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Week 1-3 Notes

by: Ankita Upadhyay

Week 1-3 Notes HAVC 31

Ankita Upadhyay
GPA 4.0

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About this Document

These notes cover what will be on the midterm. More to come!
The Nude in the Western Tradition
Marta Faust
artists, time, periods
75 ?




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This 6 page Bundle was uploaded by Ankita Upadhyay on Wednesday January 27, 2016. The Bundle belongs to HAVC 31 at University of California - Santa Cruz taught by Marta Faust in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see The Nude in the Western Tradition in HAVC at University of California - Santa Cruz.


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Date Created: 01/27/16
HAVC 31 (1 class – 9/22/16) Art: “the expression of application of creative skill and imagination, typically in a visual form such as painting, drawing, or sculpture, producing works to be appreciated primarily for their beauty or emotional power” Before 1700: Artifact: formed by natural processes Manuport: (being moved/transported by hand) (found in a cave at Makapansgat, South Africa) Visual Culture: (broader than definition of art): History: Gobekli tepe: potbelly hill, megaliths, no writing, has rubble with animal bones (sacrifices?) Carving on GT: hieroglyph, bas-relief Archaeological methods of dating artefacts: absolute vs. relative. Absolute: (carbon-14/radiocarbon, list of political rulers, dendrochronology/tree rings), relative: sequential Megalith: big t-shaped rocks (18 ft tall); could represent human figures ; pre- pottery Neolithic; older than Stonehenge (Neolithic); adam and eve 3760 bce; used for rituals? Caatalhoyuk: house to house, excavation?, buried bodies under the house (expose them to animals, then take remains and bury them) Figurines, do humans take on role in spirit world? Do violence and death act as focal points Fallocentric art at these sites (house with dead people) 2nd dominant theme: emphasis on wild, dangerous animals, piercing and remaking flesh, symbolic celebration on house at these sights Western Tradition: Syria and turkey (how is called west): east/west… orient/occident, oriens = east, ancient western world is Europe, the west and its diasporas Diaspora: dispersion, migration, movement of peoples away from their traditional or historic homeland rd Nude: rt gone from 3 to 14 century, abstract qualities like harmony with the universe, men and women living together in the state of innocence, EMPhasize importance of context “the Nude in Art”: nude vs. naked vs. unclothed vulnerability as a quality of being naked, naked is relative?, nude: portrays young/divine (not many women in this time period), Italy female nudity gained prominence Class 2 (9/27/16) The body in the ancient Mediterranean: prehistoric female figurines -Gobekli tepe: no sign of domestic settlement, t shaped pillars -Figurine: a small statue made of clay, stone, or other materials, often depicting a human form (anthropomorphic) -“Venus” of Willendorf (discovered in 1908, 4.5 in high) -> fertility, maternal figure -Manuport: object you can carry in hands and transport -Lady with the hood, ivory, “Venus”, “Lion-man”, 40,000 BCE, mammoth ivory - female divinity represents survival in early…was there a peace loving matriarchal society? -> distribution of power, maybe women held more power in the past… goddess movement? -Catal Hoyuk, 6000, clay: represent goddess giving birth, unlike deities -balance of male and female power; no evidence of female dominance/goddess -theme of decapitation, were animals real or idea of animals -wall painting with men taunting a deer -Essay: context: where an object was found and what was it found with -> spatial, location -> social (how they were used), use-life, -> temporal, duration: (was it altered, manipulated, fixed, reshaped?) -Late Neolithic Figurines: vinca (terracotta), Thessaly (stone) -Minoan civilization, Crete snaked symbolic of fertility, powers, found in palace of Knossos; “Goddess or priestess with snakes” -chthonic: subterranean, relating to being in or under the earth - Minoan Palace complex at Knossos, Crete -Fresco paintings: “Bull leaping”, women are pale, males are dark (being outdoors, fighting) -Minoan culture subsides and gets taken over by Mycenaean (Greek) culture -Mycenaean citadel at Tiryns, Greece: elite society with rich culture - Lions Gate at Mycenae -> Cyclopean (Cyclops: figure with one eye) masonry (thought Cyclops built it) -> figure with 2 females and child (how do we know they represent deities, the child is a deity) -Lion hunt dagger discovered in excavation ->lions represent Minoan influence on Mycenaean art culture -Bronze Age Cycladic Figurines, making metal tools -> simplistic, no hair, not many features, could represent pregnancy, legs together -> male figurines – harp players; more detail to face, Raking light, Constatin Brancusi -Abstract (missing details) vs. Naturalist -Provenience: find site, physical context (related to religious function, could it be a goddess?) -Provenance: record of ownership Gods of Ancient Greece: Divine Bodies Class 3 (9.29.16) Reading: “The Meridian…” -What makes the figurine a deity? Appearance? -Heinrich Schliemann excavates Mycenaean sites he believed contained remains of ancient Troy -Minoan: Sir Arthur Evans discovered, excavated, and partially reconstructed a massive palace complex at Knossos on Crete, relating it to the myth of the Minotaur and dubbing its culture Minoan. -Stylistic Periods in ancient Greek Art -Geometric, Archaic, Classical, Hellenistic, Roman Empire -geometric period figurines: centaur (shows wild, aggressive, uncivilized side of humans) -votive statue, inscription: asking for something back, bow for archery/warrior?, not naturalistic -Functions of Greek Myths and Gods -explain natural events (Demeter and Persephone – seasons, Zeus – storms) -explain human world: gods resemble/behave like humans, gods reveal psych aspects of human behavior/actions, Apollo vs. Dionysus -not an ethical system -Apollo: god of youth, music, prophecy, archery, healing, associated with the lyre, arrows, sun -votive statue: “Mantiklos donated me…warrior, you, Apollo give something back” -attribute: give credit for making it -*Significance* -centaur vs harp man: sitting vs standing -Zeus/Poseidon statue (casting bronzes) has a great degree of naturalism; riace bronzes -The Labors of Herakles (Hercules), Athena, amphora (wrestling lion) -Calyx krater: “Labors” more closely resembles humans, kylix = cup -Death of Sarpedon, Hermes (messenger God), Homer Iliad -Black figure vs Red figure, kalos (beautiful) names/inscriptions -Symposium: banquets for holding discussion, especially accompanied by drinking wine in ancient Greece attended by -Venus (Roman) associated with Aphrodite; venus pudica = modest Venus -What is beauty? (Greek ) Kalon -found in ancient Greek belief and philosophy -inseparable from goodness and divine… -Classical: period in ancient Greek art; classic: -Hermes (Mercury), Dinoysus, Hellenistic Period HAVC 31: Tuesday, October 4 Notes - High Classical Time Period - More rigidity, definition, and muscularity, gesture, stylistic difference - Classical: period in ancient Greek Art - Dionysus/Bacchus: god of wine, associated with initiation rites involving wild behavior that Greeks saw as foreign fertility cult - Maenad: female follower of Dionysus/Bacchus, known for wild dancing (on Calyx Crater) - Aphrodite, Satyr = half man/half goat, eros/cupid - Barberini Faun (Drunken Satyr) - Apollonian vs Dionysian temperaments - Idealism: concerned with ideals, principles, and ideas, concepts beyond what is observed in the world - Idealized: perfected, better than it “is” (face is symmetrical, smooth face) - Idealism vs. Naturalism: artistic style that aims to approximate observable features in the world - Athens under Perikles (462 – 429 BCE); The Acropolis, Athens; Golden Age of Athens: “Age of Pericles”; democracy was the form of gov. (rule of the people), vs. oligarchy (rule of few people) - Pediment: triangular area of the sides of the temple - Cultural patrimony: honoring a culture’s past, historical importance - Reading: Rainer Maria Rilke, “Archaic Torso of Apollo” (1998) o Composed after the poet viewed a different, but probably equally fragmentary ancient sculpture - How would we describe the significance? o Event occurring, technique encourages more naturalistic figures (black vs. red) o Function of the work: mix wine - Comparison exercise: Venus pudica: more modest, marble| Zeus: athletic, bronze o State of preservation of work - Kouros = youth; sculptures placed on tombs, rigid stance, geometricized features, votive offerings at sanctuaries, convey elite virtues such as excellence/moral virtue (arête), beauty (kalos), goodness, anatomical perfection, Kore = young woman - Archaic smile = a flat, unnatural, upward curving of the lips, believed to suggest health, well-being, or that the subject is alive - Polychromy = multiple colors, middle has a plaster cast, Johan Joachim Winckelmann - Pompeii and Herculaneum, Italy (buried under ash due to eruption of Mt. Vesuvius) - When describing: naturalistic vs rigid - Polykleitos: Doryphoros/The Canon - Contrapossto = a posture of opposing relaxed and engaged limbs, intended to convey a naturalistic sense of animation (coming to life) - Canon: famous treatise on human proportion, demonstration piece in marble, valued symmetria as “harmony of all its constituent elements”, perfection - Techne, Symmetria, Rhythmos - Diskobolos = discus thrower, Strigil = Scraper (lysyphus) Thursday, 10/6/16 Notes - Wincklemann: noble simplicity and quiet grandeur, thought statues were colorless - Literary sources, epic poems, ideas from art comes from philosophy - Techne, symmetria, rhythmos, system of portions, balanced out - Canonical: belonging to a core group of essential works considered authoritative, authentic - Strigil: scraper - Greek culture is spreading around Mediterranean and art is being exported - Archaic smile appears on wounded warriors,East Pediment(fallen warriors in Archaic pd) - Beard: more mature, dignified; torc: Galatian collar; Dying Gaul: dignified - Ludovisi Gaul; Gaul: member of Celtic tribes; Laocoon (priest of Poseidon or Apollo?) - Hellenistic art: writhing, twisting, anguished expression (not prevalent in classical art) - HA: heightened drama, exaggerated emotional states, expressions convey pathos to narrative moments - If no name, know culture: Neolithic? Hellenistic? - Humanizing the gods, even Hercules


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