Bundle of Study Guides- DFST 2033
Bundle of Study Guides- DFST 2033 DFST 2033
Popular in Parenting in Diverse Families
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HIST 1301 - 001
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This 27 page Bundle was uploaded by Kenzie Rattan on Tuesday January 26, 2016. The Bundle belongs to DFST 2033 at University of North Texas taught by Sean Jefferson in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 81 views. For similar materials see Parenting in Diverse Families in Child and Family Studies at University of North Texas.
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Date Created: 01/26/16
Review #1 Parenting Class Children who had “bad” parents will turn out to be bad parents? FALSE Adolescents feel as close to their caregivers as they did the 70’s? TRUE Because the U.S. provides so few benefits, our poverty rates are among the highest? TRUE Parenting is a process of actions & interaction between parent & child? TRUE The U.S. would be an example of a collectivist culture? FALSE, the U.S. is an individualistic society. Social pressures in China tend to come from authority figures while in Japan pressures come from peers? TRUE Parents in the U.S. are more likely than Asian Americans parents to encourage their children to spend long hours at school & in studies that would lead to productive work & economic gain? FALSE Race would be considered a social construct? TRUE A person’s race is concrete & cannot change? FALSE An ethnic group may not have members in more than one racial group? FALSE The selfesteem of African Americans & Asian Americans was higher in areas where that group had greater concentrations of population? TRUE Parents do not learn to parent from observing their parents & taking care of younger siblings? FALSE Genes do not only produce chemical changes in one’s environment, the environment triggers changes in the ways genes function & the proteins they produce? TRUE Children who are relatively active & fearless & have little response to their own wrongdoing do not benefit from gentle, persuasive techniques? TRUE Mothers with high school education or less, are more likely to cohabitate with the father? TRUE Marriage is in part related to economic factors? TRUE Young mothers & fathers in their teens have few difficulties conceiving? TRUE Babies—in the womb—cannot hear noises, which can stimulate a spurt of activity? FALSE Nutritional supplements to mothers during pregnancy have decreased the birth weights of babies? FALSE The quality of the marriage influences the coparenting alliance parents would build after the baby comes? TRUE When asked about previous day events, “Family” was reported to be the greatest emotional strain, as well as the greatest pleasure? TRUE Magnetic Resonance Imaging revealed that holding partners hands provided relief from stress? TRUE Children of dismissive & disapproving parents have a hard time trusting their own judgments? TRUE To have a diagnosis of Major Depressive Disorder, depressed mood must be accompanied by at least four other symptoms? TRUE Geographic proximity is the most important predictor of the nature of the relationship between grandparents & children? TRUE Researchers believe people copy what they see others do, & what they think others have done based on seeing the results of their actions? TRUE Injuries are the leading cause of death in children & teens? TRUE Media cannot have a positive influence on children? FALSE Why are we drawn to parenting? Programmed to respond positively to babies Society encourages us to do (maturity & adulthood) Which people are more likely to list children as providing economic help & security in old age? Rural Residents African Americans What are problems that parents face when childrearing? Personality Traits Sibling Conflicts Disappointment in self as a parent Responsible caregiving includes: Material Resources Education Medical Care Indirect (1) vs. Direct Interactions (2): Feeding Teaching (1) Advocating for better schools (2) How does society influence the parenting process? Provides support for parents & children: *Taxes *Free Education *Protection for Children Services Which qualities of children influences how their caregiver responds to them? Gender Temperament (stubborn) Physical Health List 3 parenting partners: Parent Child Society Four major forms of family life: Extended Farm Family Nuclear Family Diverse Families Forms Multigenerational How have children changed parents? Heightened awareness Integrate experiences from childhood Become more knowledgeable & creativity Children’s curiosity sparks adult’s curiosity Culture is influenced by: Social Political Economic What do children absorb culture influences from? Activity Patterns Social Personal Influences/Interest Economic Social Status is based on: Education Occupation Income The two aspects of selfconcept are: Personal Identity Reference Group Orientation Four patterns of acculturation are: Integration Simulation Separation Marginization Not Committing When parents are loving & supportive: Children are likely to grow up & be secure with others Feel good about having others depend on them Understanding & supportive w/ partners Children who form insecure, avoidant attachments are: More likely to be distant in close relationships More likely to be less sensitive to children’s needs Executive Functions (EF) includes: The ability to inhibit habitual behaviors The ability to hold & use information in working memory The ability to adjust to change The three forms of insecure attachments are: Anxious: Avoid Attachments Anxious: Resistant Attachments Disorganized: Disoriented Attachments Attachment theory helps parents understand: Attachments are formed w/ important people throughout lifespan The way parents treat babies creates longlasted expectations about the way the world will treat them. In Piaget’s Constructivist Theory he illustrates how children constructed knowledge through: Assimilation Accommodation Factors that account for the growing number of older firsttime mothers: Feminism Advances in Conception Advances in Reproductive Conception Men who attempt to conceive a child after the age of 40 increase the risk of: Spontaneous Miscarriage Child w/ Autism Bipolar & Schitzo Advantages that older parents have includes being more likely to: Have more Education Higher Status Jobs Higher Income Preterm infants who received messages were? More likely to gain weight faster Awake & more active during the day More alert & responsive during developmental assessment. It is believed that positive emotions: Undo the effects of negative feelings by calming cardiovascular arousal triggered by anger, sadness, and fear. Enable children to resist temptation more successfully. Parents who feel uncomfortable w/ feelings handle discomfort by: Dismissing the importance of feelings Disapproving & punishing the expressions of feelings Accepting all feelings, no matter how inappropriate the form of expression The three parts of the Imessage are: Clear statement of how the parent feels Statement of behavior that has caused the parent to feel that way Statement of why the behavior is upsetting to the parent Parents promote family wellbeing & children’s growth when they establish routines that: Meet everyone’s needs w/ the least amount conflict Within the families time & money Meet culture goals & values Are sustainable on an ongoing basis Parents encourage children to use media as it: Provides parents w/ free time to do chores Relax Watch TV yourself O’Keefe & Clark describe four risks for adolescents in using social media: Peer to peer risk Inappropriate content Lack of understanding privacy issues Outside influence of marketing other groups Four kinds of problems in disciplining children: Inconsistent punishment Irritable, harsh, explosive discipline Low supervision Inflexible, rigid punishment Physical Activity increases children’s: SelfEsteem Decreases Anxiety & Stress Parenting: Individuals who nourish, protect, & guide life to maturity Goodness of Fit: Great balance between caregiver & child Culture is a system of: Values, beliefs, ways of thinking, routines, rituals. Socialization: Beliefs, attitudes, values of a culture that helps individuals become contributing members. Emotional Enculturation: Learning through positive & emotional attachment. Ethnicity: Individual membership that shares a common ancestral heritage. Acculturation: A process about learning a new culture & deciding what aspects are to be retained or sacrificed from the culture of origin. Verbal Punishment: Words have an impact on concept of self, decisions, & lifestyle. Emotional Abuse: Does NOT involve talking Does NOT involve anything physical It is ALL about looks, laughing, or how someone acts Physical Punishment: Someone getting attacked. Authoritative: Balanced Authoritarian: Too much effort Passive: Too little of effort Racism: Prejudice Discrimination Lenore Skenazy: Children are as sage today as they were when their parents were growing up. Temperament: Babies initiate ways of reaction and responding to the world. Attachment Theory: John Bowlby Attachment: An enduring affectionate tie that unites one person to another, over time & across space. Freud’s Psychosexual Development: Trace many adult symptoms to anxieties about experiences occurring in early childhood. Placenta: The main organ that attaches the baby to the mother & filters substances. Kangaroo Care: Skin to skin contact between child & caregiver. Joy: Play Activity Active Listening: Helping children express feelings in a direct, effective way. Stories: Shape the views of ourselves, other people, & events in our lives. Tell us about the world & our culture & the values that hold families together. Essence of Family Stress Theory: An event that has distressed one family member within the family. Substance Dependence: The compulsive use of substances & stimulants despite significant negative effects on daily activities, psychological functioning, healthy, and safety. Developmental Trajectory: A behavior extending throughout the lifespan. Encouragement: A critical feature in the grown—promoting environment (according to Dreikurs). Mistakes: Incompletions, not failures Natural Consequences: The direct result of a physical act. Logical Consequences: Events that follow a social act. How does society teach “false masculinity”? Males don’t cry or share emotion. Countries with large income inequalities have higher rates of crime. This affects the wealthy as well. We are social creatures who do not like to be inferior. Warm & Sensitive Caregiving enhances… SelfRegulation: You think about doing something but you choose not to. In 2008 median family income was about $63,000. Why do we reluctantly report the median income? Better representation of that group. The biggest factor that influences how children spend their time… Industrialization Parents & teachers can decrease prejudice & discrimination by… Increasing cross group interactions w/ peers. Teaching children about difficulties that groups have experienced, leads to… Increase empathy & decreased prejudice. The range of actions a child can perform on their own is… Zone of Proximate Development: What you can do on your own. The most common form of family life for newborns is… Married Parents Mothers who consumed a high fiber, low fat diet in the year before conception significantly lowered babies risk of… Neural Tube & Brain Defects Those who are voluntary childless are most likely to be: European Americans who are employed. Half of all unintended pregnancies resulted from… Conception failure or failing to use contraception. Which of the following best describes women w/ a college education (As opposed to those w/o a college education)? More likely to marry by age 30, marry men w/ college degree, have greater incomes, stay married, & care for kids. Which of the following best describes mothers who bear unwanted children? Single & Divorce Unemployed In ART procedures resulting in a single birth there was an… Increased number of children born w/ heart defects, cleft pallets, & gastrointestinal defects. At age two, children of highly stressed mothers had… Poorer cognitive & language skills than babies whose mothers experienced low stress level. As early as the 1950’s research has documented that the satisfaction of marital relationships following the birth of a child has… Decreased The most disruptive, stressful aspect of family life for parents & children alike is… Unresolved, destructive marital conflicts By overemphasizing children’s mistakes, children may… Feel they need to be perfect in order to gain acceptance. Bronfenbrenner Ecological Model: Microsystem Mesosystem Ecosystem Macrosystem American mothers & fathers work longer hours than parents in other countries. -True Between 2 & 4 percent of children in the U.S. are probably adopted. -True Children adopted by single parents do as well as those adopted by young couples. -True Single people tend to adopt more difficult children. -True Adoptive & birth parents are given greater access to info & more contact w/ each other. -True Childhood care is required by about 90% of children of employed mothers. Birth mothers show better adjustment to adoption after placement, than birth mothers who do not maintain contact. Secularization of social values has led to a focus on self-interest & self- growth. Teen’s parents reported they would need to give up negative behaviors & outburst of anger to be good mothers. Adolescent girls in father absent homes were more likely to initiate sexual activity at an early age. When parents were romantically involved, fathers were engaged. When the relationship ended fathers decreased their contact. If the romance resumed fathers became more engaged. Parents refer to success at work as: -Having time to get work done & being able to focus on their work w/o interruptions. -Completing a task before another one. Children in “double jeopardy”: -Experience risk factors for development at home, had higher levels of behavioral problems at daycare, & lower levels of pro-social behaviors. Forming a new family ethnic identity means: -Learning new language -Celebrating new holidays -Living in new areas Gender differences were found as: -Girls were more interested & pre-occupied w/ searching for their biological parents. The Ethics Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine strongly recommends: -Prior to donations, donors & receiving parents get counseling & agree on the release of donor information to the child. Fathers see their role as: -Being there for the child, supporting the child, doing whatever is possible to help their child. The Fragile Families & Child Well-being Study was: -Concerned about the increasing number of babies born to unmarried parents & uncertain about how parents & children performed in these families. A factor interfering with mother’s ability to form supportive relationships w/ biological fathers or new partners is: -Mother’s distrust of men. Human Capital is: -Parent skills, abilities, & knowledge. Social Capital is: -Family & social relationships that promote development. Financial Capital is: -Economic Resources. Social fathers are defined as: -Men who live w/ the mother & the young child, who have a positive impact on children’s lives when they were highly engaged w/ the child. What are the benefits of parental leave at the birth or adoption of a child? -Enabling parents to help babies settle into regular sleeping, waking, & eating schedules. What are the strategies Mothers use to manage the demands of their time? -Staggering obligations -Expand to resources to meet demands -Eliminate obligations that are not essential About one-half of the children adopted in the U.S. are adopted by biological relatives & other kin such as… -Biological relatives & step parents. In some cases the birth mother selects the adopting parents, this would be an example of… -Open adoption Children are most frequently adopted from what country? -China Children adopted by parents of different racial/ethnic backgrounds are… -Psychologically well adjusted w/o behavioral or emotional problems. -Want opportunities to blend & feel like everyone else. Some of the challenges of adoptees parents of different racial/ethnic backgrounds are… -Feeling alone & distant from others because they do not look like them. Within domestic transracial adoptions, children’s adjustment is eased when… -Parents form a new family ethnic identity. What is the function of the Hague Convention on International Adoption? -Safe guard children’s rights. When is the ideal time to tell children they are adopted? -Sometime in the toddler & preschool years. What are the two paths that children recognize as paths to parenthood? -Birth & Adoption What are some of the questions adoptees have regarding identity issues? -What are my roots in this world? -How am I like my biological parents? Adoptees who established contact w/ their biological parents reported… -Decreases in feelings of loss & rejection. Births from unmarried mothers are twice as likely to be from… -African American women & Latina women for European American women. In Latino families that held strong values regarding the importance of family values & obligations, & held traditional beliefs about gender roles… -Conflict was lower & cohesion increased. Which group was reported to be less likely to have no contact with their children? (More likely to have contact with their children?) -African American Fathers Cognitive readiness & infant’s characteristics predicted… -Mother’s effective parenting techniques, which predicted children’s competence. If schools stimulate academic & social competence… -Children will be less likely to disengage from high school frustration & engaged in impulsive, deviant behaviors. The most important aspect of the parent child relationships for later well being is… -Absence of harsh discipline. The mothers were more likely to have… -Less social & emotional support when their children were young. Father absence had a greater effect on the risk for teen births for… -European American and Latin teens, rather than African American teens. Higher levels of engagement w/ children predicted… -Lower levels of aggressive behaviors & better health. Three policies that can help parents at the work place: -Parental leave at the birth or adoption of child. -Leave when children & family are sick or have educational needs. -Childcare. Economic & social changes since the 1970’s that have created diversity in family work patterns are: -Increasing number of mothers entering the workplace, especially mothers of children under six. -A marked increase in the percentage of children who live in single parent homes. -Nature of work has changed in this country. Parents who felt positive spillover from work to home: -Were married -Had jobs that demanded more days per week -Had more supportive supervisions & coworkers. Families with marked stress are: -Set to have lower education -Low income Parents feel good about their parenting when they spend time: -Eating meals -Doing homework -Playing w/ their children Lack of supervision & monitoring in early adolescence is related to increase use of: -Alcohol -Marijuana -Cigarettes Four patterns of working parents: -Equal shifters -60-40 couples -75-25 couples -Alternating Shifters Which adults were previously excluded from adoption? -Older -Single -Gay/Lesbian -Disabled -Poor Adoptees were grateful for opportunities such as: -Good education -Becoming racially close w/ others -Increased ability to relate to many different kinds of people Identified effect of early institutional depend on: -Quality of early physical & medical care -Length of time spent in care -Age at which the child is assessed following adoption Four types of communication patterns that intensified or reduced problem behaviors: -Consensual -Pluralistic -Protective -Laissez Faire Difficulties teen parents experience are related to there: -Social backgrounds -Early family relationships w/ own parents -Personality characteristics -Relationships w/ peers -Experience of sexual abuse Compared to teens that did not have babies, adolescent mothers are: -Less independent -Less certain of themselves -Less trusting of themselves/others Teen mothers felt pregnancy brought negative changes such as: -Not feeling attractive -No longer able to participate in usual activities -Loss of freedom Three kinds of relationships between ten mothers & mother/grandparents: -Replace teen mother w/ the grandparents -Assist teen mothers & supplement their care as needed -Assist & teach teens how to be good mothers Mothers involved in church communities had: -Higher self-esteem -More positive & less likely to be harsh while parenting behaviors -Greater occupational & educational success Protective factors in the child, mother, & parent-child relationship: -Child’s characteristics -Maternal Qualities -Parenting Qualities -Qualities of the larger social context Children growing up apart from their family are more likely to: -Lower grades -Unemployed -Dropout -Less education Three aspects of father’s contribution: -Financial -Social -Community Exam 3 Review DFS The average newborn sleeps about sixteen to eighteen hours a day True Babies recognize their _____ and quickly show a preference for ______. Mother’s voice Her face During the first three months, babies generally cry up to… Eleven minutes per hour, total of 2 hours per day Babies copy their parents _____, responding with joy and interest to mothers’ happy faces, with anger and a form of fear to mother’s angry faces, and with sadness to mothers’ sad faces. Emotional Reactions _____ as _____ create mutual understanding and a shared state of meaning termed ____. Interactions Social Partners Intersubjectivity In the state of ____, the baby uses the parent as a ____ for responding to experience. Shared Meaning Social Reference When parents share ____ with their children, the child’s ____ is advanced and reflected in greater competence. Positive Emotions Neurobehavioral Development ___ parenting appears to ___ children’s actions and create connections so children learn more effectively. Sensitive Scaffold By ____, babies have learned that people and objects are separate from them and exist even when they are not seen. This is an example of ____. 8 or 9 months Object Performance ____ is essential to the concept of a coherent world. Object Performance ____ give children tools to communicate with others and enable them to represent their experience in words that are internalized into thoughts. Words The ___, ___, and ____ of parents’ language influence what children understand and talk about. Amount Content Form Researchers found that the typical parenting routines in all families provide ____. Only a very limited vocabulary At birth, infant’s emotional repertoire consists of three general states ____. Contentment Alert Interests Distress/Irritability ___ develops at seven or eight months, and parents see it most in ___, which develops ____. Fear Stranger Anxiety At that time Newborn infants cry at the distress of other newborns, this is an example of: Empathy Babies are often ___ with failures. Unconcerned Children’s capacity for control begins to emerge when ___? They react out, form intentions, & develop a rudimentary sense of self. Toddlers are most successful in ___ forbidden activities when they direct their attention ___ from these activities. Avoiding Away Four important contributions to secure attachment in the first year: Sensitivity Mutuality Synchronicity Positive Attitude Mothers and fathers are ____ competent as caregivers. Equally ___ are more attentive visually than ___. Fathers Mothers Bornstein describes four main tasks for parents of infants… Nurturing Material Social Didactic Mothers who responded ___ to the cries of her baby ___ the time that the baby cried. Immediately Decreased When babies cry for more than ___ hours a day for ___ week straight they are said to have ___. Three Three Colic Reason parents sleep with babies: Reduce crying from the child Stay connected with the child Pediatrician William Shears describes the five B’s of attachment parenting in infancy… Bounding w/ the infant at birth Breast Feeding Bed Sharing Baby Wearing Believing the babies cry is an important signal Parents can take many actions to encourage selfcontrol and selfregulation… Modeling Preventive Actions Conversations about rules Children form a sense of gender and ethnic identity by… Age 2 Children ask ___ to ___ questions an hour. Many of these begin with ___. 70 to 90 Why During the preschool years some children develop ___ motivation. Mastery Parents promote children’s vocabulary when they… Refer to many topics Use a variety of words & ask many questions Talk a lot with their children Toddlers understand that people’s feelings lead to ___. Actions Children who have a ___ orientation believe failure and success reflect their value as a person. Performance Mothers of highly aggressive children are… More likely to be single, depressed, w/ low income, & limited education Young children who are the most fearful in the least threatening situations are… Those who are at risk for later anxiety disorders Mothers who are too overprotective… Increased their child’s chance of being fearful throughout the preschool years. North American culture views inhibition and social withdrawal… Negatively as children are not conforming to the cultural ideas of independence, self assertive achievement, & social outgoingness. Experiencing chronically high levels of stress… With high levels of cortisol affects children’s brain development decreases selfregulation, memory skills, & learning. Gender identity is… An individual’s personal experience of what it means to be a boy or girl, man or woman. Temper outburst reflect… Anger, lack of control, and noncompliance Aggression is… Out of control behavior that is destructive & hurts others or their possessions. Parents must change their ___ image in order to live up to a ___ image of themselves. Ideal Realistic If children go to school with heightened levels of ___ and ___ they may not be able to learn. Fear Anxiety Making friends and developing intellectual skills increases feelings of ___ and may protect children from engaging in ___. Competence High Risk of Activities The view that ability is internal and unchangeable is referred to as ___. Entity view of ability The view that ability is developed in small steps is referred to as: Incremental view of ability Effective teachers have clear, fair, and ___ expectations of students emphasizing ___ learning. Realistic Mastery Children who experience difficulty reading are likely to become ___. Aggressive It has been reported that teachers are most likely to have problems with ___ & ____. Boys African Americans Schools generally reflect ___ values. Middle class European American Extreme loneliness is related to ___. Lack of friends Shyness Submissive behavior Attributing social failures to one’s own internal inadequacies Global feelings of selfworth are related to ___ & ___. One’s feelings of competence in domains of importance. The amount of social support one receives from others. Elementary school children’s selfesteem is related to ___. Their ability to control their feelings & behavior Conflict in sibling relationships predicts ___. Anxiety & Depression Children are attached to individuals whose interests are ___ to theirs. Similar Hitting, kicking, and taunting are types of ___ aggression. Overt Spreading rumors, refusing to be someone’s friend unless the individual does favors are types of ___ aggression. Relational Poor sleep is related to ___. School inattentiveness & restlessness that interfere w/ learning. In the U.S. we deal w/ bullying on an ___ level. Individual Siblings may use school difficulties as a means of ___ or for ___ that enable them to feel better about themselves and their skills. Teasing Competition In Galinsky’s interpretive stage, parents ___. Develop strategies for helping children cope w/ new authorities. ___ contributes to feelings of confidence and security. Religious Faith ___ changes occur before any sign s of puberty. Hormonal The onset of pubertal changes, which is primarily studied in girls, depends on these influences: Genetic Physical Social Psychological Adolescents delay going to bed for reasons such as ___. Physical, Social, & School The physical reason adolescents delay going to bed is due to ___. Changes in melatonin secretion ___ which is a ___ plays a role in feelings of pleasure. Dopamine Neurotransmitter Early adolescents problem solving skills improve due to their ___. Working memory & information processing skills increase. Early adolescents between 12 & 14 enter ___ operation stage. Piaget’s Formal Students who have an ____, have more positive motivation for schoolwork and their grades are less likely to decline. Incremental theory of ability. Stressful events at home and at school create ___. Spill Over Effects Parent’s attempts to control children’s private thoughts & feelings are related to ___. Early adolescents feelings dejected and depressed. Recent studies suggest parents’ knowledge of their children’s whereabouts comes from ____. Their child’s willingness to tell them. Children benefit from the greater ___ that comes from sharing experiences & feeling understood. Intimacy Friends have as many ___ as nonfriends but they work out differences in ____ satisfying ways. Conflicts Mutually What are the “don’ts” to the process of encouraging conversation? Don’t force the child to reveal feelings. Don’t give advice once the child has begun to speak. Don’t rush to find the solution. Don’t hurry to answer the question. The Internet enables bullies to ___ rather than ___ victims into their homes & spread rumors far & wide. Track Trial 74% of all deaths between the ages of ten & twentyfour come from four potentially preventable causes… Motor vehicle crashes (30%) Unintentional injuries (16%) Homicide (16%) Suicide (10%) Longitudinal research on substance abuse users reveals difficulties in ___ precede substance use in ____. Elementary School High School Approximately ___ of teens get ___ hours of sleep per night. 1/3 8 hours Two longitudinal studies found working up to ___ hours a week did not have any negative effects, but working less or more than ___ hours a week intensifies the school problems. 15 20 Adolescent selfregulation is based on ___. Experiences in past years, and on many factors in the present age period. Religious activities enable adolescents to bring up ___. Puzzling Issues Two qualities are thought to foster a successful parentteen partnership ___. Ability to communicate w/ teens. Ability to allow teens to seek independence. Diana Baumrind typology of parenting styles includes ___. Authoritative Parents Authoritarian Parents Permissive Parents Authoritative parents have ___. Strong commitments to children & balance demands w/ responsiveness to children’s needs. While authoritarian parenting may be negative for ___, it appears to have positive features for ____. European Americans African Americans ___ set the stage for dating & romantic relationships. Friendships ___ sexual experiences change family relationships as teens tend to become more distant from their parents. First Parenting in Diverse Families- Final Review Kenzie Rattan Review Exam 1 study guide Childs ability to speak/use words: words come from what they’re exposed to. A child is a blank slate. So small vocab if parent doesn’t speak a lot. Parents use a limited vocabulary now days, which means the children have a small vocabulary. o (AMOUNT, CONTENT, FREQUENCY, & FORM will have an impact on the child. It is not the TONE, ACCENT.) This is critical because a limited amount of words limit the our interactions w/ other people. Social Partners: mutual understanding come from Intersubjectivity. Children ask questions starting w/ why, approx. 70-90 questions per hour. Individuals Motivation: o Mastery Motivation: self environment o Performance Motivation: social environment – more stressful ▯ Babies in fear/failure are usually unconcerned. o Children who go to school w/ high amounts of fear/anxiety: not good learners, cannot pay attention, do not perform well. o High Risk Activity: anything that gives you anxiety. o Children that are the most fearful in the least threatening situations = high level anxiety. One’s ability is innate and unchangeable: Entity View of Ability One’s ability to change: Incremental Theory of Ability o ITA- Formed by the parent/child interaction. Modeled if the parent has a realistic image of themselves rather than ideal expectations. More likely to become better & motivated. Ideal- my child is going to Harvard Realistic- my child is going to go to school & work diligently every single day. ITA: If a teacher has realistic expectations = Mastery Motivation. Middle Class European Americans ???? Boys/African Americans- Problematic ▯ Friends have just as many conflicts as non-friends, they just mutually work their problems out. o Relationships: relational, aggression (passive-, overt- punch, cohesive- threatened to spread rumor, so that you’ll do something) The internet enables bullies to trail rather than track victims into their homes to spread rumors about them. ▯ Stressful events @ home & school = spillover affects o Focus on career = spillover increase o Focus on family = spillover decrease o Support from work = minimize negative spillovers Gender Identity: personal experience to be boy/girl/man/woman Gender: cultural (categorize them into groups of being male/female) Gender Expectations- behaviors that male/female should adopt in a particular society. Gender Roles- acquiring the motives, values, and patterns of behavior that one’s cultural considers important to their biological selves. Culture- Latino Families w/ strong values & traditions: conflict was lower/cohesion increased. Latino’s that did not hold strong values & traditions: conflict increased/cohesion decreased. Birth to unmarried mothers are 2X as likely ?????? Husbands are more likely to state whining/nagging for cause for divorce. Wives are more likely to state extra marital affairs for the cause for divorce. Men & Women stated communication issues as the cause for divorce. Death of child, infidelity, financial stability = Divorce Secularization: increase focus on self interest & self growth. Double Jeopardy: children that discover stuff @ home & daycare. Parenting Styles: Diana B. o Authoritative o Authoritarian o Permissive: not strict, like a friend, bribing. Grandparents assist the biological parents: o Assisting & teaching the teen how to be a good mother. o Assisting & supplementing the teen as needed. o Replacing the teen as the mother of the child. Economic & Social Changes: o Diversity in family work patterns. o Increasing number of mothers entered the work force. Mothers & Fathers that both had jobs & obligations, felt good about parenting when they ate meals w/ their children. To minimize the demand of their time: they would stagger their time and obligations. Social Economic Status: o Occupation, Income, Education Most Important: Occupation 3 Components of Parenting: o Parent, Child, Society ▯ Single, Gay, & Poor adults were not excluded from adoption: False Single individuals adopted more difficult of children: True ▯ ▯ ▯
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