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Educational Psychology Bundle: Weeks 3&4

by: scolby

Educational Psychology Bundle: Weeks 3&4 2162 EDFI 3020

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About this Document

These are the notes from weeks 3-4. There are a lot. Much of the material included will be on the test.
Educational Psychology
Dr. Daniel Fasko Jr
Education, Psychology, EDFI, 3020, educational psychology, 3, 4
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This 12 page Bundle was uploaded by scolby on Tuesday January 26, 2016. The Bundle belongs to 2162 EDFI 3020 at Bowling Green State University taught by Dr. Daniel Fasko Jr in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Educational Psychology in Education and Teacher Studies at Bowling Green State University.

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Date Created: 01/26/16
Week 3 EDFI 3020: Educational Psychology Cognitive Views Learning (Part 1) Learning  According to cognitive theory learning is: o Acquiring information o Process and organize the information o Then use the information when needed  Concepts o In the learning process, people are active  Must be active in the learning process to do well o Learning process is heavily manipulated with an individual’s previous knowledge  Can pretest to know what the individual already knows Two Major Theories  Cognitive Constructivist (Piaget) o Emphasized strongly that our cognitive development makes us want to know what is going on around us  Information Processing Model o Relies on:  A computer model Information Processing Model of Learning  According to model Attenti st on o 1  step: You must perceive in information Percepti  Learning is connected to memory on Memor Perception and Sensation y  Sensation: Stimulus you’re taking in  Perception: Your interpretation of the stimulus  Came from Gestalt’s Theory Gestalt Theory  Max Wertheimer, Kurt Koffka, Wolfgang Kohler­ Developers Perception  Refers to the pattern to make a whole to make sense of the world  Concerned that the factors influence the form in the way we perceive thingsMemory  The way that information is stored in the memory depends on how it was Problem Solving perceived  Information structure in memory affects problem solving skills Week 3  A lot of our knowledge in learned when we organize the ideas into patterns  Principles o Arrangements of stimuli influences perceptions o <­­­­­> >­­­­­<  One is supposed to look longer o Law of Proximity:  I I  I I  I I  (Three groups of two lines) o Law of Closure:   Close the gaps of shapes­ shown incomplete shapes and feel the need to  close the gaps  Importance to have closure to solve problems  With discussions o Experiences and interests influence our perceptions (e.g. Field) Field Theory  Kurt Lewin developed this  Complex system for diagramming how human behavior gets influenced by negative and  positive Valences (values (+ or ­)) and by the direction of Vectors (forces( or )) o Things in our environment affect us   Field Theorist maintains to understand that behavior is needed to be subjective and that  that observer must attempt to see things from another’s perspective at any moment o He also proposed the concept of Life­Space  Life­Space o Everything that one must know about someone in order to understand his/her  behavior, during a specific time in a specific psychological environment o Life space = Person + psychological Environment E P E  Positive valence is a region that has a goal object and will reduce the tension when a  person enters the region  Negative valences increase tension  Needs are coordinated with a valence o Needs impart values to the environment  “Locomotion” is when a force if a sufficient strength acts upon a person o Move in one direction or the other  Force is coordinated with need o Exists in a psychological environment  Direction represents which vector points represent the force direction Week 3 Week 3 Learning  According to Gestalt psychologist: Learning occurs when a person gains insight  Insight: Developing a new perception to solve a problem in a new way o Kohler Video  Chimps had insight. Trial and error to get the banana. The chimps  cooperated with each other to get the bananas.   Emphasized considering non­observable aspects of problem solving and perception Perception  Two Types of Procession 1. Bottom­Up (Feature Analysis)  Searching for a new stimulus basic features and putting these together in a  meaningful pattern in order to recognize it (“A”) 2. Top­Down (Context Based)  Uses context and what is known about the situation Attention  Three Aspects of Attention 1. Tend to focus on stimuli, when focusing on one specific stimulus others get  ignored (Selective Attention) 2. Limited 3. When you learn something new, it will require more attention and effort. After  becoming familiar, less attention will be needed Week 3 Part II Information Processing   Theory that is concerned with the method that sensory input is transformed, reduced,  elaborated, stored, retrieved, and used  Bio­Computer where there is Memory Storage (hardware) and Control Processes  (software) Information Processing Model  Three Memory Stores/Structures o Long Term:   Permanent store house with unlimited capacity  Retrieval is rapid and accurate  Information must be organized o Short Term: 20 seconds o Sensory Memory: 2 seconds  Each store varies as how much and long information can be held  Control Processes o Pattern Recognition o Attention o Rehearsal o Encoding o Retrieval  Governs flow of information between stores and how it’s encoded  Generally under conscious, direct control Week 3 Information Processing Model (Cont.)  Can chunk information to make it easier to remember o 7 +or­ 2 bits of information  Rehearsal o Maintenance (Rote): Repeating over and over again  Good for immediate use o Elaborative: Organizes information to make it easier to remember & retrieval cue  *Mnemonic devices: sentence that helps us to memorize a string of words  *Rhymes  *Acronyms: first letter mnemonics (PEMDAS)  *Must start beginning to get it right  Acrostics: (EGBDF)   Loci (places): Places that should be easily remembered or numbered. Can  access this list anywhere  *Peg word: Imagined interaction that helps you learn the facts  *Key word: If you learn this technique, can be spontaneously applied to  any situation  *Chaining technique  Memory Storage and Control Processing o Sensory Memory/Register (SM/SR) o Allows the information to be held just long enough (about 2 seconds) to choose if  we want to attend to it more  Ionic (visual): almost 1 second  Echoic (auditory): almost 3­4 seconds o Capacity: about 12 pieces of information o The information is not selectively attended to and recognized decays o Pattern Recognition  Partly depends on Top­down and Bottom­up processing  Top­down: Based on the context  Bottom­up: Identifying based on features  The recognition is the most effective when we use ALL available sources  of information  Attention o We can only process 1/3 of the already selected information in the sensory  memory o Why? o Can serve 2 purposes  A general monitoring of environment and detect change  When the value of incoming stimuli, we become distracted  A selective focusing in specific items (same as selective attention) o In distractibility there are individual differences Week 3  Some people are able to focus on a task while surrounded by a variety of  stimuli, others may need to isolate themselves  Some have difficulties concentrating in any conditions  Why?  Ulric Neisser says that we choose what we attend to by anticipating the  information that is provided with it (doodling)  Teacher challenge:  Convincing students that a learning task is enjoyable, useful,  informative, and meaningful  Younger children that have less knowledge than adolescents will  have a more difficult time figuring out relevant from irrelevant  stimuli o More likely to be distracted from the current task  Some ways to encourage attention:  Clapping  Songs  Getting students involved  Bright colors  Short bursts of information  Only limited by creativity!  We are able to train students to increase their attention span (cognitive  behavior modification) Metacognition & Metamemory  Metacognition is thinking about thinking and knowing how a thought process works  Metamemory is knowing how we remember things o Begins at age 5 and develops with experience and age  Value of Menomonic and Memory o When combined a young children’s memory performance shows more of an  increase than if memory training is only provided o Teaches children how and why  Relates unorganized objects by providing retrieval cues Long Term Memory  Permanent storage and unlimited capacity  Rapid and accurate  Information must be organized and meaningful  Encoding can be done visually and verbally  Tulving hypothesized that there are 2 types of memory o Episodic  Has a reference (date, time, place) Week 3  Retrieval is more difficult because you have to be able to generate the  context in which you learned that information  This information be inaccurate o Semantic  Originally recorded as an episode  Represents concepts, objects, and relations  Information can be used to draw interferences, make generalizations, and  apply rules  Tends to be more accurate  Importance for teachers o Information is presented quickly = stays in episodic memory  Information retrieval will be difficult  To be put into semantic memory:   Provide a learning environment that stresses o Organization o Mastery o Encoding Semantic Memory  Declarative Knowledge: Knowledge you are gaining here  Procedural Knowledge: Knowing how to do things o Can’t have procedural without declarative  Things can become automatic and must be careful Encoding  Imagery is useful  An image is something you make a mental representation of  Paivio’s Dual Coding Hypothesis o Concrete materials (pictures of familiar objects) and concrete words (water) are  remembered better than abstract words (justice)  This is because concrete materials are words that are encoded as images  and verbal labels. Abstract words are encoded only verbally  Conditions when learners use images depends on age o Pre­k & Kindergarten children do not think of images spontaneously, they learn  more material is presented with a picture o 6­8 year old children can create these images without prompts Encoding Strategies  Category Clustering (Verbal) Week 3 o Used to encode word lists o Can be organized into conceptual categories (animals)  Learners associate category members to category label  Creates a superordinate­subordinate hierarchy  o Organization aids memorization Learning Strategies  Integrated sets of information processing behaviors that result in achieving instructional  goals  Techniques o SQ4R (Previously PQ3R)  Survey (Preview)  Question  Read  Reflect  Recite  Review o Concept Maps/ Networks  Developed by Donald Dansereau  Studied high and low achieving college students after learning  networking  Results when teaching strategy to high achieving students o Worse results because the new system interfered with the  system that already worked o “Ain’t broke, don’t fix it”  Opposite was true for low achieving students o Because they didn’t have a working system  A node­ link map    Nodes: paraphrases of ideas    Links: Relationship between concepts  Uses have age differences 8  grader study: group trained in networking were able to recall  more ideas that control group, who used their own strategy Week 3 Mapped ideas are more likely to be recalled than unmapped ideas Learning Material  Studying  2 types of practice o Massed: Studying everything at once in a short amount of time, with limited  breaks  Ex) Cramming o Distributed: Breaking material down into smaller parts at different times. More  breaks (More time to process material)  Ex) Studying at different times and different amounts o Most effective: DISTRIBUTED  “Ain’t broke, don’t fix it” Week 4 EDFI 3020: Educational Psychology Problem Solving  Finding answer to unknown  Novel solution  General Principles of Effective Problem Solving: o Students must have ample store of knowledge on the problem o Just because it works once, doesn’t necessary mean it will work again  Don’t be stubbornly persistent   Examples: o Oral presentations we are doing  o Gagne’ said: self­directed solution of problems by independent thinkers is the  ultimate goal  of education  Stages (Wallas, 1926) o Preparation: View the information you have and look at the data o Incubation: Thinking about the information you have  Leads to: Reflective thinking o Illumination/ Incite: aha! experience  o Verification o *Distinct fixed stages Basic Methods for Students’ Problem Solving  Understand the problem  Devise a plan  Carry out the plan  Look back/ verification (Polya) o Have alternative tentative solutions (Plan A or Plan B)  Ex) Buying a car.  o Finding a job to pay for car, gas, and insurance. Need a loan (Be nice to someone  that will be a co­signer) Search for the best insurance available to you. Research  and choose a car. Test the car out.   Encourage students to follow same skills outside of the classroom Creativity  Finding answers to unknown while finding novel soultions o Trait or skill?  Assessment is difficult. Average intelligence is needed to be creative. High IQ and  creativity are NOT necessarily created  Teachers should be accepting of creativity and show the appreciation o Rejection can be damaging to students o Students are encouraged to take their time to allow ideas to develop and grow Week 4 Creative Thinking  Two types o Convergent: Coming up with one solution o Divergent: Coming up with more solutions  Guilford: creative thinking: Divergent  To develop creative thinking: Brainstorming  Convergent and creative in 2 areas: arts and sciences  Critical Thinking: Thinking reflectively and productively, and evaluating the evidence  Can be taught  Process:  o Scientific Method  Also a disposition o Attitude  Teachers should help students develop: o Open mindedness o Intellectual curiosity o Planning and strategy o Intellectual carefulness Transfer  Theory of identical elements  Positive: Prior learning aids without subsequent learning  Negative: o Proactive learning interference  Old interferes with new learning o Retroactive  New learning interferes with old learning  Zero  Specific and General Teaching for Transfer  Teach directly  Get people to overlearn o Practice a skill past mastery: helps students develop automated basic skills  Have them do it in an unfamiliar situation


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