chapter 1-5 PHLT 1568
Popular in nutrition/ healthy lifestyle
Popular in Nutrition and Food Sciences
CDFR 224 001
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
Human Anatomy and Physiology 232
verified elite notetaker
This 32 page Bundle was uploaded by Kasi Greer on Tuesday January 26, 2016. The Bundle belongs to PHLT 1568 at Youngstown State University taught by Justin Rechichar in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see nutrition/ healthy lifestyle in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Youngstown State University.
Reviews for chapter 1-5
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 01/26/16
PHLT 1568 Healthy Lifestyles 3 credits Spring 2016 Course Code 24083 Instructor Justin Rechichar BS Keisha T Robinson DPh MPH EMail jarechicharstudentysuedu All communication should be through Blackboard only Of ce 1226 Cushwa Phone 330 9413327 Fax 330 9412921 Of ce Hours By appointment Chapter One Health in a Changing Society Health and Wellness 0 Health State of complete physical mental social and spiritual wellbeing 0 Wellness Process of adopting patterns of behavior that can lead to improved health and heightened life satisfaction The Ecological Model of Health and Wellness Addresses interrelationship between individual and environment 0 Individual has unique set of characteristics including genetics age and knowledge 0 Environment is your relationships with people and community affiliations 0 Many social determinants of health in uence the options you have and the choices you make Social Determinants of Health Continuous either premature death or wellness Public Health and Community Health Public health is a discipline that focuses on the health of populations of people rather than individuals 0 Health promotion 0 Disease prevention Health in a Diverse Society In 2009 approximately 40 of people younger than 30 were members of a racial or ethnic minority group Primary minority groups in US Blacks or African Americans American Indians or Alaska Natives Asians Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander White Culture Ethnicity and Race Three primary dimensions of diversity which impact groups of people are Culture Shared pattern of values beliefs language and customs within a group Ethnicity Sense of identity individuals draw from a common ancestry national religious tribal language or cultural origin Race Describes ethnic groups based on personal characteristics such as skin color or facial features Health Concerns of Ethnic and Racial Minority Populations During the past 100 years medical technology has produced significant health gains in the general population Minority populations in the US have not seen equal health benefits during that time Many health problems are not due to race or ethnicity but to social and economic conditions Reducing or eliminating these disparities is not only a critical challenge in the 21St century but an explicit national health goal HealthRelated Behavior Choices Healthrelated behavior choices are the actions you take and decisions you make that affect your health 0 Physical choices 0 Mental choices 0 Emotional choices Spiritual choices Social wellbeing choices Psychologists have proposed the Stages of Change model for Why people don t make choices that enhance their health The Stages of Change Model The Stages of Change Model takes into account thinking feelings behaviors relationships and many other factors Change is a process that includes 0 Precontemplation Contemplation Preparation Action Maintenance Termination The Stages of Change Model Creating 3 Behavior Change Plan Accept responsibility for your own health and make a commitment to change To do this Set goals Develop action steps Identify benefits Identify positive enablers Sign a behavior change contract Create benchmarks Assess accomplishments and revise if necessary Health Challenges in a Changing Society Be an informed consumer Develop health literacy Understand medical research studies face current health concerns Facing Current Health Concerns 0 Physical activity 0 Overweight and obesity Tobacco use Substance abuse Responsible sexual behavior Mental health Injury and Violence Environmental quality Immunization Access to health care Chapter Two Your Family Health History Creating a Family Health Tree also called a genogram or genetic pedigree Visual representation of your family s genetic history Illustrates the patterns of health and illness within a family Pinpoints areas of special concern or risk for you What can you learn from your family health tree 0 An early onset of disease is more likely to have a genetic component 0 The appearance of a disease in multiple individuals on the same side of the family is more likely to have a genetic correlation What else can you learn from your family health tree 0 A family member with multiple cancers represents a greater likelihood of a genetic association 0 The presence of disease in family members who have good health habits is more suggestive of a genetic cause than is disease in members with poor health habits You and Your Genes The Basics of Heredity 0 The nucleus of every human cell contains an entire set of genetic instructions stored in our DNA deoxyribonucleic acid 0 DNA has four building blocks that can be arranged to form a distinct message gene that acts as the body s instruction booklet 0 Within the cell s nucleus DNA is divided into 23 pairs of chromosomes one set of each pair comes from each parent 0 Chromosomes Genes and DNA The Human Genome Project 0 Launched in 1990 0 An international collaboration between 20 groups in 6 countries 0 In April 2003 it was announced that the sequencing of the human genome was complete The Human Genome Project Discoveries 0 Humans have only 20000 to 25000 genes same as a mouse 0 Found many potential applications in medicine and pharmaceuticals 0 Helped confirm that race has more to do with social and cultural interactions and has no biological basis The Role of Mutations 0 A change in a gene is called a mutation 0 Alternate forms of the same gene are called alleles 0 Some mutations are harmful other mutations can be beneficial and some have no effect 0 Mutations allow for human diversity Genetic Inheritance 0 Alternate forms of genes called alleles are responsible for traits such as eye color 0 Alleles can be dominant or recessive 0 Most characteristics such as height or skin color are determined by the interaction of multiple genes at multiple sites of different chromosomes SingleGene Disorders 0 Some diseases are caused by the alteration mutation of a single gene 0 Autosomal dominant disorder Mutated gene is on a dominant autosome 0 Autosomal recessive disorder Two copies of a mutated gene on an autosome 0 Sexlinked disorder Mutated gene is on the sex chromosome Multifactorial Disorders 0 Many diseases and traits can result from interactions between genes and the external environment 0 Account for the majority of illnesses and death in the developed world 0 Heart disease is one example of a multifactorial disease 0 Multifactorial Inheritance in Personality and Behavior 0 Genes appear to play a role in personality and everyday behavior 0 Differing personality traits sexual orientations and inclination towards addiction may be caused by genetic differences Chromosomal Disorders 0 An inherited disorder caused by the addition loss or alteration of an entire chromosome 0 May lead to fetal death or death within the first year of life 0 Individuals may exhibit a broad range of symptoms called a syndrome ranging from characteristic physical traits to developmental delays to growth abnormalities 0 Down Syndrome is an example of such a disorder Genetic Counseling and Testing 0 Genetic counseling helps individuals and families understand genetics evaluate risks learn about diagnostic tests and discuss treatment options 0 Popular tests include Diagnostic Predictive Carrier Prenatal Screening Newborn Screening Management and Treatment of Genetic Conditions Treatments may include Dietary Modification Medication Environmental Adaptation Gene Therapy Implications of Genetic Research Controversial issues in genetic screening and testing Issues of privacy and discrimination Workplace discrimination Health insurance discrimination Eugenics selective breeding Chapter 3 Social Connections Healthy Personal Relationships 0 Relationships are at the heart of human experience Family Community Classmates teammates colleagues Acquaintances friends intimate partners Relationships are fraught with difficulties Divorce Singleparent and blended families Living alone Electronic connections A Healthy Sense of Self 0 Relationships begin with Who you are as an individual and What you bring to the relationship 0 Examples of important attributes are A reasonably high selfesteem A capacity for empathy The ability both to be alone and to be With others Friendships and Other Kinds of Relationships 0 Friendship is a reciprocal relationship based on mutual liking and caring respect and trust interest and companionship Considered longerlasting and more stable compared to romantic relationships Offers a psychological and emotional buffer against stress anxiety and depression 0 Networks that provide social support also increase one s sense of selfworth Strengths of Successful Partnerships 0 Intimate relationships have similarities to friendships but also other qualities More exclusive Deeper levels of connection and caring Sexual component Strengths of Successful Partnerships 0 Independence and maturity 0 Selfesteem and mutual respect 0 Good communication 0 Open expression of sexual affection and respect 0 Enjoy spending time together in leisure activities 0 Acknowledge strengths and failings 0 Assertive and exible in wants and needs 0 Handle con ict constructively 0 Friends as well as lovers unselfish caring 0 Good family and friend relationships 0 Shared spiritual values 0 Attraction 0 People seem to use a systematic screening process when deciding if someone could be a potential partner 0 Factors that promote attraction are Proximity or familiarity Physical attractiveness Similar characteristics including values and attitudes The Process of Finding a Partner Dating and More 0 Indirectness is not an effective strategy People who are straightforward and respectful in developing a relationship are more likely to get a positive response 0 Partners are often found through social connections The Internet is playing a larger role Enlarges the pool of potential partners Online social networking Importance of caution How much do you really know about the person What Is Love 0 Similarity theory is based on the concept that we fall in love with people who are similar to us in important ways 0 Social exchange theory suggests that falling in love and choosing a partner are based on the exchange of commodities Love status property services The Course of Love 0 Beginning stages of falling in love can feel like a roller coaster Lovesick 0 Increased levels of dopamine Arousal of sympathetic nervous system 0 Subsides as lovers become habituated to each other Sternberg s Love Triangle 0 Sternberg s theory love has three dimensions Intimacy passion and commitment 0 Different combinations produce different kinds of love 0 Nonverbal Behavior and Metamessages 0 Nonverbal communication includes facial expressions eye contact gestures body position and movement and spatial behavior 0 Nonverbal and verbal communication cues make up the metamessage or the unspoken message you send or get when communicating Building Communication Skills 0 When you speak know your feelings motives and intentions 0 Use 1 statements 0 I feel when you vs You make me feel 0 As a listener give the other person time and space 0 Good communication skills help make con ict constructive 0 Assertiveness speaking up for yourself without violating someone else s rights 0 Gender differences in communication patterns can significantly impact relationships 0 Gender Differences in Communication 0 Sex and Gender 0 Sex is a person s biological status as a male or female 0 Intersex is a condition in which the genitals are ambiguous at birth 0 Gender refers to masculine or feminine behaviors and characteristics considered appropriate in a particular culture Gender Roles and Gender Identities 0 Gender role is a set of behaviors and activities a person engages in to conform to society s expectations 0 Androgynous is the term applied to a person who displays characteristics or performs tasks traditionally associated with both sexes 0 Gender identity is an internal sense of being male or female 0 Gender dysphoria individuals who experience discomfort with their sex Transgender having a sense of identity as a male or female that con icts with one s biological sex Sexual Orientation 0 Sexual orientation refers to the emotional romantic and sexual attraction to a member of the same sex the other sex or both 0 Exists along a continuum 0 In uenced by a complex interaction of biological psychological and societal factors 0 Heterosexuality emotional and sexual attraction to members of the other sex 0 Homosexuality emotional and sexual attraction to members of the same sex 0 Bisexuality emotional and sexual attraction to both sexes Committed Relationships and Lifestyle Choices 0 Marriage 0 Gay and lesbian partnerships 0 Cohabitation 0 Divorce 0 Blended families 0 Singlehood 0 Marriage 0 Both a legal union and a contract between the couple and the state 0 Age at first marriage has risen 0 Benefits for both individual and society Important predictor of successful marriage positive reasons for getting married Characteristics of successful or unsuccessful marriage typically present before marriage 0 Men more likely to have a sexual affair women more likely to end a bad marriage by having an affair 0 Gay and Lesbian Partnerships Samesex couples have same desire for intimacy companionship passion and commitment in relationships 0 Frequently have valuable relationship skills Flexible role relationships Ability to adapt to a partner Ability to negotiate and share decisionmaking Effective parenting skills Homophobia irrational fear of homosexuality and homosexuals Gay marriage hot political topic 0 As of November 2013 legal in 14 states 0 Cohabitation 0 Cohabitation is when two people of the opposite sex live together as unmarried partners 0 Increased tenfold since 1960s 0 More than 60 percent of marriages preceded by cohabiting relationship Divorce 0 Forty to fifty percent of first marriages end in divorce Challenges of married life Insufficient problemsolving skills Lack of commitment Unrealistic expectations Unsuitable choice of mate Leading cause of poverty 0 Especially hard on children 0 Best served by continuing contact with both parents as long as parents get along Divorce Rates by Ethnic Group 0 Keeping Your Relationships Strong and Vital Cohesion the dynamic balance between separateness and togetherness in both couple and family relationships Relationships are strongest when there is a balance between intimacy and autonomy Flexibility the dynamic balance between stability and change Communication is the tool that partners and families use to adjust levels of cohesion or exibility when change is needed 393 Community group of people connected in a way that transcends casual attachment 0 Typically shared common goals and sense of belonging 0 Being active in a community is likely to have a positive impact on health Positive relationships within a community are essential to personal health and growth 0 Improve selfesteem 0 Improve social capital sharing and exchanging of resources Community Starts Within 0 Fulfilling community participation requires an understanding of your beliefs and how you fit into a particular community 0 Value system guidelines for how you want to live your life map that provides structure for decision making 0 Values set of criteria for judging What is good and bad that underlies moral principles and behavior 0 Purpose Meaning in life comes from using one s strengths to serve a larger end Goals 0 When you identify and pursue personal goals you take responsibility for yourself and your life Finding a Community That Works for You 0 Religious and spiritual communities 0 Spirituality experience of connection to self others and community at large providing sense of purpose and meaning 0 Spiritually connected people stay healthier and live longer 0 Spiritual connectedness is associated with high levels of healthrelated quality of life Social activism and the global community 0 Social causes can unite people from diverse backgrounds for a common good 0 Peace Corps Habitat for Humanity Greenpeace Clowns Without Borders others Finding a Community That Works for You 0 Volunteering 0 People who give time money support to others are likely to be more satisfied with their lives 0 Oneonone contact and direct involvement are key to positive effects Service learning 0 Meant to teach how to take the risk of getting involved in the lives of others The arts 0 Embracing diverse cultures past and present expressing inner thoughts and feelings Internet communities Chapter 4 Sleep Circadian rhythm daily 24hour cycle of waking and sleeping Most adults need about 8 hours of sleep each night I A typical college student sleeps only 6 7 hours a night on weekdays Sleep and Your Health I Sleep is a period of rest and recovery from the demands of wakefulness I It can be described as a state of unconsciousness or partial consciousness from which a person can be roused by stimulation I We spend about a third of our lives sleeping Health Effects of Sleep I Sleep is strongly associated with overall health and quality of life I Restoration and growth take place during the deepest stages of sleep I Natural immune system moderators increase during sleep and promote resistance to viral infections I A lack of sleep can lead to a breakdown in the body s healthpromoting processes 0 Short sleep less than 7 hours increases risk of negative health outcomes 0 Long sleep 10 hours or more has not been found to have negative health consequences Health Effects of Sleep Sleep deprivation and disorders are associated with serious physical and mental health conditions Obesity and diabetes Motor vehicle accidents Heart disease stroke high blood pressure Decreased immune function Cancer Mental disorders and neurodegenerative diseases Sleep Deprivation I Sleep deprivation is the lack of sufficient time asleep a condition that impairs physical emotional and cognitive functioning I Effects all domains of functioning reaction time coordination judgment I Memory I Sleep Deprivation Sleep debt is the difference between the amount of sleep attained and the amount of sleep needed to maintain alert wakefulness during the daytime when the amount attained is less than the amount needed Can t make up for it with extra sleep on weekends May disrupt sleep structure Prescription stimulants not a healthy solution Sleep and Healtthhat Makes You Sleep Circadian rhythms are maintained by the suprachiasmic nuclei S CN in the brain I Serve as an internal biological clock that controls body temperature and levels of alertness and activity I SCN also signal the pineal gland to release melatonin and signal the pituitary gland to release growth hormone during sleep Melatonin is a hormone that increases relaxation and sleepiness 0 Biological clock resets every morning The Structure of Sleep 0 The brain cycles into two main states of sleep I Nonrapid eye movement NREM I Rapid eye movement REM Stages of NREM sleep Stage 1 relaxed halfawake sleep Stage 2 brain activity slows and movement stops Stages 3 and 4 deep sleep Blood pressure drops Heart rate slows Blood supply to brain minimized REM Sleep 0 Rapid eye movement REM sleep 0 Dream stage noticeable eye movements 0 REM sleep paralysis no muscle tone 0 Appears to give the brain the opportunity to file ideas and thoughts into memory I Scientists believe that creativity and novel ideas are more likely to ourish during REM I Insufficient REM sleep may impair memory and the ability to learn new skills I The REM rebound e ect demonstrates the importance of REM sleep to the brain Brain Structures Involved in Sleep and Waking Sleep Cycles Children and adolescents experience large quantities of deep sleep As people get older highquality deep sleep becomes more elusive Sleep structure essentially same for men and women I Women have more slow wave sleep and experience more insomnia One Night s Sleep Cycles 0 O 90 90 O O 90 90 InsomniaDifficulty falling or staying asleep Thirty to forty percent of adults report experiencing insomnia at least a few nights a week Can be caused by stress anxiety medical problems poor sleep environment noisy or restless partners schedule changes etc Distress over inability to fall asleep also contributes Sleep Apnea Periods of nonbreathing during sleep I Also known as breathingrelated sleep disorder Almost 40 of US population may have some form of sleep apnea I 80 90 undiagnosed Central sleep apnea brain fails to regulate diaphragm and other breathing mechanisms correctly rare Obstructive sleep apnea upper airway obstructed during sleep Sleepwalking Disorder Disorder in which a person rises out of an apparently deep sleep and acts as if awake gt Affects 1 15 of population gt Episodes typically last less than 10 minutes Most sufferers have no family history of the disorder May be brought on by excessive sleep deprivation fatigue stress illness excessive alcohol use of sedatives SleepRelated Eating Disorder Sleeprelated eating disorder SRED disorder in which a person rises from bed during the night and eats and drinks While asleep I Seventyfive percent are female I The person has no memory of the episode in the morning and does not experience indigestion or feelings of fullness after the binge Night eating syndrome person eats excessively during the night While awake I Repeatedly awakens during the night to eat then eats very little during the day Evaluating Your Sleep Take the sleep latency test I Sleep latency amount of time it takes a person to fall asleep Check for symptoms of a sleep disorder Look at behavior change strategies If referred to a sleep clinic or lab you may be asked to monitor your sleeping habits at home or you may be evaluated at the lab Multiple Sleep Latency Test administered as an index of daytime sleepiness usually repeated five times during the day Establishing Good Sleep Habits Maintain a regular sleep schedule Create a sleepfriendly environment Avoid caffeine nicotine and alcohol Get regular exercise but not close to bedtime Manage stress and establish relaxing bedtime rituals Avoid eating too close to bedtime Take a break from technology Remember air quality Get rid of dust mites Be smart about napping Consider your bed partner Overall Sleep Quality for Types of Exercisers 0 Using Sleep Aids 0 About 15 of adults use a prescription or overthecounter sleep aid a few nights a week I Frequentlyprescribed sleep medications induce sleep but suppress both deep sleep and REM sleep 0 Daytime side effects include decreased memory and intellectual functioning I OTC products contain antihistamine I Can cause dehydration agitation constipation I Rebound insomnia can occur I Worse than before medication taken Using Sleep Aids Complementary and alternative products and approaches include Herbal products most commonly valerian Can interact With other medication and drugs 0 Dietary supplements I Melatonin I Aromatherapy No strong scientific evidence I Relaxation drinks I Not enough scientific research I Important to consult With your physician Chapter 5 Nutrition Understanding Nutritional Guidelines 0 Dietary Reference Intakes DRIs umbrella term for four sets of dietary recommendations 0 Suggested intake levels of essential nutrients for optimal health 0 Recommended Dietary Allowance RDA represents the average daily amount of any one nutrient to protect against nutritional deficiency 0 Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range AMDR intake levels of essential nutrients that provide adequate nutrition and reduce risk of chronic disease Understanding Nutritional Guidelines 0 Dietary Guidelines for Americans scientifically based diet and exercise recommendations 0 USDA MyPlate graphic nutritional tool that translates DRIs and Dietary Guidelines into healthy food choices 0 Daily Values standards used on food labels to indicate how a particular food contributes to the recommended daily intake of major nutrients in a 2000calorie diet Types of Nutrients 0 Essential nutrients needed to build maintain and repair tissues and regulate body functions 0 Macronutrients needed in large amounts 0 Water carbohydrates proteins fats I Micronutrients needed in small amounts 0 Vitamins minerals Water The Unappreciated Nutrient 0 Function 0 Digests absorbs transports nutrients 0 Helps regulate body temperature 0 Carries waste out of the body 0 Lubricates our body parts 0 Fluid balance right amount of uid inside and outside each cell maintained by electrolytes 0 Water is the most unappreciated nutrient 0 In most places in US tap water is of equal or superior quality to bottled water RDA 0 1 to 15 milliliters per calorie spent 0 2 to 3 liters or 8 to 12 cups of uid 0 Water needs can vary depending on several factors such as foods consumed and activity level Carbohydrates Your Body s Fuel 0 The body s main source of energy I Fuel most of the body s cells during daily activities I Used by muscle cells during highintensity exercise I Only source of energy for brain cells redblood cells and some other types of cells RDA 0 130 grams for males and females aged l 70 Types 0 Simple carbohydrates sugars 0 Complex carbohydrates starches and dietary fibers Simple and Complex Carbohydrates 393 Simple carbohydrates I Easily digestible and composed of one or two units of sugar I Glucose fructose galactose lactose maltose sucrose Glucose travels to liver where it can be stored as glycogen for future energy needs 0 Too many simple carbohydrates leaves you with a sugar high followed by a feeling of depletion and a craving for more sugar I Added sugars have even more dramatic effect I High fructose corn syrup HFCS 0 Artificial sweeteners touted as alternative I Safety concerns effect on appetite and insulin 0 Complex carbohydrates 0 Composed of multiple sugar units including starches and dietary fiber 0 Sources I Whole grains whole wheat brown rice oatmeal corn I Vegetables some fruit 0 Whole grains preferred over refined carbohydrates white our products I Provide more nutrients I Slow digestive process I Make you feel full longer Fiber Dietary fiber complex carbohydrate found in plants that cannot be broken down by the digestive tract Fiber allows for passage of food quickly through the intestines which helps prevent hemorrhoids and constipation Soluble fiber dissolves in water and lowers cholesterol Insoluble ber passes through digestive tract unchanged serves as natural laxative 393 RDA 25 gramsday for women aged 1950 38 gramsday for men aged 1450 Fiber is best obtained through diet not pills or supplements Sources of fiber Fruits Vegetables Dried beans Peas and other legumes Cereals Grains Nuts Seeds Protein Nutritional Muscle RDA Function Build and maintain muscles bones and other body tissues Form enzymes that facilitate chemical reactions Constructed from 20 different amino acids Essential amino acids must be supplied by foods 036 grams per pound of body weight Types Complete proteins Incomplete proteins Complete protein sources I Animal proteins meat fish poultry milk cheese eggs Incomplete protein sources I Vegetable proteins grains legumes nuts seeds other vegetables Complementary proteins proteins that in combination provide essential amino acids Mutual supplementation nutritional strategy of combining two incomplete protein sources to provide a complete protein I For example beans and rice Fats A Necessary Nutrient I Principal form of stored energy in the body I Provide essential fatty acids I Role in the production of other fatty acids and Vitamin D I Provide the major material for cell membranes and for the myelin sheaths that surround nerve fibers I Assist in absorption of fatsoluble vitamins I Affect texture taste and smell of foods I Provide emergency reserve when we are sick or when our food intake is diminished RDA I 20 35 of calories from fat with only about onethird coming from saturated fats Types of Fat I Saturated fat found in animal products and other fats that remain solid at room temperature Beef Pork Poultry Wholemilk dairy products Certain tropical oils coconut and palm I Certain nuts macadamia O I Monounsaturated fat found primarily in plant sources are liquid at room temperature and are semisolid or solid when refrigerated I Olive saf ower peanut and canola oils I Avocados I Many nuts I Polyunsaturated fat commonly referred to as oil liquid at room temperature and when refrigerated 0 Corn and soybean oils 0 Fish including trout salmon and anchovies Cholesterol A waxy substance that is needed for several important body functions I The body produces it from the liver and obtains it from animal food sources meat cheese eggs milk 0 Too much cholesterol can clog arteries and lead to cardiovascular disease 0 LDLs low density lipoproteins are the bad cholesterol while HDLs high density lipoproteins are considered good 0 Recommended consume no more than 300 milligrams per day Trans Fats 0 Liquid vegetable oils that have been chemically changed through the process of hydrogenation to extend the shelf life of processed foods I Pose a risk to cardiovascular health by raising LDL levels and lowering HDL levels 0 Foods high in trans fatty acids include I Crackers cookies chips 0 Cakes and pies 0 Doughnuts 0 Deep fried foods like French fries Omega3 and Omega6 Fatty Acids I Omega3s contain alphalinolenic acid which helps slow the clotting of blood improves arterial health and lowers blood pressure I Omega6s contain linolenicacid and are important to health though they are often consumed too much by Americans Minerals A Need for Balance 0 Minerals are naturally occurring substances needed by the body in small amounts I Build strong bones and teeth and help carry out metabolic processes and body functions 0 The body needs 20 essential minerals I Macrominerals need at least 100 mgsday Calcium chloride magnesium phosphorous potassium sodium I Microminerals need less than 100 mgsday Chromium cobalt copper uorine iodine iron zinc manganese nickel and others 0 A balanced diet provides all the essential minerals the body needs per day Vitamins Small But Potent Nutrients 0 Naturally occurring organic substances needed by the body in small amounts 0 Serve as catalysts for releasing energy from carbohydrates proteins and fats while maintaining other body components 0 Your body needs at least 11 specific vitamins gt A C D E K and the Bcomplex vitamins 0 Vitamins can be found in a variety of foods so often supplements are unnecessary Key Vitamins and Minerals 0 Overview of RDIs 0 Other Substances in Food Phytochemicals gt Phytochemicals substances naturally produced by plants 0 May keep cells healthy slow tissue degeneration prevent carcinogens reduce cholesterol protect heart maintain hormone levels keep bones strong 0 Three important types of phytochemicals 1 Antioxidants neutralize free radicals 2 Phytoestrogens lower cholesterol and reduce risk of heart disease 3 Phytonutraceuticals may inhibit growth of cancer and heart disease The Color Wheel of Foods 0 Dietary Guidelines for Americans 0 Twothirds of Americans are now overweight or obese 0 Focus is on stopping and reversing the spread of overweight and obesity 0 Approaches to change 0 Individual 0 Environmental 0 Food supply Dietary Guidelines for Americans 0 Four main goals 1 Reduce calorie intake and increase physical activity 2 Move toward a more plantbased diet composed of nutrientdense foods 3 Reduce intake of foods containing added sugars and solid fats and reduce overall sodium and refined grain consumption 4 Meet the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines provided by the US Department of Health and Human Services Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 Key Messages 0 MyPlate visual icon designed to raise awareness and health literacy about the different food groups 0 Emphasize foods high in nutrient density 0 Individual calorie requirements are calculated based on sex and age at three activity levels 0 Sedentary only light physical activity 0 Moderately active equivalent to walking 15 miles per day at 3 4 mph 0 Active more than 3 miles per day at 3 4 mph 0 MyPlate Estimated Calorie Requirements Dietary Guidelines for Americans 0 DASH Eating Plan Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension 0 Recommendations for specific groups 0 Children and adolescents 0 Older adults 0 Pregnant and breastfeeding women 0 Overweight adults and children 0 People with chronic conditions 0 Limit red meat consumption 0 Link to heart disease cancer and diabetes Vegetarian Diets 0 Vegetarian diets may offer protection against obesity heart disease high blood pressure diabetes digestive disorders and some forms of cancer 0 Vegetarians need to make sure their diets provide the energy intake and food diversity necessary to meet dietary guidelines Daily Values on Food Labels 0 FDA regulates food labels 0 List serving size and number of servings 0 Give total calories and calories from fat 0 Look for foods with no more than 30 percent of their calories from fat 0 Show how much the food contributes to Daily Values for important nutrients 0 Shows of Daily Value recommended daily intake of specified nutrients Nutrition Facts Food Label Frontof Package Food Labels FDA s authority to regulate health claims on frontof package FOP food labels is limited 0 Institute of Medicine found these labels provide little guidance and cause confusion 12 different symbols logos and icons 0 Recommended a standard for FOP labels Recommended FOP Labels Proposed Changes to the Nutrition Facts Label 2014 proposed changes to Nutrition Facts label for packaged food 0 Mandated inclusion of information on added sugars 0 Updated reference amounts 0 Specified calorie and nutrition information based on Whole package not just serving size 0 Information on potassium and vitamin D in packaged food required 0 Altered label format to emphasize calories serving size and Percent Daily value Restaurant Menu Labels 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act includes new requirement all chain restaurants provide calorie labeling on their menus Preliminary research suggests consumers are no more likely to choose healthier menu items Current Consumer Concerns Overconsumption of soft drinks Highsodium diets Food allergies and food intolerances 0 Eight foods responsible for 90 of allergies milk eggs peanuts tree nuts shellfish soy and Wheat 0 Food intolerances such as lactose intolerance are less severe Glutenfree diets 0 Celiac disease immune reaction to gluten Which is found in Wheat barley rye and triticale Overconsumption of energy bars and energy drinks Current Consumer Concerns Probiotics prebiotics and synbiotics 0 Probiotics are living bacteria that may aid digestion prebiotics are nondigestible carbohydrates that fuel probiotics 0 Synbiotics combine the two 0 Scientific studies have not confirmed health benefits Fast foods 0 Food deserts lowincome areas where more than 500 people or 33 have low access to a supermarket 0 When fresh produce not available people don t have opportunity to choose a healthy diet FastFood Meal 0 Organic Foods 0 Plant foods grown without synthetic pesticides or fertilizers 0 Animal foods raised on organic feed without antibiotics or growth hormone 0 USDA regulates labeling 0 Research has not demonstrated health benefits but environmental benefits are clear 0 Look for foods that are not only organic but also locally grown 0 Wash organic produce thoroughly 0 Foodborne Illnesses 0 Food intoxication food poisoning in which food is contaminated by natural toxins 0 Botulism 0 Food infection food poisoning in which food is contaminated by diseasecausing microorganisms or pathogens 0 E coli salmonella campylobacter 0 Pet food can contain salmonella 0 Use safe food practices and store food safely especially leftovers Kitchen Safety 0 Genetically Modified Foods 0 Genetically modified GM organisms genetic makeup has been changed to produce desirable results 0 Selective breeding 0 Modern biotechnology faster and more refined 0 Many crops are already GM 0 Sixty percent of processed foods in supermarkets contain one or more GM ingredient 0 Safety assessed by FDA s Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition CFSAN
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'