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Exam 2 Objectives Sheets

by: Irene Erich

Exam 2 Objectives Sheets BIOL 2230

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Irene Erich


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Complete set of objectives for the second exam
Anatomy and Physiology II
Dr. Cummings
anatomy and physiology, A&P, A&P2, Anatomy and Physiology 2
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This 41 page Bundle was uploaded by Irene Erich on Wednesday January 27, 2016. The Bundle belongs to BIOL 2230 at a university taught by Dr. Cummings in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views.


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Date Created: 01/27/16
Irene Erich 1 Anatomy + Physiology II Exam 2 Objectives 1 Lecture Objectives Blood List the functions of blood.  Delivers oxygen o Could also be nutrients like sugar o Glucose too  Transports metabolic wastes o One of the wastes is carbon dioxide (not the only) o Protein breakdown – deamination  Transports hormones o So that the ch messengers can affect cells (as long as there’s a receptor)  Maintains body temperature  Maintains body pH o Confined to the narrow range – 7.35-7.45 – slightly basic o Acidosis and Alkalosis o Contains buffers that help regulate the pH of the body  Maintains fluid volume o Fluids get exchanged b/t tissues and the bloodstream. Pass through interstitial space  Prevents blood loss o Clotting proteins/clotting factors  Prevents infection o Functions as part of the immune system – contains antibodies Describe the composition of whole blood.  Formed Elements o Within the liquid portion of blood o Some of these are cells some are cell residue o Erythrocytes: RBCs  Function: carry respiratory gases  Major function: to carry oxygen. Can carry CO2 but not the primary method  Not really living cells – lost nucleus and organelles o 45% of total blood volume is RBCs o Leukocytes – white blood cells  True cells with nuclei and cellular organelles  They are living cells and can reproduce  Primary function: assist in immunity/immune system Irene Erich 2 Anatomy + Physiology II Exam 2 Objectives 1  Less than 1% of total blood volume is white blood cells  Each type of WBC has a separate function but they all function towards immunity  Picture is misleading b/c Cummings made it for us… not that many WBC together o Platelets  Fragments of other cells  Pieces of plasma membrane and cytoplasm that have pinched off of other cells  Can have vesicles that contain things  Things like proteins – typically the proteins in platelets are involved in blood clotting  Less than 1% of blood volume o Plasma  55% of blood volume  Liquid portion  Plasma is mostly water (90%)  But there are other things in the water:  A lot of proteins (Albumin is most common – produced by liver)  Globulins (immune proteins)  Clotting proteins  Others (enzymes, amino acid based hormones, etc.)  Nonprotein parts…  Nitrogenous wastes  Nutrients (like glucose)  Electrolytes (charged ions… calcium, sodium, potassium)  Respiratory gases – some transported on RBCs but some transported in the liquid portion of blood  5,000mL of blood in the body Describe the structure, function and production of erythrocytes.  Small  Biconcave  Anucleate o No nucleus o No cellular organelles (had them at one point but they got pushed out to make way for hb)  Contain hemoglobin o Pigment that carries oxygen Irene Erich 3 Anatomy + Physiology II Exam 2 Objectives 1  Contain antioxidant enzymes o Antioxidants eliminate free radicals o + free radicals are basically excess H+ ions that have escaped and can be toxic to the body  On average, there’s approximately 5 million RBCs per mL of blood  Difference b/t men and women… men have a higher amount than woman o Av for men is 5.1-5.8 million o Av for women is 4.3-5.2 million Production: Erythropoiesis  Hemocytoblast (cell in bone marrow) produces myeloid stem cell o Pluripotent cell: can give rise to a # of different things, can give rise to RBC or WBC o Myeloid stem is also pluripotent cell  Myeloid stem cell becomes proerythroblast o Proerthyroblast becomes an RBC  Proerythroblast becomes early erythroblast  Early erythroblast becomes late erythroblast  Late erythroblast becomes normoblast  Normoblast loses organelles and nucleus to become reticulocyte o The normoblast loses its nucleus + organelles and accumulates a lot of hb molecules o The reticulocyte leaves the bone marrow and matures in bloodstream  Reticulocytes mature in bloodstream to become fully functional erythrocytes  Site of blood cell production: in the bone marrow Erythropoiesis: production of red blood cells – one type of hematopoiesis  Takes between 3-5 days to complete  100 billion cells produced/day  2 million cells/second Leukopoiesis: production of white blood cells Hematopoiesis: production of blood cells  We produce ab an ounce of blood a day that contains ab 100 billion cells  What kind of cell is in that ounce is dependent upon the needs of the body Describe the chemical make-up of hemoglobin.  Globin protein bound to heme pigment o The heme pigment makes our blood red Irene Erich 4 Anatomy + Physiology II Exam 2 Objectives 1 o The pigment is bound to the globin protein Globin  4 polypetide chains (subunits) o 2 alpha chains o 2 beta chains o Quaternary structure o Each globin subunit has one heme attached to it Heme  Contains oxygen binding iron o Iron loves oxygen! o Remember there are four heme units in a hemoglobin Hemoglobin • 2 alphas, 2 betas… each have a center core heme • Each heme will bind to an oxygen • Approx 250million hemoglobin molecules in a single RBC • Meaning each RBC can carry a billion oxygen molecules Define diapedesis. Diapedesis: ability for a blood cell to leave the blood vessels – passes out of circulation • RBCs can’t diapedeses • Some WBCs can diapedeses List the classes, structural characteristics and functions of leukocytes. Leukocytes:  Complete cells with nuclei and organelles  Display positive chemotaxis o They can be attracted to an area due to release of some chemicals o b/t 4800 and 10,800 WBCs per mL in the blood Classes  Granulocytes (granules) o Neutrophils  Most common, lobed nucleus  Phagocytic cells – function during the inflammatory response  50-70% - most abundant o Eosinophils  Two lobed nucleus  Contain enzymes in granules that will digest parasitic worms o Basophils Irene Erich 5 Anatomy + Physiology II Exam 2 Objectives 1  Rare… 0.5-1%  Have histamine in granules – histamine dilates blood vessels (bigger) + attracts other WBCs to that area  Agranulocytes (no granules) o Lymphocytes  Most of the cell is made up of nucleus, Major immune cells o Monocytes – 3-8%, U-Shaped nucleus, largest of WBCs, phagocytic  Can diapedese… when it enters bloodstream: called macrophage ** Granules: vesicles that contain things inside the cell – what the ‘thing’ is depends on the cell Describe leucopoiesis.  Hemocytoblasts give rise to myeloid stem cells and lymphoid stem cells o Pluripotent/uncommitted cells Granulocyte Leukopoiesis  Myeloid stem cells become myeloblasts o Myeloblast is a committed cell – can only become a granulocyte  Myeloblasts accumulate lysosomes (granules) to become promyelocytes  Promyelocytes differentiate into myelocytes  Cell division stops in myelocytes and nuclei arch to form band cells  Nuclei constrict and segment to become mature granulocytes o Depending on which type of granulocytes, it could last 0.5- 90 days Agranulocyte Leukopoiesis  Myeloid stem cells become monoblasts o Monoblast is committed cell  Monoblasts become promonocytes  Promonocytes leave bone marrow and matures and becomes monocytes in lymph tissues o Monocytes can last up to months  Lymphoid stem cells become lymphoblasts o Lymphoblast is the committed cell  Lymphoblasts become prolymphocytes Irene Erich 6 Anatomy + Physiology II Exam 2 Objectives 1  Prolymphocytes leave bone marrow and become lymphocytes in lymph tissue Regulation  Interleukins  Colony-stimulating factors (CSFs)  Accumulation of either one of those stimulates leukopoiesis in the bone marrow Describe the structure, function and formation of platelets. Cell fragments/leftover pieces of cells  Anucleated cytoplasmic fragments of megakaryocytes o No nucleus or organelles o Chunks of cytoplasm that pinch off other cell  Granules contain clotting chemicals o May call them clotting factors o There’s a lot of clotting chemicals in platelets – remember role of platelets is blood clotting o Activity is very complex Formation (thrombopoiesis)  Hemocytoblasts give rise to myeloid stem cells o Gives rise to myeloid stem cell and lympho stem cell o Everything besides lymphocyte comes from myeloid stem cell  Myeloid stems cells become megakaryoblasts (committed cell)  Megakaryoblasts undergo repeated mitosis but no cytokinesis to form megakaryocytes o Megakaryocytes break off and those pieces become the platelets (see the picture)  Cytoplasmic extensions of megakaryocyes break off to be platelets o Tiny in comparison to other cells – Regulation  Thrombopoietin  Produce ab an ounce of blood a day  What is in that blood depends on what our body needs  Function of platelets is to prevent blood loss Give examples of disorders caused by abnormalities of each of the formed elements. Erythrocytes Anemias o Anytime our blood has a low oxygen carrying ability o One way: insufficient number of RBCs Irene Erich 7 Anatomy + Physiology II Exam 2 Objectives 1 o Another: irregularly shaped RBCs liked sickle cell Polycythemia o Too many RBCs Leukocytes Leukemia o Cancer (abnormal division) of the WBCs Infectious mononucleosis o WBC disorder in response to an infection from a virus o Specifically Ebstein-Bar(?) virus – causes an increase in the production of granulocytes Leukopenia o Deficiency in the number of WBCs Platelets Plasma Platelet Plug  Damage to blood vessel exposes underlying collagen fibers o If the vessel isn’t damaged – nothing should/would happen o If damaged – underlying tissue is exposed to blood. o Damage that exposes that ^ causes the accumulation of important chemicals  Also releases von Willebrand factor and thromboxane A 2 o vW is a plasma protein – accumulates – bc of underlying collagen o Damaged blood vessel release thrA2 – it’s a prostaglandin o Prostaglandins are local signaling molecules o These chemicals accumulate at site of damage  Causes platelets to collect and adhere at site of damage o Platelets will not stick unless vW or TA2 are present (they’re the stimulus) o Stick to collagen fibers  Once attached, chemical called thrombin activates platelets to breakdown and release chemical contents o Thrombin says to dump the contents and the contents are all clotting factors Limitations:  Intact endothelial cells secrete PGI2(prostacyclin) and heparin o Presence of chemical that is constantly being secreted by undamaged cells (PGI2) – also a prostaglandin o All PGI2 does it prevent platelets from sticking o Heparin is also secrete by intake cells and prevents platelet attachment  Vitamin E quinone Irene Erich 8 Anatomy + Physiology II Exam 2 Objectives 1 o Vitamin E is a blood thinner – often given to elderly (a lot of post menopausal in the 80s until it was discovered that high levels would thin the blood too much) o Prevents platelets from adhereing Describe the process of hemostasis, differentiating the intrinsic pathway from the extrinsic pathway. Hemostasis: process of preventing blood loss  Vascular spasm o Constriction of the damaged blood vessel o Still losing blood but lose it more slowly  Platelet plug formation o Platelets will collect at the site of damage o They don’t collect at undamaged sites o Causes clotting to occur  Coagulation o Blood clot coagulates/gels up o Stimulates repair of the blood vessel  Blood is fluid tissue contained in blood vessels all of the time  Some cells can move out of circulation (diapedesis)  Blood stays inside of blood vessels unless there’s a break/damage – causing blood loss  We need to have a mechanism to stop the loss of blood  Allowing the blood vessels the opportunity to fix themselves Intrinsic Pathway of Coagulation (gel-ing of the blood)  Series of reactions in which clotting factors converted from inactive form to active forms o A lot of steps he didn’t discuss – highlighting important o Factors are inactive – one becomes active – which activates next and next  Ultimately aggregated platelets release PF fro3 the platelets  PF 3ctivates other intermediates leading to activation of factor X o Pf3 activates intermediates which ultimately activates factor X (10) o Takes 10 steps to get to it – Factor X is important  Activated factor X complexes/combines with calcium, PF and 3 factor V to form prothrombin activator o Prothrombin activator activates prothrombin  Prothrombin activator catalyzes conversion of prothrombin (inactive form) to thrombin (activated form)  Thrombin catalyzes polymerization of fibrinogen into fibrin Irene Erich 9 Anatomy + Physiology II Exam 2 Objectives 1 o Activates fibrinogen and causes fibrin to occur  Thrombin also activates factor XIII which links fibrin strands together o Factor 13 – links strands – makes mesh There are 13 blood clotting factors (this is the last in the step to make Extrinsic Pathway of Coagulation  Injured cells release tissue factor o That tissue factor interacts with some intermediates and PF3  Tissue factor interacts with PF 3o allow shortcut to factor X activation o Shortcut to factor X o So the chemical released by injured tissue gets us to factor 10 faster o This chemical alone won’t make it happen because we need the PF3s from the platelets  Shortcut – skips some intermediate steps  Instead of relying on platelets to release contents – the damaged cells of blood vessel release chemicals (tissue factor) List factors that limit clot formation.  Clotting factors carried away from site by circulating blood  Antithrombin III (chemical) inactivates thrombin o Slows down the clotting process  Protein C inhibits intrinsic pathway events o Protein C interupts intermediates that we didn’t talk about and the activation of Factor X o Antithrombin III and protein C are circulating normally in the blood  Heparin enhances activity of antithrombin III and inhibits intrinsic pathway events o Heparin helps to enhance the AntiIII activity o Keeps the clot from getting too big o Not too big not too small – just right  Explain how the processes of retraction and fibrinolysis relate to the natural elimination of a blood clot. Retraction  Platelets contain contractile proteins within it’s granules o Proteins interact w/ each other and contract  Cause platelets to contract and squeeze serum out of clot to compact the clot Irene Erich 10 Anatomy + Physiology II Exam 2 Objectives 1 o Clot becomes smaller o As it starts to contract, it pulls the two edges of vessel closer so that we can have tissue repair  This draws ruptured edges of vessel closer together o Facilitates repair to the damage on the vessel  PDGF stimulates vessel repair o Same process of repair we looked at last semester o Stimulated by PDGF – as platelets start to breakdown they release this chemical: platelet derived growth factor o Neighboring cells start dividing so blood vessel starts to repair itself • Clot is starting to shrink and shrink and shrink more • Blood clot in the vessel – vessel is repaired we don’t need clot anymore – clot can’t just let go all at once • We need to break it down slowly • First it goes through a retraction process then it goes through a dissolving process Fibrinolysis: breakdown of fibrin  Clot produces chemical called plasminogen o Produced when platelets start to decay  Plasminogen is activated to plasmin o New endothelium cells produce tissue plasminogen activator (TPA) which is what activates and converts plasminogen  Plasmin digests fibrin  When we breakdown fibrin, the clot is going to be broken apart  Brownish yellow in bottom pic is the fibrin mesh  Clot needs to be where it needs to be – having one elsewhere would be bad :-/ Identify the hemostatic disorders.  Thromboembolytic disorders: excessive blood clot o Thrombus: blood clot that forms in a generally otherwise healthy blood vessel – stationary – forming there blocks the flow of blood  Could become issue in long distance plane flights  Stationary blood clot formed when it shouldn’t have o Embolism: if the blood clot is migrating through the body – moving blood clot – ultimately finds an area it can’t pass through + clogs up Irene Erich 11 Anatomy + Physiology II Exam 2 Objectives 1  Can be quite long – can be 10cm or larger  Bleeding disorders: don’t get enough blood clotting o Thrombocytopenia: insufficient amount of platelets in the body  Reduction in platelets due to some sort of pathology/disease/infection o Hemophilia: genetic disorder – individuals can’t produce one of the clotting proteins b/c they don’t have the gene for it  Without the protein they can’t produce the clot  Any one of the clotting factor proteins  Some are more important than others – like factor X or 13 Describe the ABO and Rh blood groups.  Determined by presence of agglutinogens (the markers on the surface of the cells) o Specifically ABO and Rh (D) o Directs production of agglutinins o If RBC has A agglutinogen is Blood Type A o “ B, Blood Type B o If you have both – AB o Neither – Blood Type O o One more marker called an RH factor (D agglutinogen) o A + D = A+ o A + B + D = AB+ o The markers you possess on your cells determine the production of cells called agglutinin if you have the A antigens you produce the antiB agglutinin o antiB attacks B o Blood type AB produce neither antiA nor antiB (universal acceptor) o Blood type O produces both antiA and antiB o Blood type O- is a universal blood donar – the antis have nothing to attack Irene Erich 1 Anatomy + Physiology II Exam 2 Objectives 5 Lecture Objectives Circulation Relate the vital signs to the cardiac cycle.  Pulse o Pressure due to expansion and recoil of arteries as blood passes through it o Most common: radial pulse – artery runs underneath someone’s thumb o Can’t take it with your thumb o Femoral pulse: anywhere the artery is near the surface of the body o Carotid pulse: the neck – can feel the blood pulsing  Don’t push too hard so they don’t pass out lol  Blood Pressure o Radial artery runs through the upper arm o If you follow the radial artery down into elbow area – you can put the stethoscope on that spot o Normal BP for people our age: 120/80 o Will hear absolutely nothing until the (slow) deflating starts, radial artery opens up and blood starts to rush through o That’s the first carotcoth sound (systolic blood pressure) o Continue to deflate the cuff, carotcoth sounds continue, sound disappears (diastolic pressure) o Systolic is when you first hear it – diastolic when you last hear it Define tissue perfusion, and discuss how it is altered based on tissue needs. Blow flow through tissues  Delivers oxygen and nutrients to tissues  Removes wastes from tissues  Exchanges gases in lungs o Perfusion of blood to lungs that allows gaseous exchanges to occur  Forms urine in kidneys o Perfusion of blood to kidneys allows formation of urine  Amount of blood delivered to different parts of the body varies dependent upon need Irene Erich 2 Anatomy + Physiology II Exam 2 Objectives 5  Exercise: mount of blood that reaches the tissue increases and the distribution changes – 10 fold increase in blood to skeletal muscle – increase of blood going to the skin (perspiration and cooling) – increase of blood going to the heart – reduction in blood going to abdominal cavity (don’t need to digest food right now) Relate the velocity of blood flow to the different types of blood vessels, and explain why the pattern you describe exists.  Inversely related to cross-sectional area of vessels o High cross sectional area, lower the velocity  Regulated locally by modifying diameter of arterioles o More constricted the arterioles are, the slower the flow of blood  At any given time there’s more blood in the veins than any other vessel Identify factors that could result in a change in blood velocity.  Low levels of nutrients or oxygen cause vasodilation and relaxation of precapillary sphincters (metabolic affect) o Deliver more blood to that area o If tissue needs blood, the blood serving that tissue will dilate o Relaxes the thing so that blood will go through true capillaries and not just the shunt  Changes in stretch of vessel causes response in smooth muscle of vessel (myogenic affect)  Angiogenesis increases number and size of vessels o Angiogenesis: production of new vessels o Somebody training anaerobically (long distance) – body creates new blood vessels to deliver blood where t needs to be  Blood flow is regulated by individual tissues based on the tissue need – intrinsic mechanism (the tissue itself) Irene Erich 3 Anatomy + Physiology II Exam 2 Objectives 5 Explain how gases, lipid-soluble molecules, water-soluble solutes, large molecule and fluids pass through capillaries into interstitial fluids.  Respiratory gases and lipid-soluble molecules pass via direct diffusion o Gases can pass by simple diffusion (high concentration to low concentration) o If concentration of blood is higher than the surrounding tissue – o2 will move out of blood and into tissue o Lipid soluble also passes by simple diffusion  Water-soluble solutes pass through intercellular clefts and fenestrations (pores/holes) o Can’t go through plasma membrane  Large molecules pass through caveoli o Caveoli is a vesicle – form of active transport that requires energy  Fluids pass through pinocytic vesicles o Again, a form of active transport – requires energy… but it is possible! Capillary Fluid Dynamics:  Fluid forced out through clefts at arterial end o Not all the fluid – but a good portion of the fluid portion of blood is pushed out at the arterial end o Most come back in on the venous (low pressure) side  Most returns at venous end o 4 opposes forces regulate this balance  Flow regulated by balance between hydrostatic pressure and colloid osmotic pressure o Hydrostatic pressure: fluid pressure – pressure a fluid puts on container o Other two called colloid osmotic pressure Identify the pressures that work in opposition to one another to regulate movements in/out of capillaries. Explain how these forces operate.  Force exerted by fluid pressing against a wall o In this case it’s the wall of the capillary o Fluid inside pushing out and fluid outside pushing in  Capillary hydrostatic pressure drops along length of capillary bed • Similar to capillary blood pressure Irene Erich 4 Anatomy + Physiology II Exam 2 Objectives 5 • If hydrostatic inside is higher than hydrostatic pressure outside – fluid will move out Colloid Osmotic Pressure  Force created by presence of large, nondiffusible molecules o b/c these molecules are present – they create an osmotic gradient  Functions in opposition to hydrostatic pressure o Hydrostatic pressure wants to push something out, colloid osmotic pressure wants to push something in o Unlike hydrostatic, it doesn’t change  Does not vary along length of capillary bed  Some molecules simply cannot diffuse across the wall of the capillary – like proteins  We have a whole bunch of plasma proteins  4 opposes forces – two inside capillary and two outside capillary – this graphic shows that (maybe next slide) Net Filtration Pressure  Interaction between hydrostatic and colloid osmotic pressures o determine fluid movement o All four of these factors can play a role – but one is most important: capillary hydrostatic pressure (cap blood pressure) o Fluid movement is mostly determined by the blood pressure in the capillary o When capillary pressure is low, fluids move in (and vice- versa)  Determines if there is a net gain or loss of fluid from capillaries Define a portal system. Capillary bed/exchange system between two veins rather than an artery and a vein  Veins to capillaries to veins  Serves specific regional tissue needs  Most important: hepatic portal system which is the one found in the liver – capillary bed within the liver  Toxins can be broken down by the liver Define circulatory shock, and identify possible sources. Any condition that prevents blood from being circulated correctly  Hypovolemic shock o Low volume shock Irene Erich 5 Anatomy + Physiology II Exam 2 Objectives 5 o Occurs from a massive blood loss (picture isn’t necessarily) o Massive hemorrhage o Eventually, blood volume is so low it cant be pushed  Vascular shock o Blood volume is normal but we still get disrupted circulation b/c we have extreme vasodilation going on o One way: sunburn – body’s response is to dilate blood vessels to cool the tissue – blood volume drops so we can’t get that flow back right away o Another way: sitting in a hot tub too long – “never drink alcohol when in a hot tub” – blood vessels dilate x2 o Anapolaxus: extreme allergic reaction  Cardiogenic shock o Pic is cardiac muscle after a heart attack o Loss of blood supply to part of the heart – since it no longer functions it converts rom cardiac to fibrous connective and it no longer contracts o If pump declines, not enough pressure on the blood to circulate Explain how blood vessels develop in the fetus.  Mesoderm cells form endothelial lining of blood vessels o Start by forming endothelium all over the embryo at once  These collect as blood islands  These connect to form vascular tubes o A whole bunch of tubes that connect within the body – they have to differentiate. Platelet-derived growth factors cause this  Platelet-derived growth factor signals mesenchymal cells to form muscular and fibrous coats o Platelets connect – have fluid flowing through tubes o Growth factors stimulate mesenchyme to form something Provide examples of age-related blood vessel changes.  Atherosclerosis o Buildup of plaque deposits in the lining of blood vessels – predominately arteries o Usually derivatives of cholesterol o Diet now is contributing to these plaque build ups – high fat diet contributes to this accumulation o Accumulation constricts the passageway through the arteries – slows blood flow – locally increases blood pressure Irene Erich 6 Anatomy + Physiology II Exam 2 Objectives 5 o Overtime they build up and cause problems o Men form more plaques than women  Estrogen helps prevent plaque formation o Diet related  Hypertension o Chronic (long duration) high blood pressure o Can cause damage to heart – flabby ventricles o Macular degeneration – eye blood vessels bursts of detach – don’t see as well o Damage kidneys o Damage brain – too much force going to it Irene Erich 1 Anatomy + Physiology II Exam 2 Objectives 4 Lecture Objectives Blood Vessels Identify the blood vessels of the human body, and indicate their direction of flow.  Arteries o Elastic: arteries with the largest diameter  Least amount of resistance to blood as its passing through  Wall is rich with elastic connective tissue (sheets)  Receive blood under highest pressure  Move away from heart… wall of artery changes…. Elastin is replaced by smooth muscle o Muscular: smaller diameter than elastic  Distal to elastic  Actually start delivering blood towards the organs – branching as we go  Arterioles o Smaller than artery  Capillaries o Microscopic o Where gas exchange occurs o Empty into venules  Venules o Empty into veins  Veins o Carry blood back to heart Describe the three layers that make up the wall of most blood vessels, and state the function of each layer.  Tunica interna o Layer of blood vessel closest to lumen o Made up of simple squamous epithelium (1 cell layer thick) o Also called vessel endothelium o Endocardium becomes the endothelium of the blood vessel  Tunica media o Deep to the tunica interna o Made up of smooth muscle o It’s the smooth muscle in the blood vessels that allow them to change their diameter o Two ways for smooth muscle to be stimulated: o stimulation of sympathetic nervous system Irene Erich 2 Anatomy + Physiology II Exam 2 Objectives 4 o Or chemically through norepinephrine (secreted by adrenal medulla)  Tunica externa o Outermost – full of collagen o Function: anchor the blood vessel in place o Vasa vasorum  Lumen Differentiate the three categories of capillaries discussed in class, and identify where each could be found.  Continuous o Most of the capillaries in body are continuous o Capillaries of skin and muscle o Cells that make up the epithelium are tightly joined together – tight junctions o Still have intercellular cleft but its very small o The cells that make it up are rich with pinocytic vessicles (active transport of fluids) so we can exchange fluids with the blood o Lining is very smooth – not much friction or resistance to blood flow o lood cells travel through them single file b/c they’re so small o Important b/c it increases the efficiency of exchange o Each blood cell (RBC) that passes through can exchange oxygen etc. o Only the tunica interna – so simple squamous epithelium makes it up – one cell layer thick o Really neat diffusion membrane – only have to cross 2 plasma membranes o We cross from the cell itself into the capillary wall – pass through other side of the wall into interstitial space  Fenestrated o Fenestrations are the little pores o Pores increase the permeability in those capillaries o Might have missed some stuff – you were sending an email  Sinusoidal o Fewer tight junctions so the gap b/t cells gets larger o These sinusoids are large enough so that blood cells are large molecules pass through them o Can see in bone marrow where blood cells are produced o Can see in liver b/c that’s the site of recycling for dead cells Irene Erich 3 Anatomy + Physiology II Exam 2 Objectives 4 Describe the structure and function of a capillary bed.  Terminal arteriole o Takes blood to a capillary bed  Metarteriole o Entryway into the capillary bed o Fuses with the vein side  Thoroughfare channel o Vein side  Postcapillary venule o Also pass through the true capillaries where more blood is needed o In every bed: somewhere b/t 10-100 true capillaries o Thing that collects blood from capillary bed  Vascular shunt  This overall circuit is called the vascular shun, blood will always pass through this circuit o Has to get from arteriole side to veinular side o If only going through shunt – wont go through true caps  True capillaries  Precapillary sphincters o Smooth muscle band that surrounds the true capillaries o Regulates blood that passes through true caps o Don’t all have to be open at the same time  We have circulation in the body  When we get to a capillary bed, that is called microcirculation  Capillary beds can respond to needs of tissue where the capillaries are  If there is a greater need somewhere else, it takes a shortcut(?) - microcirulcation  Called micro b/c it can respond to the need of the area Identify some significant differences between arteries and veins.  Artery o Thick walls o Small lumen o Thicker tunica media o Lower blood volume o Higher blood pressure o No valves  Vein o Thin walls Irene Erich 4 Anatomy + Physiology II Exam 2 Objectives 4 o Large lumen  Larger than artery b/c the wall of the artery is thicker o Thinner tunica media o Higher blood volume o Lower blood pressure o Venous valves Explain the relationship between blood flow, blood pressure and blood resistance. Blood Flow  Directly proportional to differences in blood pressure o The greater the difference, the greater the flow  Inversely proportional to peripheral resistance o Resistance is the opposition of flow due to friction o Were peripheral resistance goes up, flow goes down  F=P/R  What are things that could affect peripheral resistance and therefore flow • Flow of blood throughout the entire body is relatively constant • 5200mL of blood passes through the heart per minute • While its constant through the system, it varies where its going • The amount of blood that leaves the right side of heart going to lungs is same as blood leaving left going to body – same amount different pressures • Need to regulate the flow to different organs • Heart generates the pressure to push the blood • Blood in vena cava is under lowest pressure Furthest from the heart: lowest pressure, closest to the heart: highest pressure Identify factors that could alter blood resistance, then identify the factor that exerts the most control. Blood Visosity Viscosity: measure of ease of flow/slipperiness Internal resistance of blood – due to the makeup of the blood itself • The higher the viscosity of something, the slower its flow • Honey is more viscous than water so it flows more slowly • We can change the viscosity of blood but we don’t do that much • This type of resistance is relatively constant in the body • If we have excess of RBC, pass more slowly • Generally is doesn’t change tho • Not major controlling factor but could affect it Irene Erich 5 Anatomy + Physiology II Exam 2 Objectives 4 Vessel length • The longer a blood vessel the greater the resistance to flow • Generally don’t change the size from one second to another • Relatively constant • Bigger people have longer vessels • Can change length as we grow or gain weight – doesn’t change from one second to the next tho • Not a major factor Vessel diameter • This is the major factor • Operating system • The larger the diameter, the lower the friction (and vice versa) • As friction increases, resistance increase Contrast the blood pressure at various points through the circulatory system. • Relationship b/t resistance and pressure • In blood vessels closest to heart we can see differences between systolic and diastolic pressure • As we move further, pressure goes down • Don’t see much loss of pressure until we get to muscular… then we really drop at arterioles • Looking at pressure not flow • At arterioles – eliminate pulse pressure – huge drop of pressure as we get into capillaries • Capillaries, microscopic single cell walls, if pressure was high they’d explode • By having lower pressure, things move through more slowly • Capillaries will empty back into venules – tiny passageways to big passageways – more pressure drop Irene Erich 6 Anatomy + Physiology II Exam 2 Objectives 4 Back to vena cava… pressure is almost as 0 – tough to get it back to heart  Define mean arterial pressure, and discuss the usefulness of this term in discussing blood circulation. • Pressure that propels blood to tissues • MAP = diastolic pressure + (pulse pressure/3) o Av BP = 120/80 • 80 +(40/3) = 93 • Below the mathematical average (that one was 100) • Why is it below? o b/c we stay in diastole longer than we are in systole • going from higher MAP to lower MAP List and explain factors that respond to changes in blood pressure, and describe the control that each exerts. Counteracting Brief Fluctuations • Alter blood distributions to respond to needs o Not a longterm change but shortterm change o Shut off the true capillaries o If I need blood in one place, take it from somewhere • Alter vessel diameter o If we need to deliver more blood, dilate it o If we need less blood, constrict o Remember changing diameter will change the blood pressure o If we constrict, blood has to go somewhere! Neural Reflex Arcs • Baroreceptors detect change in pressure • Vasomotor center inhibited o Blood vessels will dilate • Peripheral resistance reduced • Blood pressure reduced o This doesn’t last long Vasomotor Center Details: • Uses sympathetic neurons • Sympathetic neuron coming down to the wall of blood vessel – releases norep – causes smooth muscle to contract • Activating the vasomotor center causes vasoconstriction • There’s another way to get blood vessels to contract – epinephrine from bloodstream into vessels • Basal motor tone: blood vessels don’t stay as dilated as they possibly can Irene Erich 7 Anatomy + Physiology II Exam 2 Objectives 4 • partially constricted most of the time – allows them to constrict more but also dialte Side Effects  Venous return reduced o As we reduce the pressure the amount of blood coming back to the heart slows down  Cardiac output reduced o Heart wants to keep output constant  Heart rate reduced  Contractile force reduced  MAP declines o Continual lowering of the blood pressure o As this declines, body starts to respond to this Results of Side Effects  Reduced MAP initiates vasoconstriction  Also increases cardiac output o Causes heart to contract a little harder  Blood pressure rises Chemical Reflex Arcs  Chemoreceptors detect drop in oxygen level or pH or increase in CO 2 o These three things are related: when O2 is low, CO2 is high o High CO2 causes pH to shift and become acidic – high CO2 leads to low pH o If the O2 of the blood drops, the cardioacceleratory center stimulated  Cardioacceleratory center stimulated o Heart rate increases  Vasomotor center stimulated o Other site of stimulation o Low oxygen levels cause blood vessels to constrict  Blood pressure increases o If those two things are happening, blood pressure is going to go up Other Chemical Controls:  Epinephrine and norepinephrine o Epi increases cardiac output + causes vasoconstriction – increases blood pressure o Norep causes vasoconstriction – increases blood pressure o Come from medulla of adrenal gland – usually releases in response to stress o Stress can cause an increase in BP  Atrial natriuretic peptide Irene Erich 8 Anatomy + Physiology II Exam 2 Objectives 4 o If the pressures against the wall of the atria of the heart increase, the heart secretes ANP o This hormone acts on the kidneys o Causes a change in water reabsorption in the kidneys o ANP shuts off aldosterone o Water passes/is lost as urine rather than reabsorption o Blood volume decreases – less pressure  Antidiuretic hormone o Released from the posterior pituitary o Promotes aldosterone production o Conserving water o If we’re conserving water, blood volume increases o ADH can cause vasoconstriction but only in times of extreme hemorrhage – large scale blood loss o Increases blood pressure  Angiotensin II o When stimulated, kidneys release renin o Renin causes activation of angiotensin o Production of angio is linked to production of aldosterone o Anytime we increase angiotensin II we have potential to increase BP (b/c more aldosterone secreted) o Also functions as a vasoconstrictor – blood pressure increase  Endothelium-derived factors o Group of chemicals that can change blood pressure o Blood vessel increases these certain chemicals (there are several different) o Some cause vasoconstriction, some cause vasodilation o Depending on stretch – the blood vessel itself can cause these things to cause a change in BP  Inflammatory chemicals o If we have a potential breach to our immune, body releases inflammatory chemicals o Ex: histamine – a vasodilator – also increases permeability across the vessel wall – causing a reduction in blood pressure  Alcohol o Inhibits ADH o More urine, reduce blood volume, reduce blood pressure o Inhibits the vasomotor center – so we get vasodilation – causes blood pressure to decrease o Also directly causes vasodilation  Nicotine o Functions like epi and norepinephrine Irene Erich 9 Anatomy + Physiology II Exam 2 Objectives 4 o Causes an increase in blood pressure Most of these are localized/temporary changes Contrast the direct vs. the indirect renal mechanism, and identify the purpose of each. Renal Regulation • Alters blood volume • Changing blood volume changes blood pressure • Changing blood volume causes kidneys to eliminate water Long term control of blood pressure is through the kidneys – renal regulation • Function of kidneys is to filter the blood • Blood in body passes kidneys, goes through filtration membrane, some fluid passes through – filtrate gets lost as urine • If you increase or decrease amount of water lost as urine – long term change in blood pressure Direct Renal Regulation • Increase in blood pressure or blood volume speeds up filtration rate in kidneys o The more you filter, the more you take away, has an affect o Only thing acting is the kidney – only thing causes it to act is the volume of blood in the thing o As blood volume/pressure is high, urine production increases (and vice-versa) • Arteriole delivers blood into specialized capillary bed inside the kidney • Fenestrated capillary • As blood passes through, the fluid that sits on it is going to leak out • As it leaks out it gets into collection tubule • Liquid portion of the blood of plasma pushed out of circulation into collection tubule • The collection tubule determines what to keep or push back out • Glucose, amino acids, and most of the water will go back into circulation • All the leftover stuff is waste – excreted as urine • Hundreds of thousands of these filter things working in the kidneys Irene Erich 10 Anatomy + Physiology II Exam 2 Objectives 4 Indirect Renal Regulation • Decrease in BP causes kidneys to release renin • Renin stimulates angiotensin II production • Angiotensin II stimulates aldosterone production • Blood pressure rises  Taking proteins produced by the liver and converting them through production of renin to give angiotensin II which gives aldosterone  Aldosterone causes more water to be absorbed out of the kidneys (puts water back in the blood and causes BP to go up Irene Erich 1 Anatomy + Physiology II Exam 2 Objectives 2 Lecture Objectives The Heart Describe the location and orientation of the heart.  Mediastinum o Cavity where the heart is  Base o The part at the top of the heart  Apex o Part of the heart at the bottom  Heart is in center of chest  Heart is about the same size as your fist  Embryological when developing the heart is right side up but then flips so that’s why the base is at the top Name the coverings of the heart.  Fibrous pericardium o Pericardium is sac-like structure that covers the heart o Fibrous is outer portion – most superficial o Dense connective tissue o Protects the heart o Attaches to the wall – anchors it in place. Heart itself isn’t anchored but the sac surrounding it is  Serous pericardium – deep to fibrous – two layered o Parietal layer: belongs to cavity o Visceral layer: belongs to organ  Outermost layer of the heart o Pericardial cavity  Between the two layers  Filled with pericardial fluid – protects the heart and prevents friction for heart beats – dissipates heat so heart doesn’t fatigue Describe the structure and the function of the three layers of the heart.  Epicardium: outer layer of heart o Same as visceral layer  Myocardium: muscle of the heart  Endocardium: lining on the inside of heart o Squamous epithelial tissue o Same tissue that lines the blood vessels of our body Irene Erich 2 Anatomy + Physiology II Exam 2 Objectives 2 List the chambers and anatomical landmarks of the heart.  Atria o Two in base of the heart (top chamber)  Ventricles o Two in the apex of the heart (bottom chamber)  Interatrial septum o Separates the two atria o After birth, the two atria are completely separated by it o Before birth, it shortcuts from right to left b/c it doesn’t have to go to the lungs in utero o After birth – bam it closes up  Interventricular septum o Separates the two ventricles  Coronary sulcus o In anatomical position, it runs on a diagonal  Interventricular groove o If you have the back side of the heart up, the groove is running straight up and down o Outside on top of interventricular septum o Within these groove arteries and veins travel (coronary) – a lot of fat protects them  Human heart is divided into 4 chambers  Heart makes a V – V for ventricle  This heart is in anatomical position  Look at thickness of ventricle walls (myocardium) – left side is thicker  Might not be in anatomical on the practical – have to know left from right  It’s thicker on the left side because it has to send the blood from the heart out to the entire body  The right side only sends it to the lungs :/ don’t need to create as much force or we’d blow up the lungs! Hehe Describe the structure and composition of the heart chambers. Atria  Auricles o Extension of chamber that increase surface area so that we can hold the blood o Looks like an ear flap  Pectinate muscles Irene Erich 3 Anatomy + Physiology II Exam 2 Objectives 2 o Upper surface of the atria – bands of muscle fibers o Muscles in the atria that help atria contract and push blood into the ventricles  Fossa ovais o Used to be an opening called foramen ovali b/t right and left atrium o Right before birth the blood was shortcutting here – when baby is born there’s a quick pause before crying where that closes up o Now the chambers are separated o Now blood has to go through right ventricle and then to the lungs Ventricles  Trabeculae carneae o Bundles of muscles in the wall of the ventricles  Papillary muscles o If we look extended into the ventricle, we have muscles extending called papillary muscles o Pap sounds like flap – the pap muscles are connected to the flaps that are the valves functioning in the heart Trace the pathway of blood flow through the heart, including the major blood vessels. All blood from the body enters the right atrium of the heart The pathway to get the blood into the right atrium is the vena cava Coming from above goes into superior and coming from below goes in the inferior Vena cava o Superior o Inferior  Coronary sinus: where all the blood empties coming from the ? o All the blood that goes to the heart goes into CS which meets with vena cava and goes to right atrium  Pulmonary veins empty into the left atrium o Have a vein coming from right lung and from left lung o Those veins meet and empty into left atrium o Pulmonary vein is the most oxygen rich blood vessel in the body o A for artery A for away from the heart o Veins carry blood towards the heart  Pulmonary artery: blood leaves right ventricle and carries the blood to the longs (oxygen poor blood)  Aorta Irene Erich 4 Anatomy + Physiology II Exam 2 Objectives 2 o Left ventricle connects to aorta and pumps blood to the entire body to be exchanged to tissue o Blood enters and leaves the heart twice – goes through two paths/circuits Differentiate the pulmonary and systemic circuits.  Pulmonary circuit o Right side of heart sends blood to the lungs o Oxygen moves in and CO2 moves out o Oxygen rich goes back to heart  Systemic circuit o Blood pumped with pressure going to the body o (left side of heart) o Delivers the oxygen to the body and accepts metabolic waste/CO2 o Comes back to the heart Two circuits passing through the heart • 4 chambers of the heart are completely separated from one another – valves regulate the flow and cause the separations • The oxygen poor side of the heart is completely separated from the oxygen rich side • Aorta carries the blood and then branches – the very first branch takes blood to the muscle of the blood itself • The heart gets the first O2 rich blood List the major coronary arteries and veins.  Coronary arteries o Carries oxygen rich blood to the heart muscle itself b/c it has living tissue + requires energy o Don’t need to know the names  Anterior interventricular artery  Circumflex artery  Marginal artery  Posterior interventricular artery  Cardiac veins: pick up the blood from the heart o Great cardiac vein o Middle cardiac vein o Small cardiac vein o Anterior cardiac veins  Coronary sinus o Where all of the coronary veins enter into o Dumps into the vena cava into the right atrium Irene Erich 5 Anatomy + Physiology II Exam 2 Objectives 2 Anastomoses • These multiple veins going to the same places have to connect – the connection/fusion/junction is called an anastomoses • Blood flows through the heart – heart creates pressure for the blood to flow throughout the body • Differences in pressure regular movement – blood moves from pressures of high to low • Contraction of the heart creates increase in pressure • We have structures that regulate the flow of blood Identify the name and location of the valves that control the flow of blood through the heart.  Atrioventricular valves (AV valve) o Tricuspid  Between right atrium and right ventricle  Not as much pressure as left side  Three cusps o Bicuspid (mitral)  Between left atrium and left ventricle  Exposed to much greater pressures  Only 2 flaps  Cordae tendanae o How these valves are prevented from turning inside out o Bc its attached at the bottom o Capillary muscles are in the walls of the ventricle o Attached to the valve by the string things called cordae tendineae o Capillary muscles actually contract before the ventricle contracts o As this muscle contracts, it stretches these cords which pull the valve closed, held in place doesn’t turn inside out  Semilunar valves o Between the ventricles and the arteries are semilunar valves (SL) o Pulmonary semilunar valve on the right side of the heart o Aortic semilunar valve on the left side of the heart Order of Blood Flow: Vena Cava RA AV RV SL -> PA -> lungs -> PV LA Irene Erich 6 Anatomy + Physiology II Exam 2 Objectives 2 Bicuspid V LV SL -> aorta -> all of body tissues ->vena cava Describe the structural and functional properties of cardiac muscle, contrasting it from skeletal muscle.  Striated o Alternating thick and thin myofilaments  Uni-nucleate  Sliding filament mechanism of action o Involuntary o Actin + myosin – shortening muscle  Adjacent cells lo


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