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BIOL 1100 Fall 2015 Notes

by: kyle.gosland

BIOL 1100 Fall 2015 Notes BIOL 1100

Marketplace > Clemson University > Biology > BIOL 1100 > BIOL 1100 Fall 2015 Notes
Principles of Biology
Dr. Dylan Dittrich-Reed

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About this Document

These are notes from every chapter of BIOL 1100 with Professor Dittrich-Reed, which I took Fall semester of 2015
Principles of Biology
Dr. Dylan Dittrich-Reed
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This page Bundle was uploaded by kyle.gosland on Tuesday January 26, 2016. The Bundle belongs to BIOL 1100 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Dylan Dittrich-Reed in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology in Biology at Clemson University.


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Date Created: 01/26/16
Week 2 Lecture Notes The Science Triad 1 Body of Knowledge 2 Process for Learning 3 Way of Knowing Nature of Science Body of Knowledge Fact concrete evidence discrete observation used to describe tested hypotheses Hypothesis something proposed to be true testable falsifiable statement Theory result of repeated testing well supported explanation of natural phenomena Law widely accepted science community agrees doesn t attempt to explain Truth unobservable absolute state of clarity and accuracy Science as a Process Observing Measuring Inferring Predicting Analyzing Classifying Hypothesizing Nature of Science Tentativeness Empirical Evidence based on data Observation and Inference Scientific Laws and Theories Scientific Methods Creativity Objectivity and Subjectivity Reveals strength of science Empirical Evidence Quantitative expression of relationships Adaptbility Statistics Statistics gives a structured way to draw conclusions about a population from a set of data Why is stats necessary No way to measure entire population but can measure a sample Way to tell if significant or not Rigorous way to generalize from sample to population Natural variation Compare competing hypothesis objectively Deduction generalspecific probability Induction specificgeneral statistics PA Probability of A as an outcome Ways A is outcome all outcomes 1PNot A Not Acomplement PAB Conditional probability of A Given that that B occurs probability of A PAPAB x PB PANot B x PNot B Bayesian calculate probability of each model given the data model with highest probability is most likely Create all reasonable models Decide on prior belief in each model Make predictions for each model Determine support for each by comparing expectations and observations Update prior belief depending on support posterior probability Model with highest posterior probability is best Frequentist Calculate probability of each model given a null model If probability pvalue is low reject the null hypothesis in favor of alternate model Test of assumptions Make a null model hypothesis Create complementary model alternative model Use null model to make a prediction expectation Compare observations to expectations large deviations have lower likelihood PDM Integrate likelihoods for all possible observations more extreme than our observation pvalue a probability If plta 005 reject null in favor of alternate prgta 005 fail to reject null model Building Hypotheses Question Body of Knowledge Background Knowledge Research Hypothesis Explanation based on knowledge Ho no difference Ha difference exists Alternative hypothesis isn t the same as research hypothesis PValue probability of an observation or more extreme is due to chance given that the H0 is true Physics and Chemistry Outcomes Compare and contrast forms of energy Relate temperature and force to energy Conceptualize biological processes in terms of energy transfers Force Mass x Acceleration N or kng39Z Causes mass to accelerate change velocity F MA units Newtons N or kng39Z Required for energy work That which changes or tends to change the state of motion of a body Mechanical gravitational electromagnetic strong and weak nuclear Velocity change in position over time V AXt units ms Acceleration change in velocity over time A Avt units ms2 Gravitational Force Tends to attract objects with mass to each other Weight is a force gravitational force is a source for gravitational potential energy Newton s Laws Body continues in state of rest or motion in a straight line unless acted upon by a force Force is something that changes or tends to change the state of motion of a body For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction Electromagnetic Force Force that results in attraction in opposite charges and repulsion of the charges This is what gives matter a state Force that causes electrical amp electrochemical potential energy Strong Nuclear Force Stability and also nuclear fusion Causes release of radiant energy from the Sun Proton and neutron attraction 0 00 For protonproton attraction SN force is in opposition to electromagnetic force Weak nuclear force Radioactive decay Can detect energy released by nuclear decay amp medical imaging Can use constant decay rates of radioisotopes to date organic remains and volcanic rocks in strata surrounding fossils Energy Capacity to do work Not created or destroyed conserved Change in or capacity to change the state of motion of a body Work Force x Distance Nm or 1 Energy requires force Property of matter Kinetic mechanical Potential mechanical Chemical potential Electromagnetic Work Thermal heat Work is a change in position caused by a force or force applied over distance moved W WT Units Watts W or NmS39l Energy is work Kinetic Energy Energy of motionquot KE 12mass x velocity2 12mv2 Units of KE kgm25392Nm A kind of work Potential Energy The energy of positionquot PE mass x acceleration of gravity x height MGH Units of PE kgm25392 Nm A kind of work


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