathartic expedence d Example i Sadness of being abandoned Transference a Patient responds to analyst in personal terms b Analyst identi ed with a person who has been at the center of an emotional con ict in the person s past c following the example identify the therapist as the father O39QJ Behavior Therapy Behavior Modi cation Importance of unearning stimulusresponse association and learning new SR association Classical Conditioning Techniques a Systematic Desensitization used with phobias 1Learn relaxation technique relax muscles when tense 2Fear hierarchy least to most feared situation The most fearful is ying least fearful seeing an airplane in tv driving to the airport etc until it get to the most fearful 3Desensitization a Imagine each situation while staying relaxed b Fear replaced by relaxation b Implosion ooding o No hierarchy Continuous intense exposure to anxiety provoking situation 0 Example Batman Begins Implosion he is afraid of bats and he is going to the bats cage hen he overcome his fears 0 Example a keep hand washer from washing hands put them in a room without sink b BUT implosion may cause more anxiety c Aversion Therapy 0 Learn negative association a drinking and nausea put a bad chemical in alcohol drinks at their house so whenever they drink they will feel bad and learn about negative association b Phoebe is trying to give rachel negative feeling 0 Positive association replaced with negative association 2 Use of Operant Conditioning Reinforcement o Token economy Reward behavior with token positive reinforcement Punishment 0 timeout is negative punishment Humanistic Therapy Goal is growth in selfawareness and selfacceptance not cure Help client ful ll their potential recognize their freedoms and enhance their selfesteem Must treat person at global level unlike behaviorists Stress the present One type is called ClientCentered Carl Rogers 0 Have client arrive at insights make their own interpretations and take responsibility for their thoughts and actions 0 Re ection of feeling therapist paraphrases what client said to help client understand their emotions 0 Non direct Therapist does not direct client to a speci c topic 0 Therapist shows unconditional positive regard Creates an atmosphere of acceptance and feedback Cognitive Therapy 0 Teaches people new more adaptive ways of thinking 0 Based on assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions 0 Ex if someone failed in the 1st exam and they think they are really bad on this classtaking exam Cognitive therapy help them to change their negative thinking What is the best most effective therapy 0 No de nite answer 0 Behavioristic therapy is very effective with phobia o Leads to many therapists using adopting an ECLECTIC APPROACH o combine several approaches Social Psychology gt 739quot Social psychologists focus on the situation 0 How we think about in uence and relate to one another Social In uence Behavior controlled by the presence and actions of other without regard to underlying attitudes Ex Elevator how people persuaded by other people behavior Everyone s doing it Conformity within a group gt Tendency to do what others are doing simply because they are doing it ie you have no investment in the activity one way or the other Asch Experiment Description 0 Standard line compared to 3 test lines 2 conditions IV order people are giving their answer 0 participant gives answer before 5 confederates they know what s going on in the experiment 0 participant gives answer after 5 confederates give obviously wrong answer Across 12 trials 0 Group A 5 errors at least 1 trial 0 Group B 70 errors at least 1 trial Note People will conform even though they know it s wrong they will follow people in the group WHY Socially desirable be part of group Obedience to authority The tendency to do what authorities tell u to do simply because they tell us to do it o Nazi Germany why were so many killed Milgram experiment Description 0 Each time learner is wrong increase voltage by 15 highest is 450 volts Slight shock 1560 volts all the way to XXX 435450 volts During experiment 0 75 volts loud moan 90 volts cries out in pain 150 volts screams to be let out of experiment 330 volts no response 000 About 23 went to highest shock Video milgram experiment 0 Many of the subjectsteachers protested against the doctor 0 Most of the subjects have nervous laughter WHY 0 Blind obedience Legitimate authority Role relationship Following orders Should be noted that if others seen as disobeying number who continue shocking decreased OOOO Social Thinking how we come to know and evaluate others What do you think about the person next to you 0 How are they dressed groomed facial expression etc o If you didn t know himher what would you say this person is like Making Attributions Explaining the behavior of ourselves and others Was the cause of something due to external situation a person is in or a person s internal disposition eg personal traits Biases in making attributions o Fundamental Attribution Error The tendency when analyzing others behavior to overemphasize the in uence of personal traits Attitudes Feelings often in uenced by our beliefs that predispose us to respond in a certain way to an object idea person group of people or event 0 Like or dislike o For or against Attitudes lnvolve o Cognition quotwe need fuel efficiency to reduce pollutionquot o Emotion quotSUVs make me so madquot 0 Behavior drive hybrid or ride bike Attitudes can precede actions 0 I do not like cigarettes and I will not smoke any Actions can affect attitudes Footinthedoor 0 quotStart small and buildquot Changing attitudes o Attitude change through 0 Persuasion Advertisers Politicians d Cognitive Dissonance Involves an unpleasant state of arousal created when our attitudes and behavior do not match 0 In such a situation we often change our attitude to reduce this unpleasantness 0 Example 0 Smoking Marijuana smoking is not so bad 0 A man may proclaim his love for his spouse and then cheat on her cheating is not so bad
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