Educational Psychology Bundle: Weeks 3&4
Educational Psychology Bundle: Weeks 3&4 2162 EDFI 3020
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2162 EDFI 3020
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This 12 page Bundle was uploaded by scolby on Tuesday January 26, 2016. The Bundle belongs to 2162 EDFI 3020 at Bowling Green State University taught by Dr. Daniel Fasko Jr in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Educational Psychology in Education and Teacher Studies at Bowling Green State University.
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Date Created: 01/26/16
Week 3 EDFI 3020: Educational Psychology Cognitive Views Learning (Part 1) Learning According to cognitive theory learning is: o Acquiring information o Process and organize the information o Then use the information when needed Concepts o In the learning process, people are active Must be active in the learning process to do well o Learning process is heavily manipulated with an individual’s previous knowledge Can pretest to know what the individual already knows Two Major Theories Cognitive Constructivist (Piaget) o Emphasized strongly that our cognitive development makes us want to know what is going on around us Information Processing Model o Relies on: A computer model Information Processing Model of Learning According to model Attenti st on o 1 step: You must perceive in information Percepti Learning is connected to memory on Memor Perception and Sensation y Sensation: Stimulus you’re taking in Perception: Your interpretation of the stimulus Came from Gestalt’s Theory Gestalt Theory Max Wertheimer, Kurt Koffka, Wolfgang Kohler Developers Perception Refers to the pattern to make a whole to make sense of the world Concerned that the factors influence the form in the way we perceive thingsMemory The way that information is stored in the memory depends on how it was Problem Solving perceived Information structure in memory affects problem solving skills Week 3 A lot of our knowledge in learned when we organize the ideas into patterns Principles o Arrangements of stimuli influences perceptions o <> >< One is supposed to look longer o Law of Proximity: I I I I I I (Three groups of two lines) o Law of Closure: Close the gaps of shapes shown incomplete shapes and feel the need to close the gaps Importance to have closure to solve problems With discussions o Experiences and interests influence our perceptions (e.g. Field) Field Theory Kurt Lewin developed this Complex system for diagramming how human behavior gets influenced by negative and positive Valences (values (+ or )) and by the direction of Vectors (forces( or )) o Things in our environment affect us Field Theorist maintains to understand that behavior is needed to be subjective and that that observer must attempt to see things from another’s perspective at any moment o He also proposed the concept of LifeSpace LifeSpace o Everything that one must know about someone in order to understand his/her behavior, during a specific time in a specific psychological environment o Life space = Person + psychological Environment E P E Positive valence is a region that has a goal object and will reduce the tension when a person enters the region Negative valences increase tension Needs are coordinated with a valence o Needs impart values to the environment “Locomotion” is when a force if a sufficient strength acts upon a person o Move in one direction or the other Force is coordinated with need o Exists in a psychological environment Direction represents which vector points represent the force direction Week 3 Week 3 Learning According to Gestalt psychologist: Learning occurs when a person gains insight Insight: Developing a new perception to solve a problem in a new way o Kohler Video Chimps had insight. Trial and error to get the banana. The chimps cooperated with each other to get the bananas. Emphasized considering nonobservable aspects of problem solving and perception Perception Two Types of Procession 1. BottomUp (Feature Analysis) Searching for a new stimulus basic features and putting these together in a meaningful pattern in order to recognize it (“A”) 2. TopDown (Context Based) Uses context and what is known about the situation Attention Three Aspects of Attention 1. Tend to focus on stimuli, when focusing on one specific stimulus others get ignored (Selective Attention) 2. Limited 3. When you learn something new, it will require more attention and effort. After becoming familiar, less attention will be needed Week 3 Part II Information Processing Theory that is concerned with the method that sensory input is transformed, reduced, elaborated, stored, retrieved, and used BioComputer where there is Memory Storage (hardware) and Control Processes (software) Information Processing Model Three Memory Stores/Structures o Long Term: Permanent store house with unlimited capacity Retrieval is rapid and accurate Information must be organized o Short Term: 20 seconds o Sensory Memory: 2 seconds Each store varies as how much and long information can be held Control Processes o Pattern Recognition o Attention o Rehearsal o Encoding o Retrieval Governs flow of information between stores and how it’s encoded Generally under conscious, direct control Week 3 Information Processing Model (Cont.) Can chunk information to make it easier to remember o 7 +or 2 bits of information Rehearsal o Maintenance (Rote): Repeating over and over again Good for immediate use o Elaborative: Organizes information to make it easier to remember & retrieval cue *Mnemonic devices: sentence that helps us to memorize a string of words *Rhymes *Acronyms: first letter mnemonics (PEMDAS) *Must start beginning to get it right Acrostics: (EGBDF) Loci (places): Places that should be easily remembered or numbered. Can access this list anywhere *Peg word: Imagined interaction that helps you learn the facts *Key word: If you learn this technique, can be spontaneously applied to any situation *Chaining technique Memory Storage and Control Processing o Sensory Memory/Register (SM/SR) o Allows the information to be held just long enough (about 2 seconds) to choose if we want to attend to it more Ionic (visual): almost 1 second Echoic (auditory): almost 34 seconds o Capacity: about 12 pieces of information o The information is not selectively attended to and recognized decays o Pattern Recognition Partly depends on Topdown and Bottomup processing Topdown: Based on the context Bottomup: Identifying based on features The recognition is the most effective when we use ALL available sources of information Attention o We can only process 1/3 of the already selected information in the sensory memory o Why? o Can serve 2 purposes A general monitoring of environment and detect change When the value of incoming stimuli, we become distracted A selective focusing in specific items (same as selective attention) o In distractibility there are individual differences Week 3 Some people are able to focus on a task while surrounded by a variety of stimuli, others may need to isolate themselves Some have difficulties concentrating in any conditions Why? Ulric Neisser says that we choose what we attend to by anticipating the information that is provided with it (doodling) Teacher challenge: Convincing students that a learning task is enjoyable, useful, informative, and meaningful Younger children that have less knowledge than adolescents will have a more difficult time figuring out relevant from irrelevant stimuli o More likely to be distracted from the current task Some ways to encourage attention: Clapping Songs Getting students involved Bright colors Short bursts of information Only limited by creativity! We are able to train students to increase their attention span (cognitive behavior modification) Metacognition & Metamemory Metacognition is thinking about thinking and knowing how a thought process works Metamemory is knowing how we remember things o Begins at age 5 and develops with experience and age Value of Menomonic and Memory o When combined a young children’s memory performance shows more of an increase than if memory training is only provided o Teaches children how and why Relates unorganized objects by providing retrieval cues Long Term Memory Permanent storage and unlimited capacity Rapid and accurate Information must be organized and meaningful Encoding can be done visually and verbally Tulving hypothesized that there are 2 types of memory o Episodic Has a reference (date, time, place) Week 3 Retrieval is more difficult because you have to be able to generate the context in which you learned that information This information be inaccurate o Semantic Originally recorded as an episode Represents concepts, objects, and relations Information can be used to draw interferences, make generalizations, and apply rules Tends to be more accurate Importance for teachers o Information is presented quickly = stays in episodic memory Information retrieval will be difficult To be put into semantic memory: Provide a learning environment that stresses o Organization o Mastery o Encoding Semantic Memory Declarative Knowledge: Knowledge you are gaining here Procedural Knowledge: Knowing how to do things o Can’t have procedural without declarative Things can become automatic and must be careful Encoding Imagery is useful An image is something you make a mental representation of Paivio’s Dual Coding Hypothesis o Concrete materials (pictures of familiar objects) and concrete words (water) are remembered better than abstract words (justice) This is because concrete materials are words that are encoded as images and verbal labels. Abstract words are encoded only verbally Conditions when learners use images depends on age o Prek & Kindergarten children do not think of images spontaneously, they learn more material is presented with a picture o 68 year old children can create these images without prompts Encoding Strategies Category Clustering (Verbal) Week 3 o Used to encode word lists o Can be organized into conceptual categories (animals) Learners associate category members to category label Creates a superordinatesubordinate hierarchy o Organization aids memorization Learning Strategies Integrated sets of information processing behaviors that result in achieving instructional goals Techniques o SQ4R (Previously PQ3R) Survey (Preview) Question Read Reflect Recite Review o Concept Maps/ Networks Developed by Donald Dansereau Studied high and low achieving college students after learning networking Results when teaching strategy to high achieving students o Worse results because the new system interfered with the system that already worked o “Ain’t broke, don’t fix it” Opposite was true for low achieving students o Because they didn’t have a working system A node link map Nodes: paraphrases of ideas Links: Relationship between concepts Uses have age differences 8 grader study: group trained in networking were able to recall more ideas that control group, who used their own strategy Week 3 Mapped ideas are more likely to be recalled than unmapped ideas Learning Material Studying 2 types of practice o Massed: Studying everything at once in a short amount of time, with limited breaks Ex) Cramming o Distributed: Breaking material down into smaller parts at different times. More breaks (More time to process material) Ex) Studying at different times and different amounts o Most effective: DISTRIBUTED “Ain’t broke, don’t fix it” Week 4 EDFI 3020: Educational Psychology Problem Solving Finding answer to unknown Novel solution General Principles of Effective Problem Solving: o Students must have ample store of knowledge on the problem o Just because it works once, doesn’t necessary mean it will work again Don’t be stubbornly persistent Examples: o Oral presentations we are doing o Gagne’ said: selfdirected solution of problems by independent thinkers is the ultimate goal of education Stages (Wallas, 1926) o Preparation: View the information you have and look at the data o Incubation: Thinking about the information you have Leads to: Reflective thinking o Illumination/ Incite: aha! experience o Verification o *Distinct fixed stages Basic Methods for Students’ Problem Solving Understand the problem Devise a plan Carry out the plan Look back/ verification (Polya) o Have alternative tentative solutions (Plan A or Plan B) Ex) Buying a car. o Finding a job to pay for car, gas, and insurance. Need a loan (Be nice to someone that will be a cosigner) Search for the best insurance available to you. Research and choose a car. Test the car out. Encourage students to follow same skills outside of the classroom Creativity Finding answers to unknown while finding novel soultions o Trait or skill? Assessment is difficult. Average intelligence is needed to be creative. High IQ and creativity are NOT necessarily created Teachers should be accepting of creativity and show the appreciation o Rejection can be damaging to students o Students are encouraged to take their time to allow ideas to develop and grow Week 4 Creative Thinking Two types o Convergent: Coming up with one solution o Divergent: Coming up with more solutions Guilford: creative thinking: Divergent To develop creative thinking: Brainstorming Convergent and creative in 2 areas: arts and sciences Critical Thinking: Thinking reflectively and productively, and evaluating the evidence Can be taught Process: o Scientific Method Also a disposition o Attitude Teachers should help students develop: o Open mindedness o Intellectual curiosity o Planning and strategy o Intellectual carefulness Transfer Theory of identical elements Positive: Prior learning aids without subsequent learning Negative: o Proactive learning interference Old interferes with new learning o Retroactive New learning interferes with old learning Zero Specific and General Teaching for Transfer Teach directly Get people to overlearn o Practice a skill past mastery: helps students develop automated basic skills Have them do it in an unfamiliar situation
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