Organizational Behavior Part 3
Organizational Behavior Part 3 BUAD309
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Date Created: 01/27/16
Part 3 Chapter 9 Group – 2 or more individuals interacting and interdependent, who have come together to achieve particular objectives, Formal group – a designated work group defines by an organization’s structure Informal group – a group that is neither formally structured nor organizationally determined; such a group appears in response to the need for social contact Social identity theory – perspective that considers when and why individuals consider themselves members of groups Ingroup favoritism – perspective in which we see members of our ingroup as better than other people, and people not in our group as all the same Characteristics that make a social identity important to a person: Similarity – same values = more identification Distinctiveness – people who are different stand out Statuses – try to connect with higher status Uncertainty reduction – uncertainty and confusion is unwelcome Fivestage groupdevelopment: 1. Forming – characterized by much uncertainty about purpose, structure, and leadership 2. Storming – characterized by intragroup conflict 3. Norming – characterized by close relationships and cohesiveness 4. Performing – group is fully functional 5. Adjourning stage – characterized by concern with wrapping up activities rather than task performances Punctuated – equilibrium model – a set of phases that temporary groups go through that involves transitions between inertia and activity Role – a set of expected behavior patterns attributed to someone occupying a given position in a social unit Role perception – an individual’s view of how he or she is supposed to act in a given situation Role expectations – how other believe a person should act in a given situation Psychological contract – an unwritten agreement that sets out what management expect from an employee and vice versa Role conflict – a situation in which an individual is confronted by divergent role expectations Norms – acceptable standards of behavior within a group that are shared by the group’s members Conformity – the adjustment of one’s behavior to align with the norms of the group Reference groups – important groups to which individuals belong or hope to belong and with those whose norms individuals are likely to conform Deviant workplace behavior – voluntary behavior that violates significant organizational norms and, in so doing, threatens the well being of the organization or its members, also called antisocial behavior/workplace inactivity Status – a socially defined position or rank given to groups or group members by others Status characteristics theory – states that difference in status characteristics create status hierarchies within groups Social loafing – tendency for individuals toe expend less effort when working collectively than when working individually Cohesiveness – degree to which group members are attracted to each other and are motivated to stay in the group Diversity – the extent tow which members of a group are similar/different Faultiness – perceived divisions that split groups into two or more subgroups based on individual differences such as sex, race, age, work experience, education Groupthink – a phenomenon in which the norms for consensus overrides the realistic appraisal of alternative courses of action Groupshift – a change between a group’s decision and an individual decision that a member within the group would make (shift is generally a more extreme version of the group’s original position) Interacting groups – typical groups in which members interact with each other face to face Brainstorming – ideageneration process that specifically encourages any and all alternatives while withholding any criticism Nominal group technique –a group decisionmaking method in which individual members meet face to face to pool their judgments in a systematic but independent fashion Lecture 1: Group Formation and Development Group – 2 or more individuals interacting and interdependent, who have come together to achieve particular objectives, 2 or more people Stable structure Common goal Identify as group Formal group – a designated work group defines by an organization’s structure Command groups – determined by organization or reporting relationship (ex. Department of something) Task groups – formed for a specific service Informal group – natural formations that form in a work environment Interest groups – shared interest Friendship groups – the people you go to lunch with Social identity theory based on Status – we identify w/ group we think people think are favorable Similarity – members share similar values or characteristics Distinctiveness – Uncertainty reduction Ingroup favoritism – see some members as better than other people Stage model of group development: 1. Forming – people join and define structure 2. Storming – disagree over leadership 3. Norming – close relationships develop 4. Performing – fully functional group 5. Adjourning – group prepares to disband Punctuatedequilibrium model – group work characterized by long periods of inertia followed by activity and deadline Lecture 2: Roles, Norms, and Status and Lecture 3: Size, Cohesiveness, Diversity Group properties Norms – acceptable standards of behavior within a group that are shared o Can be explicit or implicit o Performance – how hard to work, strategies to perform task o Appearance – dress codes o Social agreement – where people sit or who has advice o Allocation of resources – equity, equality, need o Conformity – desire to be accepted by group, pressures to conform Reference groups – groups to which individuals belong those that individuals are likely to conform to o Workplace deviance – violates norms and can threaten the well being of the company Production, property, political, personal aggression Increased turnover and stress Diversity – extent to which group members are similar or different from one another o Short term, diversity increases conflict o Over time, higher performance w/ the right leadership o Fault lines – divisions in groups based on individual difference like sex, age, work exp, education Negative effects: more conflict, lower group satisfaction Positive effects: force collaboration and focused efforts Status – social define position of rank given to groups or group members o Power a person yields o Person’s ability to contribute o Personal characteristics o Tolerate more violations from high status people o More assertive o Inequalities can lead to negative functioning Size – how many people are in a group o Small – faster completion, more effective use of facts o Larger groups – good for getting lots of input, more effective at fact finding o Social loafing – individual exert less effort in a group than individually Equity concerns, diffusion of responsibility To decrease this, use peer evaluation, rewards, and setting group goals Cohesiveness – degree to which members are attracted to each other and are motivated to stay in groups o To increase this, make group smaller, encourage agreement, increase time spent, stimulate competition, give rewards to groups not individuals, isolate group Roles – a set of expected behavior pattern o Role perception – group member/employees view of how he/she is supposed to act in a given situation o Role expectation – how other believe a person should actin a given situation o Psychological contract – unwritten agreement between employer and employee that sets mutual expectation o Role conflict – situation in which an individual is confronted w/ divergent role expectations Lecture 4: Group Decision Making Advantages: Generate more complete info Generates more diverse alternatives Increased acceptance of a solution Disadvantages: Time consuming Minority domination Pressures to conform Ambiguous responsibility Group decision is almost always less efficient and vulnerable to biases. They tend to be more accurate than the average individual but less than the most accurate individual. Groups are slower but more creative. Group decisions are better accepted. Group decision making potential errors: Groupthink – group pressures conformity deter the group from considering minority views Most likely to occur when group want to protect positive image and when they are very confidence about their likely decision To minimize this: use smaller groups, appoint a devil’s advocate, and have an effective leader Groupshift – change between a group’s decision and an individual decision that a member in the group would make Either more conservative or extreme of group decision Interactive group – facetoface meetings with great deal of verbal and nonverbal communication Brainstorming – can overcome pressure for conformity and helps separate idea from evaluation. Nominal group technique – separates idea generation from evaluation. Group members are physically present but people independently write down their own ideas. Chapter 10 Teams facilitate employee participation Work group – a group that interacts primarily to share information and make decisions to help each group member perform within his area of responsibility Not collaborative, just summation Work team – a group whose individual efforts result in performance that is greater than the sum of the individual inputs Coordinated effort Types of teams: 1. Problemsolving teams – groups of 5 to 12 employees from the same department who meet for a few hours each week to discuss ways of timing quality, efficiency, and the work environment 2. Selfmanaged work teams – groups of 10 to 15 people who take on responsibilities of their former supervisors 3. Crossfunctional teams – employees from about the same hierarchical level, but from different work areas, who come together to accomplish a task 4. Virtual teams – teams that use computer technology to ties together physically dispersed members in order to achieve a common goal 5. Multiteam system a collection of 2 or more interdependent teams that shares superordinate goal; a team of teams Characteristics of an effective team: Adequate resources – every team relies on outside resources to sustain it Leadership and structure – agreeing on work how skills and management from team members. Leadership should empower teams by delegating responsibility Climate of trust – must trust team members and leaders, which reduces the need to monitor behavior. Trust is the foundation of leadership Performance evaluation and rewards system – evaluate and reward individual as well as team performance. Groupbased appraisals encourage team effort and commitment Team composition and how teams are staffed: Abilities of members – team performance depends on skills and abilities of individual members. Smart team leaders can help lessintelligent members when they struggle with a task Personality of members – teams that rate on higher levels of conscientiousness and openness perform better Allocation of roles – teams have different needs and members should be selected to ensure that all various roles are filled. There are 9 potential team roles: linker, creator, promoter, assessor, organizer, producer, controller, maintainer, and adviser Organizational demography – the degree to which member of a work unit share a common demographic attribute, such as age, sex, race, educational level, or length of service in an organization and the impact of this attribute on turnover Size of teams – keeping teams small improves group effectiveness, 5 to 9 members Member preferences – when people who prefer to work alone are added to a team, it could threaten morale and member satisfaction Team processes: Member commitment to a common purpose o Reflexivity – a team characteristic of reflecting on and adjusting the master plan when necessary Establishment of specific team goals – measurable and realistic to maintain focus Team efficacy – shared knowledge of who knows what within the group Mental models – team members’ knowledge and beliefs about how the work gets done by the team Managed level of conflict o Relationship conflicts – based on interpersonal incompatibility, tension, and animosity towards others o Task conflicts – stimulate discussion, promotes critical assessment Minimized social loafing – should make members accountable for Selecting: hiring team players, training: creating team players, rewarding: providing incentives to be a good team player Working in teams requires employees to cooperate with others, share information, confront differences, and sublimate personal interest for the greater good of the team. Lecture 1: Types of Teams Teams have become popular because: Better use of employee talent Increased flexibility Effective way to democratize organization and increase motivation Work groups are different from work teams based on goals, synergy, accountability, and skills. Work teams are coordinated efforts. Types of teams: Problemsolving teams – 5 to 12 people who meet for a few hours each week to discuss ways of improving things Selfmanaged work teams – 10 to 15 people who take on responsibilities of former supervisors Crossfunctional teams – same hierarchical level come together to accomplish a task o Useful for employees from diverse areas to share info, solve problems, develop ideas, and coordinate complex problems Virtual teams – computer tech. used to tie together physically dispersed members to achieve a common goal o Limited social context Multiteam system – 2 or more teams that share a super goal Lecture 2: Creating Effective Work Teams Team Effectiveness model: Assumes group work and team work are preferable to individuals Different types of teams Team context: Adequate resources, outside resources for sustainability Leadership and structure must be present to help coordinate membership efforts Climate of trust where members trust each other and their leaders which will lead to more risks and more commitment to the group Performance evaluations and rewards for both individual and group performance (hybrid) Team composition: Member abilities: skill level, knowledge, and ability. Smart team leaders help the less intelligent. Personality, big 5 model is relevant. Conscientiousness and openness to experience lead to better performance Allocating roles, assure diversity of skill. Member need to understand individual and personal strength and allocate roles accordingly Diversity, teams can be creative in the right environment if the leadership is good Size, ideally 5 to 9 people Member preferences, manages should select members to teams who want to be part of that team Team processes: Reflexivity – reflecting on and adjusting master plan when necessary Specific goals energize the team and encourage clear communication Efficacy, confidence in belief to succeed, small success, appropriate training Mental models – team member’s knowledge and beliefs about how the work gets done by the team Mental representation of the key elements within a team’s environment Conflict levels – relationship vs. task – too little/too much disagreement can inhibit performance Individuals Team Players Train employees to become team players Reward cooperative efforts in a group instead of competitive When not to use teams: When the work can be done better by one person There is no common goal The members of a group are independent Chapter 11 Communication – the transfer and understanding of meaning, 4 main functions: Control – follow job description, comply w/ company policies Motivation – clarifies what must be done, how well it is being done, and how to improve Emotional expression – work group = primary source of social interaction so members show satisfaction and frustration and feelings Information – provides what people need to know Communication process – steps between a source and a receiver that result in the transfer and understanding of meaning. 5 key parts: 1. Sender – initiates message by encoding thought 2. Encoding 3. Message – physical product of sender’s encoding 4. Channel – medium through which the message travels. The sender determines whether formal or informal Formal channels – communication channels established by an organization to transmit messages related to the professional activities of members Informal channels – communication channels that are created spontaneously and that emerge as responses to individual choices 5. Decoding 6. Receiver – person to whom the message is directed 7. Noise – communication barriers that distort the clarity of the message 8. Feedback – the check on how successful we have been transferring our messages. 9. Has understanding been achieved? Downward Communication – flows from one level of a group/organization to a lower level Used to assign goals, provide job instructions, explain policies/procedures, point out problems that need attention, and offer feedback Managers must explain why a decision was made Upward Communication – flows to a higher level in the group/organization Used to provide feedback to higherups, inform them of progress towards goals, and relay current problems Keeps managers aware of how employees feel about their jobs, coworkers, and organization Lateral Communication – when communication takes place among members of the same work group at the same level Saves time and facilitates coordination Grapevine – an organization’s informal communication network Oral Communication – speeches, formal oneonone and group decisions Fast, receive feedback When passed through multiple people, greater chance of distortion o Meetings – formal or informal, include 2+ people and take place anywhere o Videoconferencing – permits employees and clients to conduct realtime meetings w/ different people at different locations o Telephone – immediate response, can be formal or informal, less ambiguous than email Written Communication – includes letters, email, IM, organizational periodicals, etc. Letters PowerPoint – word and visual aids to help explain complex ideas Email – quickly written, edited, and stored, easily distributed to masses, cheap IM Text messaging Social media Blog – website about a single person or company Nonverbal Communication – includes body movements, intonations, emphasis to words, facial expressions, physical distance Channel richness – the amount of info that can be transmitted during a communication episode Risks with email: Risk of misinterpretation Fallout from negative messages Time consuming nature Limited expression of emotions Privacy concerns Professionalism Automatic processing – a relatively superficial consideration of evidence and information making use of heuristics Controlled processing – a detailed consideration of evidence and information relying on facts, figures, and logic Filtering – a sender’s manipulation of info so that it will be seen favorably by the receiver Information overload – a condition in which info inflow exceeds an individual’s processing capacity Communication apprehension – undue tension/anxiety about oral communication, written communication, or both Highcontext cultures – cultures that rely heavily on nonverbal and subtle situational cues in communication Lowcontext cultures – cultures that rely heavily on words to convey meaning in communication Cultural Guide: 1. Know yourself. 2. Foster a climate of mutual respect. 3. Learn the cultural context of each person. 4. When in doubt, listen. 5. State facts, not interpretation. 6. Consider the other person’s viewpoint. 7. Proactively maintain the identity of the group. Summary: the less uncertainty, the greater the satisfaction. Ambiguities reduce satisfaction. Communication mode can help determine effectiveness. Get feedback to make sure messages are understood. Written communication can create more misunderstanding than oral. Lecture 1: The Communication Process Communication – the transfer of understanding of meaning Interpersonal – two or more people Organization – all patterns network and systems of communication Control – “peer pressure” Motivation – clarified goals Emotional expression – satisfaction of social needs Information – facilitates decision making, needed to complete work processes successfully Communication Process: Sender has a thought thought encoded transmitted to receiver must be decoded (complete) understanding feedback will let people know if message is understood Noise – anything that can get in the way of understanding being complete Effective communication – occurs when the intended meaning of the sender is interpreted correctly by the receiver Efficient communication – occurs at minimum resource cost (ex. Time) Modes of communication: Written – works best for simple messages, requires extensive dissemination, conveys formal policy Oral – works best for messages that are complex or difficult to convey where immediate feedback is needed, attempt to create supportive/inspirational environment Nonverbal – transmitted w/o words (sounds, silence, body language, intonation, physical distance) Lecture 2: Organizational Communication Formal communication – follows official chain of command, or part of one’s job Informal communication – not define by the organization’s structure Permits employees to satisfy social interaction needs Can happen more frequently and rapidly Can improve an organization’s performance by creating faster and more effective channels of communication Downward – flows from managers to employees to inform and direct Upward – flows from employees to managers for feedback and create trust/respect Lateral – takes place among employees on the same level to coordinate Chain network – communication flows that is described by the formal chain of command (upward and downward) those in the middle have the most info Wheel network – communication within a unit of workers w/ their immediate manager Low member satisfaction Allchannel network – communication flows freely among all High member satisfaction Grapevine – informal org. communication network used by management to get a sense of what morale is like (gossip) Oral channels of communication: facetoface, telephone, group meetings Written channels of communication: memos, letters, fax, bulletin boards, PowerPoint, IM, email, text Rich media: handles multiple cues simultaneously, facilitates rapid feedback, very personal (facetoface) Choose less rich media when the message is routine and straightforward. Choose richer media when message is nonroutine and requires discussion. When using email, you risk: Misinterpretation Fallout from negative messages Timeconsumption Limited expression of emotions Privacy concern Professionalism Lecture 3: Supportive Communication Barriers to Effective Communication (Noise): Filtering – usually happens in the hierarchy, no one wants to report bad news Selective perception – interpreting situations as we see them Information overload – issue in orgs b/c so much technology and opportunity and a variety of info in a variety of mediums and can become a problem Emotions – everyone sees things differently when moods involved Language – may use certain words differently Silence – withholding info Communication apprehension – afraid to speak out in groups or any facetoface communication Lying – misrepresenting situations Cultural Barriers: Semantics words mean different things to different people Word connotations – words IMPLY different things in different languages Tone differences Differences in tolerance for conflict and methods for resolving conflicts To overcome barriers to communication: Use feedback – asking questions or responding Simplify language – important for people who use English as a second language Constrain emotions – realizing when upset, may not interpret things the same Observe nonverbal cues – words have to match nonverbal vibes Active listening – content, feelings, noting cues, paraphrasing, restating o Avoid interrupting, don’t overtalk, be empathetic, eye contact, be afethisative, ask questions, paraphrase Ways to keep channels open: Wander around, open office hours, formal employee meetings, advisory councils, suggestion boxes, communication consultants, 360 feedback Supportive communication by Dave Wetten and Kim Cameron Problemoriented NOT personoriented Congruent, NOT incongruent (don’t be passive aggressive. Words are consistent with feelings and actions) Descriptive NOT evaluative (observe instead of call out) Validating NOT invalidating (include the other person) Specific NOT global Conjunction NOT disjunctive (“Related to what you said…”) Owned NOT disowned Supportive listening NOT oneway listening Chapter 14 Conflict – a process that begins when one party perceives hat another party has negatively affect, or is about to negatively affect, something that the first party cares about Traditional view of conflict – the belief that all conflict is harmful and must be avoided Interactionist view of conflict – the belief that conflict is not only a positive force in a group but also an absolute necessity for a group to perform effectively Functionalist conflict – conflict that supports the goals of the group and improves its performance Dysfunctional conflict – conflict that hinders group performance Types of Conflict Task conflict – conflict over content and goals of the work Relationship conflict – conflict based on interpersonal relationships Almost always dysfunctional, most psychologically exhausting Process conflict – conflict over how work gets done Dyadic conflict – conflict that occurs between two people Intragroup conflict – conflict that occurs within a group or team Intergroup conflict – conflict between different groups or teams Conflict Process Conflict process – a process that has 5 stages: potential opposition or incompatibility, cognition and personalization, intentions, behavior, and outcomes Perceived conflict – awareness by one or more parties of the existence of conditions that create opportunities for conflict to arise Felt conflict – emotional involvement in a conflict that creates anxiety, tenseness, frustration, or hostility Intentions – decisions to act in a given way Competing – a desire to satisfy one’s interest regardless of the impact on the other party Collaborating – a situation which the parties to a conflict each desire to satisfy the concerns of all parties Avoiding – the desire to withdraw from or suppress a conflict Accommodating – the willingness of one party in a conflict to place the opponent’s interest above his or her own Compromising – a situation in which each party to a conflict is willing to give up something Conflict management – the use of resolution and stimulation techniques to achieve the desired level of conflict Negotiation – a process in which 2 or more parties exchange goods or services and attempt to agree on the exchange rate for them Distributive bargaining – negotiation that seeks to divide up a fixed amount of resources: a winlose situation Fixed pie – the belief that there is only a set amount of goods or services to be divvied up between the parties Integrative bargaining – negotiation that seeks one or more settlements that can create a winwin solution BATNA – best alternative to a negotiated agreement; the lest the individual should accept Mediator – a neutral third party who facilitates a negotiated solution by using reasoning, persuasion, and suggestions for alternatives Arbitrator – a third party to a negotiation who has the authority to dictate an agreement Conciliator – a trusted third party who provides an informal communication link between the negotiator and the opponent Summary: while people assume conflict lowers group organizational performance, this assumption is frequently incorrect. Extremes hinder performance. Optimal level is one that prevent stagnation, stimulates creativity, allows tension to be released, initiates change w/o being disruptive. Lecture 4: Conflict Conflict – a process that begins when one party perceives hat another party has negatively affect, or is about to negatively affect, something that the first party cares about Tradtioinal view: All conflict is bad and should beavioded It is negative and destructive Interactionaist view: Functional conflict supports goals Conflict that hinders performance is dysfunctional or destructive Types of conflict: Task conflict – Come about bc actual content Process conflict – about how the work gets done Relationship conflict – focuses on interpersonal relationships Loci of conflict: Dyadic conflict – between 2 people Intragroup conflict – within a group/team Intergroup conflict – between groups/teams Conflict process: Stage 1 – potential opposition Stage 2 – cognition and personalization Stage 3 – intentions Stage 4 – behavior Stage 5 – outcomes Conflict can be constructive when: it improves quality of decision, stimulates creativity/innovation, and encourages interest and curiosity Conflict can be destructive when: it breeds discontent, reduces group effectiveness, and threatens group survival (the worst are when they are never addressed) To resolve a conflict successfully, you need to discuss differences of opinions freely Managers need to emphasize the shared interest when resolving conflicts Lecture 5: Conflict Resolution Assertiveness vs. cooperativeness Compromising is the most advantageous Collaborating is the best Conflict resolution: Loselose conflict – avoidance and accommodation Winlose conflict – competition and compromise Winwin conflict – collaboration Conflict management and situations: Issue importance – how important is the issue? Relationship importance – how important is the relationship? What is the Relative power? What are the time constraints? Start w/ collaboration and then drop back to compromise. Collaborate, compromise, accommodate, compete, avoid Functional conflict = contrastive conflict Dysfunctional conflict = destructive Identify source of conflict, take personal issues out, focus on problem, be clear and objective, and ensure everyone agrees on the solution, establish followup solution Lecture 6: Negotiation Negotiation – a process in which 2 or more parties exchange goods or services and attempt to agree on the exchange rate for them Affects relationship between negotiators and the way negotiators feel about themselves Negotiation process: 1. Prep and planning 2. Definition of ground rules 3. Clarify and justify 4. Bargaining and problemsolving 5. Solution and implementation Distributive bargaining – negotiation that seeks to divide up a fixed amount of resources: a winlose situation Extremely competitive low level of info sharing Short term relationships most of the time, not much trust, opposed interest Integrative bargaining – negotiation that seeks one or more settlements that can create a winwin solution Everyone gets more bc they have more to give Shared interests, high level of info sharing, long term relationship These conditions necessary are rare Chapter 12 Leadership – the ability to influence a group toward the achievement of a vision or set of goals Trait theories of leadership – theories that consider personal qualities and characteristics that differentiates leaders from nonleaders Behavioral theories of leadership – theories proposing that specific behaviors differentiate leaders from nonleaders Initiating structure – the extent to which a leader is likely to define and structure his or her role and those of subordinates in the search for goal attainment Consideration the extent to which a leader is likely to have job relationships characterized by mutual trust, respect for subordinates’ ideas and regard for their feelings Employeeoriented leader – a leader who emphasizes interpersonal relations, takes a personal interests in the needs of employees, and accepts individual differences among members Productionoriented leader – a leader who emphasizes technical or task aspects of the job Fiedler contingency model – the theory that effective groups depend on a proper match between a leader’s style of interacting with subordinates and the degree to which the situation gives control and influence to the leader Least preferred coworker – an instrument that purports to measure whether a person is take or relationship oriented Leadermember relations – the degree of confidence, trust, and respect subordinates have in their leader Task structure – the degree to which job assignments are procedurized Position power – influence derived from one’s formal structural position in the organization; includes power to hire, fire, discipline, promote, and give salary increases Situational leadership theory – a contingency theory that focuses on followers’ readiness Pathgoal theory – a theory that stats that it is the leader’s job to assist followers in attaining their goals and to provide the necessary direction and/or support to ensure that their goals are compatible w/ the overall objectives of the group/organization Charismatic leadership theory – a leadership theory that stats that followers make attributions of heroic or extraordinary leadership abilities when they observe certain behaviors Vision – a longterm strategy for attaining a goal or goals Vision statement – a formal articulation of an organization’s vision or mission Transactional leaders – leaders who guide/motivate their followers in the direction of establish goals by clarifying role and task requirements Transformational leaders – leaders who inspire followers to transcend their own self interests and who are capable of having a profound and extraordinary effect on followers Authentic leaders – leaders who know who they are, know what they believe in and value, and act on those values and beliefs openly and candidly. Their followers would consider them to be ethical people. Social charismatic leadership – a leadership concept that states that leaders convey values that are centered versus selfcentered and who rolemodel ethical conduct Servant leadership – a leadership style marked by going beyond the leader’s own self interest and instead focusing on opportunities to help followers grow and develop Trust – a positive expectation that another will not act opportunistically Mentor – a senior employee who sponsors and supports a lessexperienced employee called a protégé Attribution theory of leadership – a leadership theory that says that leadership is merely an attribution that people make about other people Substitutes – attributes, such as experiences and training that can replace the need for a leader’s support or ability to create structure Neutralizers – attributes that can make it impossible for leader behavior to make any difference to follower outcomes Identificationbased trust – trust based on a mutual understanding of each other’s intentions and appreciation of each other’s wants and desires Summary: Leaders direct us towards goals. Knowing what makes a good leader can improve group performance. Big Five model helps predict who will be a good leader. Tests and interviews can help identify people. Lectures 13: Overview and Trait Theories of Leadership Leadership – the ability to influence a group toward the achievement of a vision or set of goals Not all leaders are managers and not all managers are leaders Leaders Can be informal – rose tot the position Can be formal – part of hierarchy Challenge status quo Create visions of future Inspire members Managers – formulate detailed plans, create structures, and oversee operations Trait theories of leadership – theories that consider personal qualities and characteristics that differentiates leaders from nonleaders Traditional approaches 1. Trait theories – what characteristics make people leaders? a. Personal qualities b. Like being around people, disciplined, keep commitments, creative and flexible, empathetic (extraverted, conscientious, open, emotional intelligence) c. Predict emergence of leaders instead of effective and ineffective 2. Behavioral theories – what is it that leaders do? a. Leaders can be trained, leadership is a skill and can be practiced b. Initiative structure – extent to which a leader structures his role and those of employees as they try to achieve a goal c. Consideration – extent to which a leader’s job relationships are characterized by mutual respect and trust d. Employeeoriented – emphasized interpersonal relationships e. Productionoriented – emphasized task aspects of job f. GLOBE study suggests international differences in preference for initiating structure and consideration 3. Contingency theories – what is it about the situation that promote some people to become leaders and others not? a. Fiedler contingency model – key factor in leadership success is the individual’s leadership style i. Least preferred coworker (LPC) questionnaire – assumes leadership style is fixed ii. Contingency dimensions: leadermember relations, task structure, position power iii. Mostly supported but can be hard to asses these variables b. Situational leadership theory (SLT) – focuses on followers i. Successful leadership achieved by selecting the right leadership style and also depends on followers’ readiness c. Pathgoal theory – combo of initiating structure/consideration w/ expectancy theory of motivation i. Effective leaders clarify the path to help followers achieve work goals ii. Directive, supportive, achievementoriented, participative styles d. Leaderparticipation model – relates leadership behavior w/ participation and decision making i. Normative model – provides a decision tree of 7 contingencies and 5 leadership styles to determine form and amount of participation in decision making ii. Leader must adjust to reflect the task structure e. Leadermember exchange theory – leaders choose a certain group of subordinates to be part of their ingroup (informal) and outgroup (formal) Contemporary view 1. Charismatic 2. Transformational 3. Authentic 4. Ethical 5. Servant Lecture 4: Charismatic, Transactional and Transformational Leadership Charismatic Leadership Key characteristics: Vision and articulation Personal risk Sensitivity to follower needs Unconventional behavior Charismatic behaviors: Optimistic, using passion for enthusiasm, communicating w/ body not just words Create bonds and influence through emotion Transactional/Transformational Leadership” Transactional leadership – Leaders who motivate in the direction of established goals Transformational leadership – leaders who inspire followers to transcend their own interest for the good of the company Idealized influence = charismatic part of transformational leadership Creativity, decentralization of responsibility Longterm results Increase follower selfefficacy Greater impact and smaller firms than larger companies GLOBE study disputes view that leadership style needs to adapt to culture Lecture 5: Other Types of Leadership Authentic leaders – leaders who know who they are, know what they believe in and value, and act on those values and beliefs openly and candidly. Their followers would consider them to be ethical people. Share info and encourage open communication People have faith in them Ethical leadership – clear, moral, inclusive, goalsetting statements Socialized charismatic leadership – leadership conveys other values from ethical leaders Servant leadership – going beyond one’s self interest to help followers grow and develop Trust – a positive expectation that another will not act opportunistically Trust propensity – how likely an employee is to trust a leader, takes time and competence Leadership subs: Subordinate characteristics – training Task characteristics – highly structured Organizational characteristics – group cohesiveness
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