Week 3 Notes
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This 6 page Bundle was uploaded by Samantha Tucker on Wednesday January 27, 2016. The Bundle belongs to BA 352 at Oregon State University taught by Dr. Chad in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Managing Individual and Team Performance in Business at Oregon State University.
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Date Created: 01/27/16
BA 352 Week 3 Session 1 Session 4 Job Satisfaction 10 Minutes for Happiness Think about your hobbies and how you spend your free time. Which of these makes you the most happy? Flow Theory o The mental state of operation in which a person performing an activity is fully immersed in a feeling of energized focus, full involvement, and enjoyment in the process of an activity: complete absorption in what one does (Csikszentmihalyi, 1956) o Human mind can process about 126 bits of information per second o A conversation takes about 40 o Flow tasks take up all 126, leaving us unaware of anything else in the world… including ourselves o Have you experienced flow before? Reading a book for hours Playing video games for multiple hours Conditions necessary for flow o Activity has a clear set of goals—it must have direction o The task gives clear and immediate feedback; adjusting to changing demands allows you to maintain the flow state o Good balance between perceived challenges and ability High skill situation + high challenge level = flow environment High challenge + low skill = anxiety Low challenge + high skill = boredom o Experience of flow includes… Sense of “oneness or unity” with the world A sense of control over situation Less self-consciousness: not feeling aware of being observed by others Action and awareness are merged become the same thing Time goes by quickly; distorted Experience of a task as intrinsically rewarding: getting something out of it, not needing to be paid. Feelings of pure joy o Flow experiences lead to… Positive affect and life satisfaction Task performance (when in flow state) Definitions Job Satisfaction o A pleasurable emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job or job experiences. When you reflect on your job, how often do you encounter a pleasurable emotional state? o In 2010, only 45% of Americans were satisfied with their jobs—why? o What about more recent years? More or less satisfied? As of Fall 2013, 47.7% were satisfied—highest during Great Recession, but still not great. From whence job satisfaction? Where does this come from? o A job meets your value Everyone has different values—hence, everyone has a different job satisfaction “equation” What do you value? [See list below; work values] It’s important to reflect on this before starting a career Work Values Pay o High Salary o Secure salary Promotions o Frequent promotions o Promotions based on ability Supervision o Good supervisory relations o Praise for good work Coworkers o Enjoyable coworkers o Responsible coworkers Work Itself o Utilization of ability o Freedom and independence o Intellectual stimulation o Creative expression o Sense of achievement Altruism o Helping others o Moral causes Status o Prestige o Power over others o Fame Environment o Comfort o Safety Value-percept theory (Locke, 1976) We evaluate our jobs according to 5 different value categories (Pay, promotion, Supervision, coworkers, satisfaction with the work itself) Overall job satisfaction depends on your perception of how well the job is supplying what you value. Assessed with “dissatisfaction scores” o Dissatisfaction = wantVhave) * (importance o The higher the value, the lower the satisfaction o Assessed for all 5 value categories and added up; this number represents overall job dissatisfaction My life as a fax-sorter In 2003, I worked at a company o 8 hour shifts with one break (1-10pm) o Collected all the Credit Card declined order forms, alphabetized them, stack them o Next day/week, sent faxes back to notify them of declined cards o Pay was relatively low ($9/hr) One of my favorite jobs I’ve had—why? o Mindless work; didn’t have to commit much to it o Great supervisor o Worked side-by-side with a really good friend o OF course, life circumstances matter here too I was single No kids Sleeping in was great! Supervision, coworkers, and the work itself: Supervision, Coworkers, and Work Itself are the most strongly correlated. What makes the work itself satisfying? Three psychological states: o Meaningfulness of work Does the work “count”? Does it matter to you? Is it impactful on society? Making a difference in the world o Responsibility for outcomes Does your presence matter? Were you a key participant in how a project turned out? Are you a driver of the quality of the work? o Knowledge of results Do you know how well you did? Job characteristics theory (Hackman & Oldham, 1976) o What kind of tasks create these three psychological states? Tasks with variety, identity, significance, autonomy, feedback (VISAF) Job Characteristics Theory Variety + Identity + Significance => Meaningfulness of work o Variety Does the job require a number of different tasks that require many different skills? Low variety Fordism: The assembly line, 100 unskilled steps instead of 1 craftsman making something all by himself. High Variety ER physicians Fred at Zappos: a lot of people like have different types of work days without repetitive work Our brains crave novelty (new things/experiences)! Dopamine released when we come in contact with “new” things o Identity Does the job require completing a whole, identifiable piece of work from beginning to end. Talks about an identifiable piece of work; can you point to something and say, “I did that.” Feeling like you completed something on your own, a type of closure in a sense General Electric: Building jet engines: there’s a lot of effort and work that goes into that type of assembly. Employees can interact directly with the engine and see it through to the end knowing it directly impacts people. They can see the engine they made put onto a plane that carries people into the sky. Versus…. iPad assembly: just doing one aspect of a job and not seeing the completed product. Some of the assembly workers have never even held a complete product or used one! o Significance Does the job have a substantial impact on the lives of others and/or on society in general? Keith Hadley: A job can become your identity; “All of us have a desire to do something meaningful, I want my kids to look at me and see someone who is doing something significant in this world.” That significance with the job can carry over into life significance. If we don’t see it immediately, give it some time… significance may grow. Autonomy => Responsibility of outcomes o Does the job provide you with freedom, independence, and discretion? Namely, freedom over when and how you do your work. Ex: customer service reps who read off of a script on the phone have low autonomy Zappos’ customer service claims to not follow a script Not only good for reps, but company’s bottom line as well Feedback => Knowledge of Results o Does the job context itself tell you how well you’re doing the job? This is feedback from the tasks themselves. When in the process of working, you can tell whether you’re doing it well or not. Ex: computer programing; if the code is wrong it won’t run and you immediately know that o Example: stand-up comedy: you get feedback to your jokes from the audience almost instantly These ^^ lead to Satisfaction with the work itself (which is a factor of overall job satisfaction) Critical thinking! Can you think of any other job characteristics that are missing? Any beyond VISAF? o Cognitive difficulty o Performance pressure Moderator of job characteristics satisfaction with the work itself Growth need strength o Do you have a strong need for growth in your job? Is personal accomplishment, development, and or learning something you need at work? o If yes, increased VISAF will really boost your satisfaction with the work itself. o If no, the impact of VISAF is smaller. Back to my life as a fax-sorter Which characteristics of my job provided satisfaction with the work itself o High identity o Low variety o Low significance o High autonomy o High feedback In sum, it was my supervisor, co-workers, PLUS all these job characteristics (including low cognitive difficulty) that made me love that job. Clearly, variety and significance aren’t everything! Job design and job crafting Job design o How can we create jobs high in VISAF? o Satisfaction potential score (SPS) = current level of satisfaction Job re-design o Job enrichment—in other words, more VISAF—is the goal Don’t wait! o Be a job crafter –get VISAF on your own o Examples? Set goals Relabel your job (increase significance) Other factors that influence job satisfaction Moods o States of feeling that are mild in intensity, last for an extended period of time, and are not explicitly directed at or caused by anything. o Two Axes: pleasantness and activation o Flow is an intense positive mood The result of high challenge-high skill coming together Emotions o States of feelings that are often intense, last for a short period of time, and are directed at and caused by something. o Emotional labor The need to manage emotions to complete job duties successfully Common requirement in service jobs (waitress, customer service rep) Critical to bottom line—customers can “catch” a bad emotion Emotions are contagious!! (positive Facebook posts prompt more positive posts) But is requiring emotional labor a good management decision? What do you think? Remember Steven Slater, the Jet Blue flight attendant? Stifling negative emotions is strongly negatively correlated (-0.43) with job satisfaction. Amplifying positive emotions is weakly positively correlated (0.07) with job satisfaction.
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