Psych 2010 notes for test 1
Psych 2010 notes for test 1 PSYCH 201
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This 7 page Bundle was uploaded by Lane Chloe on Tuesday January 26, 2016. The Bundle belongs to PSYCH 201 at Clemson University taught by Jo Jorgensen in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 01/26/16
PSYCHOLOGY Test 1 CH 1 Base rate- number of natural occurrences Bias- decision trap 92% of CEOs have dogs so there might be a connection But 95% of base rate have dogs so the decision trap is ignoring the base rate Psychology- study of the brain and behavior Originates from physiology and philosophy. It is kind of between the two. Hawthorne effect- When being observed working, one works faster. Psychology is a science and it’s harder than you think It’s based on empirical evidence- direct observation, tests Father of psychology was Wilhelm Wundt. He established first psych lab in Germany in 1879 He studied conscious experience: attention, memory, and time studies Largest growth of Psych was in the US due to it being a safe haven for free thinking G. Stanley Hall started America’s first psych lab, first journal, and was first president of the American Psychological Association (APA) Two schools in US 1) Structuralism- the “What” of psychology. Analyzed consciousness into basic elements: sensations, feelings, and images. Obtained through introspection: one’s one personal psychological experiences. 2) Functionalism- “Why” of Psychology. Started by William James. Studies the function or purpose of consciousness. “Stream of Consciousness” Both are dead but functionalism led to applied Psych Psychologists give many reasons for behavior at the same time. Psychoanalysis- th Developed by Freud in the early 20 century; said behavior is influenced by the unconscious mind (outside awareness). Focused a lot on sex; it was resisted because of sexual conservatism at this time Freud was a medical doctor who specialized in neurology, not a psychologist Many ideas are now accepted due to further research and experimentation (not all) Unconscious mind is looked at differently than consciousness. Behaviorism- Developed by John Watson, from Greenville! Studied only observable behavior: overt or observed response or activity of an organism; to be more scientific. Since consciousness and such cannot be observed, Watson viewed the study of consciousness as a bit unscientific. Believed people are shaped by their environment: nature vs. nurture Studied animals often because animals could be controlled entirely Big in the 50s and 60s BF Skinner- one of the main proponents; believed behavior was the result of positive and negative reinforcement; Said freewill was an illusion; we do things because we get something in return Humanism- Emphasized freedom and personal growth; very optimistic of human nature Showed little emphasis on animal experimentation; they saw animals as different Saw humans as goal oriented Cognitive Psych- Cognition- mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge. Studies memory, etc. A lot like classic psychology. Born in 1950s and surpassed behaviorism in the 70s Biological psych- Talks about biological structures and biochemical processes Connects mind, body, and behavior Also originated in the 50s and 60s Evolutionary psych- Adaptive value for members of a species over generations Reproductive success Originated in the 80s The ideal female figure has changed down the generations. Only the waist to hip ratio has stayed the same. It is probably a sign of fertility, which is why. On test: Fig. 1.7 know area and Fig. 1.8 focus list Ignore Fig. 1.3 CH 2 Pellagra- 1900; lots of child deaths, especially in the south. A researcher found out that pellagra was more prominent with people that had bad plumbing. He thought that, since those with bad plumbing are usually poor, it may be due to poor and unsanitary diet. So, he tested this hypothesis by ingesting food containing bodily fluids and excrements from a handful of sick people. The results were inconclusive. He then took two groups of prisoners and gave one a bad diet and another a good one. The group with the bad diet got really sick and the one with a good diet didn’t. It turned out to be the result of a vitamin deficiency. Scientific method! Hooray! Experiment- Manipulate variable under controlled conditions and observe change in second variable Independent Variable- Experimenter manipulates Dependent Variable- Outcome Experimental Group- Special treatment Control Group- No “special treatment” Random Assignment- All subjects have an equal chance of being assigned to either group Advantages & Disadvantages Correlation/Causation 1. Experiment 2. Large groups 3. Random assignment replication correlation does not equal causation Operational definition- concrete definition of how to measure a variable Come up with it before experiment Population/Sample Population- All the members of the specified group Sample- Subset of population Sampling Bias- A sample that is not representative of the population You cannot generalize findings Random sampling Experimenter Bias- When the researcher’s expectations influence the outcome Hypothesis and Theory- Hypothesis- is a prediction or a hunch about the relationship between two (or more) variables Theory- is interrelated set of concepts used to explain a set of observations and make predictions about results of future experiments Falsifiability- a theory or hypothesis must be stated in a way that it can be proven false Placebo Effect- When the participants expectations lead to change with fake treatment Single blind-when experimenter is aware of the specifics of the experiment, the participants are not. Double blind-Neither is aware Correlations- exists when two variables are related to each other Correlation coefficient- measures the strength of the relationship between two variables Measures strength and direction; a perfect correlation is +1 Number is the strength; the sign is the direction Statistics- The use of mathematics to organize, summarize, and interpret numerical data 1. Descriptive a. Central Tendency- the mean b. Variability- how far data is around the median How much scores vary from one another and from the mean 2. Inferential- interpret data and draw conclusions a. Statistical significance- probability that observed findings are due to chance is very low. CH 10 (yes, Chapter 10!) Development- sequence of age related changes that occur as a person progresses from conception to death. Prenatal development- development from conception to birth; Maternal nutrition is important; can have an effect decades after birth. Drug and alcohol- heavy: fetal alcohol syndrome- facial features, brain, and motor development affected even moderate drinking even crack doesn’t have as bad an effect! Illness/virus- mothers who have the flu while pregnant are more likely to have a child who is schizophrenic. Stress Childhood Development Motor Development- progression of muscle coordination required for physical activity Developmental norms- median age Culture Same sequence Cognitive development- transitions in youngsters’ patterns of thinking Piaget- stage theory: 4 different stages of development; 1. Sensor-motor (birth – 2)- learns of the world by touching it; Object permanence 2. Preoperational (2 – 7)- characterized by shortcomings Conservation- kids easily fooled into thinking things are larger or smaller due to shape. Centration- focus on one feature Irreversibility- inability to mentally undo something Egocentrism- see the world through their eyes Animism- see everything as living 3. Concrete operational- (7 – 11)- operations with tangible objects/events Decentration Reversibility 4. Formal operational (11+)- after this point, one changes in degree, not nature Abstract concepts Shortcomings of this system: underestimated children’s cognitive abilities Thought babies understood object permanence at two years; actually only about 3 – 4 months. Underestimated culture. Stage theory- Not as discreet as stated Kohlberg- moral reasoning- why/reasoning 1. Preconventional- external authority 2. Conventional- internalize rules Rigid 3. Postconventional- personal code of ethics Shortcomings: the stage aspect of it. Underestimated culture Focused only on interpersonal conflicts Attachment- close emotional bond between infant and caregiver Harlow- had monkeys to learn this Separation anxiety- emotional distress Starts 6 – 8 mo. and ends 14 – 18 mo. Aging and Cog. Changes The decline is actually small After age 60, they were using the mean Most are stable through the age of 81 What is affected first is speed Problem solving and application stays the same for the most part Use it or lose it Read personal application at the end of chapter one, you don’t need to know psychiatry 7 unifying Extraneous variables p.39 Naturalistic observation p.45 Case studies p.46 Distortions in self report data p.50 348-355, 355-356 CH1 Know table 1.1 Know area and focus of fig1.7 but not the pie chart Personal application Understand the 7 unifying themes but don’t need to memorize list. Won’t ask you to apply CH2 Extraneous variables p.39 Naturalistic observation p.45 Case studies46 Distortions in self report data p.50-1 Test 2 Nervous system- Made up of central ns and peripheral ns Central ns is divided into the brain and spinal cord Receives, stores, processes, and interprets information Also transmits information Spinal cord can act reflexively without brain input; Meninges- are the enclosing sheathes protecting the brain and spinal cord Peripheral ns is divided into the somatic and autonomic ns Somatic – voluntary skeletal muscles and sensory; there’s afferent and efferent Autonomic- there’s sympathetic and parasympathetic; involuntary nervous system, such as heart, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, etc.; Sympathetic gives output of energy; fight or flight Parasympathetic is opposite; lowers heart rate, ends fight or flight, etc.
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