Bundle of study guides- SPHS 2015
Bundle of study guides- SPHS 2015 SPHS 2015
Popular in Nature of Communication Disorders
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SPHS 2015 Exam #2 Review: Print off Brain & Vocal Folds Anatomy and Function (Review labeling interaction for online #3 Biological Foundations of Speech) Structure What it is/where it is (label Function picture) Arytenoid cartilages Part of the Phonatory System Control opening & closing of Major structure of the Larynx the vocal folds. Two pyramid shaped cartilages that sit on the posterior portion of the cricoid cartilage. (CNS) central nervous system Central Brain, spinal cord Directly controls human Peripheral cranial nerves, spinal communication nerves Interprets sensory info gathered by the peripheral nervous system. Diaphragm Part of the Respiratory System Contracts to expand the lungs Large muscle at the base of the for inhalation. lungs. Epiglottis An oblong cartilage that sits at the Covers the larynx opening top of the larynx. during swallowing Larynx Part of the Phonatory System Protect against aspiration Valve which opens & closes Phonation (to make sound) allowing air to enter and escape from the trachea. Peripheral nervous system Cranial & Spinal Nerves Sends sensory information to the The nervous system that extends CNS. beyond the brain & spinal cord, Carries motor info from the including peripheral sensory nerves CNS to the muscles. that send impulses to the CNS and motor nerves that carry effector impulses to peripheral structures. Tongue Articulatory Structure Most critical structure for Composed of numerous intrinsic production of speech sounds. muscles that fill the oral cavity. Influences the overall sound & resonance of the voice & is critical for the production of speech sounds. Velum Part of the Nasal Resonance Moves to control airflow The soft palate through the nose. Vocal folds (adduction and Part of the Phonatory System Abduction (open) during quiet breathing. abduction) Major structure of the larynx Open Adduction (vocal folds come Close together—or close) during the production of voice. Vibrate Pressure builds up below the closed vocal folds, which causes vibration. Three parts of brain (label picture) Function Cerebrum Most important part of the brain for communication Divided into the left & right hemispheres Corpus Callosum carries info between hemispheres Cerebellum Lies behind the brain stem Regulates body posture, balance, & motor coordination Damage to the cerebellum results in a movement coordination disorder, which can affect speech. Brainstem Developed first as brain evolved Controls primitive reflexes & basic autonomic functions Controls the swallow reflex. Major structures include: medulla, pons, midbrain Damage to the Medulla often results in paralysis & sensory deficits to speech. Four lobes of brain (label picture) Function Occipital Lobe Vision—Processes visual information Parietal Lobe Sensory—Processing sensory info; reading & writing Frontal Lobe Organizing—Motor movements Motor Cortex: Controls volitional movements of most of the body. Broca’s Area: Adjacent to the motor cortex which controls expressive language. Temporal Lobe (left side) Communication Primary Auditory Cortex: Receives sound impulses from the auditory nerve & assigns basic recognition to those sounds. Wernicke’s Area: Stores data that associates sounds w/ meaning. Voice Functional: misuse of voice Neurological: vocal change due to nerve damage Organic: vocal change due to disease. Cause F N O Treatment Carcinoma -Cancer * - * Radiation/Chemo/Radiati * on * -Surgically Removed * -Permanent * Tracheostoma -Electro Larynx -Tracheo-Esophageal Puncture -Esophageal Speech Laryngitis -Due to excessive * -Surgical Removal yelling or talking * -Therapy above noise. Vocal fold -Surgical Damage * -Botox Injections paralysis -Tumor or Virus * -Surgery -Damage to CNS * Vocal -Persistent vocal * -Surgically Remove nodules misuse * -Therapy Polyps -Single event of * -Surgically Remove abuse * -Therapy Papilloma -Virus * -Multiple Surgeries Spasmodic -Neurological * -Botox Injections vocal folds * -Surgery o Cleft Palate- Occurs when different sections of the embryo first form. May occur to either side of the midline of the upper lip, to the right or left of the bone that holds the upper front teeth, & along the midline of the velum or hard plate. o Hypernasal: Too much nasal resonance. o Hyponasal: Insufficient nasal resonance. o Vocal Hygiene: o Habitual Pitch: Average pitch a person uses during speaking. o Resonance: Vibration of air in oral cavities—vibratory qualities of a space. Dysphagia: Impairment in the ability to swallow. o Symptoms: o *Aspiration pneumonia is the most common medical complication* o Choking, coughing when swallowing food or liquid o Difficulty initiating a swallow o Difficulty chewing food o Difficulty controlling food in the oral cavity o Food sticking in the throat o Reflux of food from the esophagus or stomach o Treatment: o Postural Change o Swallow Maneuvers o Consistency Change o Swallowing Precautions Speech Sound Disorders o Age for 75% intelligibility: 3 o Age for all sounds to be produced correctly: 8 o Cause: Unknown o SODA— o Substitution (back for bat) o Omission (ba for bat), o Distortion (lisp ‘sh” in fish) o Addition (fisha for fish) o Articulation Disorder- Difficulty with producing sounds of words. o Phonological Disorder- Difficulty mastering speech sound system-- impairment w/ multiple groups. o Oral Mechanism Exam – Evaluation that informs about the adequacy of oral structure & function. o Apraxia: Impaired ability to plan the movements for speech production. Language Disorders Language Disorders – child: ADD: Hyperactivity, Inattention, & Impulsivity. Autism: Disorder that affects the child’s interactions w/ other people & w/ the world. Diagnosis (4 parts): Disturbed social interaction between the infant & parents. Content w/ movements of hands or performing repetitive actions. Delayed development of language skills. Little use of language for play or social interactions. Theory of Mind: Lack of awareness of the existence or feelings of others. Joint Attention: When kids point to something and tell you to look, and you look. Language Disorder: Inability to acquire language skills at normal rate. Dyslexia: Poor phonological decoding, good comprehension of spoken language. SLI: Child has language issues, and NOTHING else. Intellectual Disability: Limitations w/ Intellectual Function (IQ) & Adaptive Behavior (self care) Language Disorder Diagnosis: Traumatic Brain Injury – Injury, closed or open head injury, stoke, illness. Glascow Coma Scale: Used @ the time of injury. Ranchos Los Amigos: Used for the progress over time. Expected Language Milestones 12 months: Start to walk & talk (one word). 24 months: 50 word vocabulary & two- word vocabulary. Language Disorders – Adults Most common cause of acquired language disorder in adults- Stoke Aphasia: Loss of symbolic system of language. Left Hemisphere. Broca’s: Broken Speech- say certain words- comprehend (telegraphic speech) Wernicke’s: Does not comprehend—cannot understand them at all. Anomia: Lack of naming (forget the names) Telegraphic Speech: “Today lunch chick”–“Today I am having chic-fil-a for lunch.” Apraxia: Impairment of motor planning for the movements for speech so that voluntary control for speech is disrupted. Dementia: Memory Loss Alzheimer’s: Most common type Language Definition: A systematic, symbolic, rule-based system of communication. Morphology: Study of words & word forms. Phonology: Study of rules & sounds of speech. Pragmatics: Use of language in various social situations. Semantics: Meanings of language conveyed through words & combinations of words. Syntax: Structure of sentences—grammar. Suprasegmentals: Intonation, prosody, & rate of speech. Babbling: Repeat same syllable (Bababababa) Jargon: Chain of syllables (Ba to nah ah ah) Fluency o Stuttering: Involuntary repetition, interruption, & prolongation of speech sounds & syllables. o Developmental Stuttering: Due to the child’s underlying language system not developed. o Fluency Disorder: Flowing, rhythmic pattern of speech. o Stuttering vs. Normal or Typical Dysfluencies: Less than 5% is not good. o Treatment (general, not the specific ones listed on slides) Which system provides the power source for speech? Respiratory System Which system directly controls all aspects of human communication? Central Nervous System Which of the 3 major divisions of thee brain is responsible for body posture, balance, & motor coordination? Cerebellum Which articulatory structure is most critical for production of speech sounds? Tongue What occurs during phonation? The vocal folds adduct or come together. Which are the components of the Phonetory system? Thyroid Cartilage, Larynx, Arytenoid Cartilage What is the function of the diaphragm in speech? Contracts for the lungs to expand for inhalation. What results when the velum remains relaxed throughout production of all sounds? Hyper-nasality What causes the changes in resonance in speech? Modification of the shape of the vocal tract as sound moves through the oral cavity. What are the 4 lobes of the brain? Frontal, Parietal, Temporal, Occipital What are intonation, prosody, & rate of speech considered? Suprasegmentals At what age should children have acquired correct production of all speech sounds? 8 years old Stops, bilabial, & voiceless are examples of: Manner, Place, & Voicing Which sounds are produced w/ some construction of the vocal tract & can be voiced or voiceless? Consonants At which age should a child’s speech be 75% intelligible to an unfamiliar listener? 3 years old Which sounds are produced w. an open vocal tract & are always voiced? Vowels Which children demonstrate turn taking? All children What is an accurate statement for this: John is 15, who stutters & Louisa is 3 w/ frequent dysfluencies? Louisa may outgrow her disfluent speech. What is the definition of stuttering? Involuntary repetition & interruption of speech sounds. How do you measure disfluent behavior in an assessment? Measure frequencies & durations of dysfluencies as well as physical behaviors accompanying disfluent behavior in a convo & reading. When working w/ parents of children, w/ early disfluency, what does the SLP probably recommends? Model, slow easy speech Which term describes impairment in the ability to swallow? Dysphasia During which phase does this occur: Preparation of food in the mouth for transport to stomach, then the tongue moves food into the bolus. Oral Predatory Phase SLP’s use a variety of methods to evaluate swallowing status in adults & children. Which of the following best describes a modified barium swallowing study (BMS)? An X-Ray, involving a patient swallowing food w/ a variety of thickness/consistency. What is a common treatment for persons w/ swallowing difficulties? Using good thickness & consistency of food Which of the following is a symptom of Dysphasia? Coughing when swallowing Which phase: Movements of the bolus through the pharynx into the esophagus? Pharyngeal Phase Which phase: Transportation of the bolus to the stomach by the esophagus w/ peristaltic contractions? Esophageal Stage What is the primary purpose of the epiglottis? To protect the airway when swallowing During which phase: Transport of the bolus from the oral cavity into the pharynx? Oral Transport Phase What is the most common medical complication caused by Dysphasia? Aspiration Which components of normal language is part of the use area? Pragmatics Which definition describes the morphology component of normal language? Rules for words form & markers such as plurals & verb tense. Which definition describes the semantic component of normal language? Vocabulary, word meaning, concepts, & ideas. Which definition describes the pragmatics component of normal language? Language use in various social settings. Which definition describes the phonology component of normal language? Spoken sounds of language of rules for using these sounds. Which definition describes the syntax component of normal language? Grammatical language/structure & word order of language. Which components of normal language is part of the form area? Phonology, Morphology, Syntax Which is true of a typically developing 2-year old (24 months)? 2- word phrases At what age would you expect a child to be using sentences that have an average length of 3-4 words? 3 years old Which components of normal language is part of the content area? Semantics A person diagnosed w/ an intellectual disability must have deficits in two areas: Intellectual Function Adaptive Skills What are the two factors that must be present in order to be diagnosed w/ autism spectrum disorder? Symptoms must be present in early childhood & must limit or impair daily functioning. Which is true of a typically developed 2-year old? Oral vocabulary of at least 50 words & begins using 2-word phrases. What rating scale is used to determine a person’s progress over time following a TBI? Ranchos Los Amigos When would you diagnose a child w/ a language disorder? Child is not developing English skills as well as the same aged peers. What are the two behaviors a person must demonstrate to be diagnosed w/ autism spectrum disorder? Impairment in social communication skills & demonstrates repetitive, restricted behaviors. Which of the following is true of Dyslexia? Dyslexia is a language-based disorder of reading & writing. What are some early signs & symptoms of autism spectrum disorder? Lack of age appropriate development, of pointing, joint attention, & interest of mother’s voice. What must be observed w/ specific language impairment? Child’s language is below expectation for chronological age w/ the absence of other handicap conditions. At what age must a person w/ intellectual disability be diagnosed? Before age 2 What is the term for difficulty retrieving the word, which means an object? Anomia “Fife for life” means: Paraphasia What is the term used for substituting one word for another? Paraphasia What is the most common form of Dementia? Alzheimer’s Which type of aphasia affects all domains of language? Global Which type of impairment is progressive? Dementia Which part of the brain is associated w/ fluent aphasia? Wernicke’s Area Which part of the brain is associated w/ non-fluent aphasia? Broca’s Area “I am going to a thing where everyone eats cake & opens presents on the day after Friday.” Circumlocution What is the most common cause of brain damage resulting in Aphasia? Stroke Exam 3- Review SPHS 2015 Terms: 1. Traumatic Brain Injury 2. Autism Spectrum Disorder 3. Syndrome 4. Assistive Technology 5. Aphasia 6. Stroke 7. Language Disorder 8. Ranchos Los Amigos Scale of Cognitive Functioning 9. Specific Language Impairment 10. Broca’s 11. Wernicke’s 12. Decibel (dB) 13. FM System 14. Hearing Aid 15. Cochlear Implant 16. Speech Banana 17. Audiogram 18. Pure Tone 19. Sensorineural 20. Conductive Hearing Loss 21. Early Childhood Intervention 22. American SpeechLanguage & Hearing 23. SLP 24. Audiology 25. Audiologist 26. Texas Licensure for SLP doesn’t need ASHA 27. CCC SLP 28. Inner Ear 29. Middle Ear 30. Outer Ear 31. Cochlea 32. CNS (Central Nervous System) 33. Learning Disability 34. Dementia (memory) 35. Alzheimer’s 36. Aphasia 37. Dysphagia 38. Phonological Disorder 39. Apraxia 40. Phonation 41. Articulation 42. Intelligibility 43. Stuttering 44. Vocal Nodules 45. Voice Disorders 46. Vocal Folds (VF) 47. Larynx 48. Dysarthria 49. Hearing 50. Cleft lip/palate 51. Down Syndrome 52. Cerebral Palsy (CP) 53. Attention Deficit Disorder 54. Aural Rehabilitation 55. 24 months two words 56. 12 months one word 57. Oral Mechanism Exam 58. Syntax 59. Language 60. Semantics 61. Phonology 62. Assessment 63. Pragmatics 64. Morphology 65. Screening 66. Language Delay 67. Language Difference 68. Speech Sound Disorder 69. Communication 70. Presbycusis 71. Isolation & difficulty w/ socialization 72. Otosclerosis 73. Meniere’s Disease 74. Noise Induced Hearing Loss 75. Tinnitus & Vertigo 76. Ototoxins 77. Ringing in the Ears 78. SensoriNeural 79. Audiology 80. Resonance 81. Closed captioning on TV/video 82. Candidates for Cochlear Implant? 83. Theory of Mind 84. Bone Conduction Terms & Definitions: Significant limitations in both intellectual functioning & adaptive behavior. Intellectual Disability Results from External physical force such as acceleration/deceleration injury, blow to the head. TBI A disorder characterized by difficulties in socialization, communication, & behavior. Autism Spectrum Disorder A cluster of characteristics that occur concurrently & form a specific pattern of signs & communication. Syndrome Any item, piece of equipment or product system that is used to help someone w/ functional communication. Assistive Technology Multi-tiered general education program of intervention mandated by idea intended to avoid the “wait to fail” Response to Intervention Most commonly acquired language disorder in adults: Aphasia Most common cause of acquired lang. disorder in adults: Stroke Child that does not develop language skills as well as same age peers: Language Disorder Rating Scale to determine progress over time: Ranchos Los Amigos 2 areas in which a person w/ intellectual disability must have deficits: Intellectual Functioning & Adaptive Skills A language based disorder of reading & writing. Dyslexia Difficulty processing auditory info: difficulty w/ speech, w/o hearing loss. Auditory Processing Disorder Two behaviors a person must meet to be diagnosed w/ autism spectrum disorder. Impairment in social communication skills Language is behind, absence of other handicap: Specific Language Impairment (SLI) Telegraphic Speech: Broca’s Use of Neologisms: Wernicke’s Auditory comprehension is a strength: Broca’s Does not recognize speech errors due to decreased auditory comprehension. Wernicke’s Fluent verbalization Wernicke’s Sparse vocalization Wernicke’s Logarithmic unit of measure of sound intensity Decibels (dB) The number of cycles also perceived as pitch Frequency/hertz Transmitter that goes to the hearing aid from the teacher in classroom: FM System Amplifies auditory signals Hearing aid Surgically implanted technology Cochlear Implanted (CI) Area of Audiogram that includes speech sounds. Speech Banana Hearing test w/ axes for hearing level & frequency. Audiogram Periodic sound wave Pure Tone Hair cells damaged in the cochlea or in the auditory pathway Sensorineural Cause of hearing loss in the external or middle ear: Conductive Hearing Loss Federal Law for special education in schools Individuals w/ Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) Federally funded program for children’s services from birth to age 3 Early Childhood Intervention Professional Association whose membership of… American Speech Language Association (ASHA) Study of normal & disordered hearing Audiology Professional who is concerned w/ prevention Audiologist Requires a graduate degree, intern of 10 hours Texas Licensure for SLP Requires completion of graduate course, certified by ASHA CCC for SLP Area of the ear that converts energy to a code that can be interpreted by the brain. Inner Ear The air-filled space located in the temporal bone w/ 3 small bones, Incus, Malleus, Stapes. Middle Ear Consists of the auricle or pinna & canal. Outer Ear The snail-shaped part of the inner ear. Cochlea The brain & spinal cord. Central Nervous System (CNS) Significant difficulty in one or more academic areas, but no intellectual impairment. Learning Disability Behavioral syndrome, loss of memory Dementia Most common form of Dementia Alzheimer’s Loss of previously learned language skills Aphasia The nervous system that extends beyond the brain & the spinal cord. Peripheral Nervous System Impairment in the ability to swallow Dysphasia Severe speech sound deficits that have many sound class errors Phonological Disorder Difficulties w/ planning motor production Apraxia Physical ability to produce voiced speech sounds. Phonation Change in the shape of the vocal tract caused by oral structures. Articulation How understandable a person’s speech is to family members. Intelligibility Involuntary repetition Stuttering Growths on the vocal folds from voice misuse. Vocal Nodules Problems related to pitch, loudness, voice quality, and resonance Voice Disorders Tissue that extends posteriorly from the thyroid cartilage Vocal Folds (VF) Guard the airway against aspiration Larynx Motor speech disorders due to paralysis, weakness, or incoordination Dysarthria Perception of sound Hearing Failure of the pre-maxilla to fuse w/ the bone Cleft lip/palate Identified before or at birth, one of the most common causes of intellectual disabilities. Down Syndrome Motor disorder related to brain injury occurring during the birth process or before Cerebral Palsy (CP) Difficulty attending or sustaining focus to task resulting in learning Attention Deficit Disorder ***Facilitates ones ability to minimize or prevent Aural Rehabilitation Examination of the structures & function of the face, mouth, and oral cavity. Oral Mech. Exam Component of language concerning the rules of word order in sentences; grammar Syntax Symbolic system used by individuals Language Component of language concerning word meanings; lexicon Semantics Speech sound rule system Phonology Procedure used to determine the presence of absence Assessment Component of language concerning the social use of language & behaviors of non-verbal Pragmatics Rules for using grammatical markers such as past tense Morphology Procedure designed to be completed quickly to see who needs more testing: SCREENING Toddlers Behind Language Delay Language other than English Language Difference Umbrella Term Speech Sound Disorder Interaction or exchange Communication Hearing loss w/ aging Precybus Abnormal bone growth w/ Ossicles Otosclerosis ***Disease from Indicated by a 4K notch on an audiogram Noise Induced Hearing Loss Symptoms of Meniere’s disease Tinnitus & vertigo Services, available to you Speech & hearing services Drugs, treat cancer, side effects of causing hearing loss Ototoxins Tinnitus Ringing in the ears Type of hearing loss that is common in adults Sensori Hearing aids must be selected or fit Audiologist Purpose of aural rehabilitation: Teaching the individual how their hearing loss might impact… Lack of smiling, pointing, Autism Fundamental frequency of sound Resonance Examples of an assistive listening device Closed captioning on TV Requirements for child or adult to be candidate for coch. Impla Severe to profound hearing loss Ability to take someone else’s perspective Theory of mind Type of hearing assessment to indicate if the cochlea is working Bone conduction Review for Exam #1 (SPHS) Communication: Exchange of information between a sender & a receiver—a form of social behavior: animals & humans Hearing: the perception of sound Audiology: assesses hearing & balance, develops methods for rehabilitation of hearing impairment. Consists of having a 4year doctoral Congenital: born with it Developmental: not identified until growing up Acquired: not born with it, happens suddenly (tragedy/injury) Ear: sound enters our ear & is modified to sound energy is transmitted to the brain. Acoustic Reflex: two muscles in the ear provide protection against extremely loud noises. Hair Cells Mechanical receptor Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR) measures brain response to auditory stimuli thru electrodes. Otitis Media ear infection in middle ear, intermenton, temporary, & fixed w/ medicine or tubes. Myringotomy tubes in the ear w/ history of multiple ear infections & speech delay. Ototoxic Definition: sensory damage to the cochlear or vestibular systems from a chemical. Behavioral Observation infants: observe their behavior/sucking on bottle Visual Reinforcement toddlers: hear a sound & they turn & look Conditioned Play preschoolers: teach/play, drop a toy in box when they hear the sound 0 dB: the minimum level of sound needed to stimulate the human ear at a particular frequency. Pure Tone Audiometry: the vibration is at one frequency(single tone or sound w/ no change). Immitance Testing (Tympanometry): measurement of the mobility of the tympanic membrane. Speech Audiometry (SRT): speech recognition threshold lowest level person can understand 50% of the speech material. Electophysical: OAE (Otoacoustic Emissions) sound echo indicating function of cochlea. SLP Assistant: work under a licensed speech pathologist and has a bachelor’s degree communications. Rehabilitative get back something you lost Habilitative learn something you’ve never known Prelingual: before the development of speech Postlingual: occurring after birth Auditory Therapy learning & speaking Earing Aid: amplifies sound & relies on the responsiveness of healthy inner ear hair cells to receive the sound & send the message to the brain. Otosclerosis bone is replaced by spongy growth (common in women) Cholesteatoma tumor (perforated) on the eardrum Meniere’s Disease: disease of inner ear thought to result from excessive Endolymph. Ototoxicity: damage to the inner ear from intake of certain drugs; damages high frequencies. The stapes is connected to the oval window. What does it do? Causes the Endolymph to move What causes the cilia to move? Endolymph Movement What is the term for the reflex to protect the ear from loud noices? Acoustic Reflex What are the two parts of the auditory nerve? Vestibular Auditory Where is sound processed for understanding? Primary Auditory Cortex Where are the sensory organs or hearing located? Cochlea What is the main purpose of the Estuation tube? Maintain equal pressure between middle ear & outside ear What forms the airtight sterile seal between the outer ear & the middle ear? Tympanic membrane Where are the malleus, incus, & stapes located? Middle ear What term describes the episodic attacks of vertigo, nausea, tintus, & sensoryneural hearing loss resulting from excess buildup of endolymph in cochlea? Meniere’s Disease What is observed on the audiogram of a person w/ a noise induced hearing loss? A drop at the 4000 Hz level What term describes the process that facilitates one’s ability to minimize or prevent the limitations & restrictions on a person’s life caused by a hearing loss? Aural Habilitation or Rehabilitation What can be considered an assistive listening device? Closed Captioning/TV What is required to be eligible for a cochlear implant? Severe Sensorineural hearing loss w/ no benefit from hearing aids. What is the purpose of hearing aids? Amplifies the auditory signal What is the term used to describe damage to hearing due to side effects of some medications? Otoxicity What term is used to describe hearing loss associated w/ the aging process? Presbycusis When can a person be diagnosed w/ a noise induced hearing loss? Following exposure to sounds over a long period of time. What has happened when someone is diagnosed w/ Otosclerosis? Unusual bone growth has occurred in stapes. What is the speech banana? Region where all the phonemes of language fall on the audiogram. What allows you to equalize air pressure? Eustachian Tube Two things you see on a healthy eardrum? Malleus Cone of Light What are some Assistive Devices? Closed Captioning TV FM Systems Telephones What is the most common hearing loss among adults? Sensorineural (most common) damage to cochlea; aging, disease, noise exposure Presbycusis loss due to aging; high frequency hearing loss Children have two types of losses: Born w/ it (genetic) Acquiring it later (disease or injury) Two Main Causes of Hearing Loss: Too much wax in the ear Fluid in the middle ear If there were a dip at 4000 Hz, what would be a possible cause of this person’s hearing loss? Noise induced Speech vs. Language? Speech: oral output, sound production for communication Language: thinking, processing, thoughts Language: complex & dynamic system of conventional symbols that is used in various modes for thoughts & communication. Hearing Aid vs. Cochlear Implant? Hearing Aid: amplifies sound & is most effective for a mild to moderate hearing loss. Cochlear Implant: bypasses damaged hair cells & stimulates auditory nerve, is most effective for a severe to profound hearing loss, effective on severe Sensorineural hearing loss w/ no benefit from hearing aids. Disorder vs. Difference? Disorder: something someone is not doing at the age that they are supposed to be, and interferes with their life. Difference: second language or a dialect. State License vs. ASHA? ASHA: certification State License: licenser (license is only good for whichever state you licensed with) Hearing Process: 1. Sound is collected by pinna & enters ear canal. 2. Tympanic membrane vibrates, causing Ossicular chain to vibrate. 3. Stapes pushes against oval window causing Endolymph movement. 4. Hair cells are activated & convert movement to electrical impulses. 5. Acoustic nerve carries info to primary auditory cortex. Hearing Mechanism 5 sections Outer Ear Middle Ear Inner Ear Acoustic Nerve Brains auditory processing centers Parts of the Ear: Outer Ear Middle Ear Inner Ear Outer EarFunctions& Main Structures Pinna: Visible portion of the ear/Sound collector. Canal: Connects pinna w/ eardrum/Protects the tympanic membrane (eardrum) & enhances sound pressure. Cerumen: Waxy substance found in the ear. Middle EarFunctions & Main Structures Acts as a transformer by boosting the pressure of sound energy to inner ear. Tympanic Membrane (ear drum): Forms an airtight & sterile seal to middle ear/Thin, flexible, & is responsive to sound wave energy. Ossicles: Three tiny bones in middle ear (malleus*hammer, incus*anvil, stapes*stirrup)/The Ossicles work together to boost & transmit pressure to inner ear. Eustachian Tube: Connects middle ear to pharynx (back of throat), opens w/ each swallow, keeps equal pressure between middle ear & outside, & allows drainage of fluid from middle ear. Inner Ear Functions & Structures Converts energy to a code, which can be interpreted by the brain. Oval Window: Small opening in the cochlea that connects to the footplate of the stapes. Cochlea: (sensory organ) Snaillike organ containing hair cells/Basilar membrane: Floor of the cochlea/Organ of Corti: Contains hair cells, called cilia, which responds to movement of the Endolymph. Endolymph: Fluid that fills the cochlea. Acoustic Nerve Functions & Structures Carries neural impulses to the brain. Vestibular Division: Transmits info from the semicircular canals for balance. Auditory Division: Transmits info from the cochlea for hearing. Hearing Loss Treatments: Medication Surgery Hearing Aid Cochlear Implant Types of Adult Hearing Disorders: (Pathways of Sound) Conductive Hearing Loss least common type Air Conduction tested by introducing sounds through ear canal, usually w/ headphones. Bone Conduction tested by introducing vibrations through bone behind the ear. Sound bypasses middle ear & goes directly to cochlea. ***Know how to label the interaction parts of the Ear. ***Know how to read an Audiogram. Conductive: horizontal Sensorineural: downward slope
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