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Understanding of Music Course Notes

by: Garrett Bryant

Understanding of Music Course Notes MUNM 1113

Marketplace > University of Oklahoma > Music > MUNM 1113 > Understanding of Music Course Notes
Garrett Bryant

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About this Document

This is the culmination of all of my notes for this course.
The Understanding of Music
Melissa Baughman
Music, Theory
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This 11 page Bundle was uploaded by Garrett Bryant on Tuesday January 26, 2016. The Bundle belongs to MUNM 1113 at University of Oklahoma taught by Melissa Baughman in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see The Understanding of Music in Music at University of Oklahoma.


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Date Created: 01/26/16
The Understanding of Music  Elements of Music o Melody  High and low  Linear representation  The “tune”  Conjunct (smooth) vs. Disjunct (Tune jumps around)  Ode to Joy- Conjunct  Joy to the World- Conjunct  National Anthem- Disjunct  Phrases (Sentences) and cadences (Punctuation)  Amazing Grace o Rhythm  How long or short sounds last  Meter-Organization of beats into groups  Duple  Triple  Quadruple  Complexities  Upbeats  Offbeats  Syncopation  Polyrhythm o Harmony  What is it? Verticalization of pitch  Chords  Progression of chords  Sounds of harmony  Consonance-smooth  Dissonance-Harsh, unfinished, tense  Major vs. Minor keys  Types of harmony  Modality- medieval  Tonality- key/tonal center, has a home  Atonality- random o Texture  How do the melodies/parts fit together?  Monophonic  One single line or melody  Homophonic  Two or more melodies or parts at once  One melody is dominant  Polyphonic  Two or more independent melodies at once  Counterpoint- 3+ melodies at once  Imitative 2  A version of polyphonic texture that uses the same melody to introduce different voices/instruments. o Form  How the parts fit together-the big picture  Strophic  Has multiple verses  Through-composed  No repeated verses  Binary  Two part form where two contrasting sections repeat  Ternary  Three part form made up of two sections, with the first being repeated after the second  Tempo  Lento – Slowly  Largo – Slow and Stately  Adagio – Leisurely  Andante – At a walking pace  Allegro – Fast  Vivace – Lively  Presto – Very quickly  Dynamics  pp Pianissimo – very soft 3  p Piano – soft  mp Mezzo piano – moderately soft  mf Mezzo forte – moderately loud  f Forte – loud  f Fortissimo – very loud  Crescendo – growing louder  Decrescendo – growing softer  Sforzando – suddenly loud o Timbre  All instruments have a certain “color”  Aerophones o Flutes, whistles, accordions, bagpipes, horns  Chordophones o Violin, harp, guitar  Ideophones  Membranophones  Western Instrument Families  Strings  Woodwinds  Brass  Percussion  Keyboards  Ensembles  Choral 4 o SATB Chorus o Men’s Chorus o Women’s Choir o Children’s Chorus o Chamber Choir o A cappella  Instrumental o Chamber group o String quartet o Woodwind quintet o Brass quintet o Orchestra o Wind ensemble/concert band o Marching band o Jazz band o Rock band  Style and Function in Society o Create Definitions for each term:  Sacred-Churchy  Secular-Popular  Genre-Class  Crossover- combination  Medium- Group  Composed-written  Oral tradition-sung  Style-mood 5  Historical Periods o Music, poetry, painting, sculpture, architecture, science, sociology, politics, philosophy, psychology. o Medieval: 476-1475 o Rennaissance: 1475-1600 o Baroque: 1600-1750 o Classical: 1750-1820 o Romantic: 1820-1900 o Modern: 1900-1945 o Postmodern: 1945-Present  Evolution of Music o Vocal Music  Middle Ages – Renaissance  Power of the Christian church o Patrons o Resulted in mostly sacred music  Later middle ages o Cities, cathedrals  Renaissance o Science, secularization  Sacred Music  Liturgy o Structure of church service  Pope Gregory o Gregorian Chants  Chants based on mode 6 o Modal Harmony o Monophonic o Latin  The Mass  Variable  Ordinary o Kyrie o Gloria o Credo o Sanctus o Agnus Dei o Hildegard von Bingen  Regarded as a saint  Visions of the future  Founded convent in Germany  Composer  Set her own poetry to music o Rise of Polyphony  Two or more melodies at once  Regular meters, music is written down  Motet  Adds new texts in the upper voices  Gives chants precise rhythms to use as a basis for motet composition.  Motets could be sacred or secular  Secular Music 7 o Minstrels  Sing in public  Play instruments o Played for  Dancing, banquets o Subjects  Unrequited love  Passion o The French Ars Nova movement  Rise of Humanism o Renaissiance  Rebirth  Stable society  Evolution of science  Humanism gains momentum o Reformation  Protestant Reformation  Revolt in northern Europe against catholicism  Martin Luther initiated  Lutheran chorales  Counter-Reformation  Pope’s reaction to the protestant reformation  Council of trent  Banned all polyphonic church music o Renaissance Secular Music 8  Genres  French Chanson  Italian or English  Word Painting  Expresses important words through the music  Updated Styles o Genres  Opera  Baroque Opera o Overture o Recitative  Accompanied  Dry o Aria  De capo o Choruses o NO ACTION OCCURRED ON STAGE  Cantata  Baroque church cantatas o Written by Bach  Wrote 200 (one each Sunday)  All genres except opera  Organ, passions, mass, suites, concertos, sonatas o Ritornello 9  Oratorio  Handel o Oratorios are sacred, but couldn’t be performed in a church o Messiah  Written in 24 days  3 parts  Christmas  Easter  Redemption  Musical elements  Melismas  Ritornellos  Polyphonic and homophonic o Romantic Music  Dramatic  Tonality goes out the window Instrumental Music  Alla Hornpipe – Handel o Suite (Baroque)  ABA form  A – Major  B – Minor  Dance-like with a heavy downbeat 10  Triple Meter  Conjunct Melody  Spring – Vivaldi o Concerto (Baroque) (solo violin w/ orchestra)  Classical Music o Theme  Main melody, idea for the whole work o Motive  Short theme o Variations  Take a theme and switch it up, make it fancy o Ostinato  Short pattern on a constant loop o Absolute music  Opposite of program music, focuses on theme rather than a story 11


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