Minority Groups 310
University of Louisiana at Lafayette
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Date Created: 01/26/16
Sociology 310 Minority Groups Tuesday January 20, 2015 Current Events: Obama receives 50% approval rating despite the middle class income’s stagnation. Anti-Semitism and Anti-Islam in France. Charlie Hebdo satirical newspaper office attacked in Paris. “Je suis Charlie” campaign Highway blocked by Ferguson protestors. Al Sharpton wants to meet with Hollywood saying the Oscars are too white; needs more black actors nominated. NY Times states that NY schools are the most segregated than any other state in the nation. Lecture: What is a minority group? 5 main points Members of a minority group are visually distinguished from others. False. Ex: gays, Jews, etc. Minority group status confers among its members a sense of solidarity and oneness. False. Ex: “black unity” turns a group against itself, i.e. colorism in the black community Minority groups practice endogamy. False. Ex: women (the largest minority group in the world) don’t typically marry women Membership in a minority group is supposed to be an ascribed status (as opposed to achieved) ex: a person born into royalty will have an ascribed status while someone like Oprah started from the bottom and achieved her status **Voluntary temporary minorities: example- white people who rode along on the freedom rides Members of a minority group are discriminated against by those in power to do so. Bigotry Privilege Discrimination Minority Groups Theory Assimilation: A+B+C= A When three different cultures are mixed together, one will come out as the dominant culture. Americans are not united by ancestry, making America the ideal place to study people from the sociological perspective. Amalgamation: (amalgam: a metal composed of several other metals) If people from different cultures mix together, they will trade customs and culture. The majority controls this principle. A+B+C=D Pluralism: (multiculturalism) separate cannot be equal; emerged in the 70s-80s caused by lack of integration of schools, churches, restaurants, etc. Diversity is a great asset. The more you obey the dictates of pluralism the harder it is to obey the dictates of pluralism, which will suppress diversity. It’s a closed loop and should not really be considered a theory. HW: Read chapters 1 and 3 Thursday January 22, 2015 HW: What is the Selma backlash? http://www.msnbc.com/msnbc/selma-backlash-critics Current Events: Selma movie backlash Religious rights pope problem www.buzzflash.com UK refuses to let Ghanian mother to return to Ghana on visa for funeral for fear that she will not return Lecture: Category knowing: idea that you know somebody because of a category they fit into; inaccurate in all contexts Madison Grant’s “The Great Race”; scientific racism, argues that the white race is superior and attempts to provide scientific evidence “The Bell Curve” recommends against beneficial social policies for inferior people such as women and children What is race? The genetic code is inconsistent with the idea of race. There is no biological definition of race. Neither biologist nor anthropologist can define race biologically or culturally. Identifying with a particular race is a way of categorizing yourself into a system of discrimination and bigotry. Bogardus scale of racial distance: a series of questions with binary answer choices; break point where answers switch from no to yes; measures social distance: how racist are you? Most white people aren’t racist but they also don’t really know any people personally who are not white and therefore they live in separate worlds with separate issues from nonwhite people. Tuesday, January 27, 2015 Current Events: LBJ involvement in civil rights movement misconstrued in Selma movie Selma, Ferguson right-wing backlash Environmental racism Thomas Scazz, maps of waste in relation to poor black/Hispanic communities Reverse discrimination, affordable care act, tax on tanning beds 1984 Virginia tries to define what is white, the one drop argument Lecture: 2,000 years ago in Mecca, Arabians divided into 12 tribes each with their own god; the gods of each tribe so strongly dislike each other to the point where people are responsible to kill the people of the other tribes; Mecca was the city of all 12 gods to keep the people of different tribes in order so that peace will remain and trade can transpire between Africa, Asia, and Europe. Muhammad preaches that there is only one god, gets chased out of Mecca and goes to Medina where people liked his message, army from Mecca goes to attack Muhammad at Medina but his followers protect him and defeat the army of Mecca, followers then took over Mecca. 400 years of war ensues as the Islamic army fights to take over Spain The conquistadors & Christopher Columbus expeditions were about acquiring as much gold as possible, tortured and killed the people of Hispanola to take their resources, he was not merely an explorer he was a tyrant Book by de las Casas “The Devastation of the Indies” observed these bad actions and documented them when traveling with the conquistadors Debated before the thrown of Spain between de las Casas and the evil conquistadors; Spain orders the maltreatment to stop but it was impossible to enforce from so far away Thursday January 27, 2015 Lecture: Slave trade begins in West Africa after it is established that Africans possess heartiness that Europeans lack. Find the perfect balance between the number of Africans that will survive the middle passage and the cost of transporting the cargo. 1600 calories needed for survival, slaves got maybe 800 calories a day and still were responsible for performing agricultural labor Slaves worked in the fields all day, and hunted/foraged at night to get supplemental nutrition for survival John Brown: West Virginia; abolitionist; had Sunday dinner parties with black and white folks together, creating an interesting social situation in which every guest was required to be treated with equal respect The Border Ruffians: killed people they found from slave states; attacked John Brown’s son’s camps. John Brown planned to attack the military at Harper’s Ferry by taking the armory (attempting to recreate Muhammad’s attack at Medina). This was a big fail and they hung them all. It was an attempt to start the Civil War. Presidential Election: Abraham Lincoln gets elected. He is not considered an abolitionist at the time of election but at the same time he was not overtly pro-slavery either. The argument at the time was that ending slavery would destroy the entire economy of the south, which ended up being the case. The economy of the north was not nearly as dependent on slavery so they weren’t as worried about the effects of abolition. The south ended up becoming its own nation and elected its own president. The general of the union refused to take on the last troops of the confederacy (treason). He was then replaced, but the south increased the size of their militia army in the mean time. Tuesday February 3, 2015 Dred Scott: case in which a slave owner brought his slave to Wisconsin (free territory) therefore legally freeing the slave by bringing him into that territory Declared that black people cannot be citizens of any nation and they have no rights http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p2932.html Larry Flint appeared in court wearing a diaper made of an American flag, stating that everything he published was vulgar but the constitution protects him under the statement about freedom of speech. Extralegal terrorist tactics were used to enforce the system of Jim Crow in an attempt to continue slavery long after the Emancipation Proclamation. Black people have been forced to live under oppression and are excluded from the principle of freedom of speech. Dred Scott stood. Black people have no rights that whites are in legal bounds to respect. Sydney Potier was the first black actor to receive the best actor award. (google his life and what happened when he lived in Mississippi) Greenwood: (near Tulsa, OK) …tbc Thursday Thursday February 5, 2015 Greenwood: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tulsa_race_riot A white woman accused a young black man of rape. He was arrested and held in Tulsa. A battle between the local black folks and a lynching party ensued for 3 days. An ordinance was passed that this incident could not be mentioned in public or private. An old man never came out about it until recently. Rosewood is basically a movie about the same type of situation. *It is hard to be a black person in America and not interact with white people. In contrast, it is easy to be a white person and never interact with any black people. Thurgood Marshall: defended people in places where they could not be properly defended in court; believed that breaking the law was not a way to change the law; first black person to serve on the supreme court. 1954: separate but equal facilities were ruled unconstitutional President Eisenhower ordered the integration of a school Little Rock 9 Same thing happened at Ole Miss during the Kennedy administration Bus boycott Tuskegee students arrested for sitting at a white lunch counter. The prior attempt took place in Nashville. “The Power Elite” Ghandi: attended Oxford Law, decided to practice law in South Africa where race relations were in a very bad place. Alert the police and media that a law will be broken so that they can witness it, react, and attack you. Stand strong as they beat you and do not react to their violence. (Strategy of nonviolent civil disobedience, created by mohatmas ghandi) Ghandi grew up in India in a palace and never saw the poverty that the average Indian citizen lived in. He gave up his fancy suits for cloth wrapping and bare feet. “This man will free India”. Later became the first free leading president of India Harvard, Yale, Cambridge, Oxford, Princeton: schools you need to attend if you want to be a world power leader Tuesday February 5, 2015 Civil Rights Era: beginning in 1954 “The white man’s burden”: the white man’s responsibility to civilize people who aren’t white There was a bus boycott in Baton Rouge in the early fifties that didn’t go well. MLK was planning the bus boycott in Montgomery based on what went wrong in BR in order to make it more effective. Nation of Islam: Malcolm X (Malcolm Little) joined after he got out of prison in 1954; his ministry was too black people and about black people. His goal was to change the black community so that black people could learn how to liberate themselves from white oppression. 1954: official end of Jim Crow; separate but equal can’t be equal MLK was attempting to change the white community in contrast to Malcolm X trying to change the mentality of the black community The Freedom Riders: SNCC (student nonviolent coordinating committee) was created at Howard University; chartered a bus to ride from DC through the Deep South to New Orleans, get out at each stop and go into the whites only waiting rooms as peaceful protest. The federal government had made a law already to end separate but equal laws. When they went into the south, the whites only waiting rooms were still in use, which was unconstitutional, therefore they were not responsible for abiding by that law while traveling via and interstate transportation facility. They had to turn around before they made it to N.O. because white mobs were beating them to death at every stop. The second trip was a little more successful and there was also some media coverage but it was just as violent. Police would not protect them from the white mobs. Thursday February 19, 2015 Test Review: test next Tuesday Created in the mid 1950s Experience + Education = income Merit variables: Experience & education= 15% of variation in income RACE + SEX + experience + education= income Discrimination variable: Race & sex = 20% of variation in income 28% discrimination gap Multiple regression: dependent variable explained using independent variables, many causes and one effect, predicts variation in the dependent variable (salary, in this case) Marx: those who live off of their investments have a different mindset than those who live off of their work Reverse racism: example 10% tax on tanning beds These numbers prove that reverse discrimination is bullshit. White flight: 1/3 of the black community moved from lower class into the middle class from inner cities to the suburbs. White people didn’t like the black folks moving into their neighborhoods. They moved their kids into private schools as black kids infiltrated their white public schools. Chapters 1,3,4,10 Nation of Islam http://www.noi.org/ 1. what muslims want 2. what muslims believe **they want justice and equality for americans BUT they want to create a separate nation of islam (strategically that is not possible) affirmative action: deal between black people and the government, no longer really effective injustice cannot be corrected by another injustice Films: Malcolm X, Milagro Beanfield war, ghandi February 26, 2015 Test corrections: 25/29= 86.21% 1. both a and b; everyone will share a culture & white middle class anglo saxon protestants D 4. celebrate and wish to keep america’s diversity: pluralists C 23. white flight: desertion of white schools & white neighborhoods, D 27. E, basis of sex & prohibited… Women as a minority group: Gamer Gate: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gamergate_controversy Sexism in video game culture, objectifying women ERA: equal rights amendment End discrimination on the basis of gender Christian Womens Coalition voted against it Tuesday March 3, 2015 1964/65: voting rights and civil rights acts become amendments to the constitution Discrimination according to merit is the only acceptable form of discrimination; you get what you earn. (Ex: the more productive worker getting paid more.) Vietnam War Era, after Kennedy was assassinated, Lindon Johnson replaces him and promoted the continuation of the war. By 1968, most people were ready to get out of the war. MLK made a speech about the war but it was to no avail. MLK & company go to Detroit to explore discrimination in America’s northern cities. North: covert discrimination, saying the right thing while doing the wrong thing in contrast to the South: overt racism and discrimination Then around 1968 they head to Chicago (crew: Rev Jesse Jackson, Rev Abernathy, Andrew Young) for a march/demonstration that is supposed to be a big deal. Mayor Daly of Chicago understood the idea of nonviolent civil disobedience and figured out a counterstrategy (publicly welcoming but a bigot behind closed doors, don’t give him a permit to march). MLK gave a speech in Chicago, the valley of death speech/climb to the mountain-top, prophesized his own death. They marched on Chicago and then went to Memphis, Tennessee. There was a garbage man strike in Memphis, almost all of them were black men. MLK checked into the Lorraine motel in Memphis before he goes to check at city hall for a permit to march. He was on the balcony talking to the people on the street below. This is where MLK was assassinated and dies in the arms of Rev Jesse Jackson 1954-1968: the civil rights era President Johnson announced that he would not be running for a second term. He was very clear that he did not want to be president anymore, the main reason being that he didn’t want to witness 4 more years of American soldiers dying in Vietnam. Robert Kennedy was campaigning as a democratic candidate at the time that Dr King was assassinated. The Black Panthers: Oakland, California Seal of the Democratic Party of Alabama, civil rights era Black Panther Party: Founders: Huey Newton and Bobby Seale were law students in California California was a right to bear arms state, black people were subject to stop and frisk procedures by Oakland police Thursday (missed class) Topics covered: Tuesday March 10, 2015 Test #2: all chapters from test 1, chapters 1,3,4,5,7,11,13… date tba 1500s, De las Casas: won debate in Spain on ending new world brutality even though conquistadors continued to pillage north and south America 3 Conquistadors in Florida ran west through the palmetto swamps and found there way to the cannibal Tackapaw (sp?) Indians, gained them as followers, and mad their way to the north west coast of Mexico, states of Cenora & Cinoro (sp?) Yaqui territory Hunting gathering tribes are normally peaceful, but as they develop agriculture they become more warlike & develop standing armies. This is because hunting gathering territory is typically too vast to defend. Most Yaqui literature is either about deer hunting or war. When the 3 conquistadors reached NW Mexico, they were told to go to San Miguel to the south. There was a concentric circle of destruction in San Miguel, which eventually breached Yaqui territory. The talking stick (Yaqui god) prophecized and could see the conquest so he created 12 demigods to defend the area. Oteme (he is angry), a demigod, is atop his mountain and sees Columbus approaching and shouts to him “on what terms to you intend to make this conquest?” and Columbus fires a cannon at him. He asks again, and Columbus fires again. The third time he shoots the cannon, the ball lands right as his feet. Oteme hits Columbus with an arrow, then he falls into the sea and dies. Yaqui are famous for art murals, literature, poetry etc especially in Toussaint Arizona Book: The Social Construction of Reality, Carlos Castinados: the evidence of our 5 senses does not seem like it matters very much in our construction of our understanding of the world. We get our view of the world from what other people tell us it is, a lot of which is a lie. Yaqui sorcerer Don Juan, he creates realities magically Peyote drug Anglican Church, Lutheran, Episcopal started in England Christian but not Catholic = Protestant Iroquois Nation: several tribes banded together, a federation of tribes, this is where America got the idea of banding sovereign states into a single nation Estimated 43-65 million people living here when Columbus landed 150 years later (mid 1600s), population was reduced to 3-5 million natives Thursday March 12, 2015 Website. Feminist frequency: sexism in gaming American policy toward native americans: Criteria to be recognized as a tribe 1. tribe must have a government structure of some type (against Houma indian tribe traditions) 2. must be living on what were their traditional lands Kirby Verette: Houma , LA politician, modernist Houma indian War at the four corners in the mid 1980s over mining uranium on native American territory hopi vs navajo Hopi land is surrounded on all sides by Navajo land, compliments of the American government Alaskans don’t pay income taxes, but they get $3000 checks just for living there Alaska is a rough place for the native americans..see textbook Alcatrez prison, horribly abusive and inhumane prison that has since closed Dennis Banks and other native americans decided it was a good spot for a protest. Dennis Banks’ daughter fell down a well and died, which ended the progress on having a protest there. Apple: red on the outside, white on the inside (native American version of oreo slang) Racism and sexism follow similar patterns Tuesday March 17, 2015 Cherokee Native Americans: Lived in what is now the Smokey Mountain area Andrew Jackson decided that the Cherokee needed to move west toward Oklahoma because Americans needed that land The Cherokee sued to prove that they are literate and not savage. They became like white people to prove a point to the white people. 80% of them could read English They took the case to the Supreme court and won. But they were walked them to Oklahoma during the winter, 2/3 of them died on the way: The Trail of Tears Privilege: land Discrimination: Which is justified by a doctrine of Bigotry *co-variation *time sequence *nonsperiousness (sp?) bigotry privileg First writing: cuniform in ancient Babylon e Mesopotamia: between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in modern day Iraq a massive irrigation system was built between the rivers. Today that area is a barren desert where nothing grows. 4,000 years ago there government was born, a monopoly over the use of lethal force discriminati the American government’s constitution has avoided some problems with discrimination by creating laws that outline how we cannot discriminate justice: equality modified as appropriate by merit and only merit. anti-competitive practice: slow down your opponent rather than improve yourself Thursday March 19, 2015 Sojourner: single man who comes to a far country for the purpose of making some money to send back home, sometimes they return home and sometimes they don’t. men came over from china to work on the railroad in California. Soon after they outlawed Opium in San Francisco. The second drug laws were against weed use in Mexican immigrants in the American south-west. The third set of drug laws were against weed use targeting black jazz musicians in New Orleans. Drug laws have always been implemented to attack minority groups. The vast majority of people in prison are locked up for nonviolent or drug related convictions. The vote has been taken away from black men who are convicted felons. Drug laws are established upon a basis of discrimination. Ecology emerged in the 60s, example: phosphorus in laundry detergent seeped into water supply of Midwest states and causes several streams to run sterile. Environmental sociology/ ecology: has to do with minority groups because humans interact with the environment just like other species Humans started polluting a lot more during the industrial revolution We pollute places where minorities live. Pollution is a system run by discrimination. Crime & Discrimination can predict everything else you need to know about a civilization The native people governed their own territory (the black hills), rather than under the jurisdiction of white people until the whites found out they had gold and silver on their land. White people started moving in and stealing the metals. The US army came in to “help” the native americans defend their land but ended up just helping the whites kill and steal. Show: Dead Wood series General George Armstrong Custer: break the law and protect those who do @ Little Big Horn river: a fake village is set up in order to be bait for the general, native americans were waiting on him in the bushes and his scouts were also native americans movie about it: little big man TEST in 2 weeks from now on a Tuesday, I think the one before spring break? Tuesday March 24, 2015 TEST NEXT TUESDAY The subhuman status of women: Ruth Ginsberg in 1992: the custom of coverature was omitted from law by the supreme court. It was no longer legal to have a draft that only includes men. Rule of thumb: right tight, left loose. It’s okay to beat your wife with a stick as long as its smaller than the size of your thumb. Women ought to be underpaid because … 1. They are the secondary source income (despite single mothers) 2. They need more family leave, even though they can’t always get it Gamer gate: the “damselization” of women in video games, someone in need of rescuing by a man Principle of endogamy: although women rarely marry women Catagoric knowing is no longer applicable to any group, especially women. Recommended Reading: Susan Faludi’s “Backlash” and “Stiff” Thursday March 26, 2015 Review Hopi land surrounded by Navajo land, uranium deposits on Hopi land caused conflicts “Stiff” by susan beludi; explains how the white soldiers and their families lived with greater privilege after wwII, structure of the husband as the breadwinner and the wife as the homemaker 3 demons: discrimination, bigotry, privilege If you cannot observe a link of causation, how can you determine what causes something time sequence: cause must occur before the effect covariation: every time the cause occurs, so does the effect – correlation reasonable connection (nonsupriousness): there is a third variable that effects two nonrelated situations de las Casas, Columbus, conquistadors theories: assimilation, amalgamation, pluralism, multiculturalism The evolution of cultures, segregation, cultural sameness and difference Survey of african americans, native americans (Bureau of Indian Affairs: established to help native American communities, they don’t accomplish shit) history Women as a minority group White America Historical examples of discrimination and the reactions of the people being discriminated against Iroquois: formed a federation of tribes, gave America the idea of joining the colonies into a nation, “from many, one” (e pluribus unum) Code switching: acting differently in different situations, how you behave at city bar vs. how you behave at church on Sunday; studies show that black people speak one way at home or with they people and another way when they’re at work with a bunch of white people Chapters: 1,3,4,5,7,10,11,13 exam 2
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