Psychology 101 Chapter 1-11 Notes
Psychology 101 Chapter 1-11 Notes PSYC 101
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PSYC 101 Chapter 1: What is Psychology?▯ Psychology: Scientiﬁc study of behavior and mental processes▯ 3 Key components:▯ -Science: Scientiﬁc methods to observe behavior▯ -Behavior: what can be directly observed▯ -Mental Processes: thoughts, feelings, motives that we experience privately, cannot be ob- served ▯ Testing assumptions▯ Skepticism▯ - skeptical people challenge whether a fact is true ▯ - They question what everyone knows (Ex. women are inferior to men) ▯ Objectivity▯ -Be open to the evidence▯ -Use the empirical method to learn - the empirical method is gaining information through obser- vations, collecting data, logical reasoning▯ Curiosity▯ ▯ History of Psychology has it roots in▯ how was the discipline of psychology come to be▯ Western Philosophy▯ -Ancient greece 4th and 5th century▯ -Socrates, plato, aristotle debated the nature of thought and behavior and the link between mind and body. is there a link between the mind and the body?▯ -Psychology grew out of this tradition of thinking about the body and mind▯ ▯ Biology and Psychology▯ Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)▯ -German philosopher and also a physician ▯ ▯ -in 1879 he established the ﬁrst psychology lab initially because he wanted to study the ▯ ▯ workings of the brain and how mental processes could be measured.▯ ▯ -He was intent on identifying the structures of the mind- structures of mental processes▯ ▯ -His method of study was introspection: looking inside▯ ▯ -He used a systematic approach and part of the way he collected data was to get self reports from the participants in a controlled laboratory▯ ▯ ▯ William James(Functionalism) (1842-1910)▯ -philosopher▯ ▯ -He was interested in what was the purpose of the mind, what was the function?]▯ ▯ - Identiﬁed the functions and purposes of the mind and the human process ▯ ▯ - what was the purpose of thoughts▯ ▯ -Why is human thought adaptable▯ ▯ - Stream of consciousness: The mind is ﬂexible and ﬂuid▯ ▯ Contemporary approaches:▯ Current Physiological ▯ ▯ Perspectives/approaches:▯ • Biological▯ • Behavioral ▯ • Psychodynamic▯ • humanistic ▯ • cognitive▯ • Evolutionary▯ • Sociocultural▯ ▯ Biological Approach: focuses on the brain and the central nervous system.Looks at genetics ▯ ▯ -Neuroscience▯ -The scientiﬁc study of the structure, function, development, genetics, biochemistry of the ner- vous system, emphasizing that the brain and NS are key to understanding behavior, thoughts and emotions▯ - Allowed psychologist to better understand the brain as amazing complex organ▯ Behavioral Approach: emphasizes the scientiﬁc study of behavior responses and the environ- ment ▯ -Focuses on the environmental determinants of observable behavior▯ Behaviorist Approach▯ Notable behaviorist who dominated psychological research from the ﬁrst half of the 20th century▯ • John Watson (1878 -1958)▯ • B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)▯ • Rejected thought processes and focused on behavior - what people DO▯ ▯ Psychodynamic Approach- Freud (Founding father of this approach)▯ Psychodynamics emphasizes:▯ • unconscious thought▯ • The conﬂict between biological drives and the demands of society▯ • early childhood family experience ▯ • Believe that sexual and aggressive impulses buried deep within the unconscious mind inﬂu- ence the way we think, feel and behave▯ ▯ Humanistic Approach ▯ Humanist emphasizes a persons:▯ • Positive human qualities ▯ • Their capacity for positive growth▯ Humanist says we have free will, we can choose how we want to live our lives▯ Free will: the freedom to chose ones destiny, We are not victims of our environment and can control our lives: We choose how we will respond▯ Humanist theorist▯ • Carl Rogers- 1961▯ • Abraham Maslow -1971▯ Cognitive Approach▯ The cognitive approach emphasizes the mental processes involved in knowing▯ (Memory, decision making, problem solving, creativity, how we direct our attention, perceive, think.. etc)▯ Information processing▯ ….How humanist interpret incoming info, weigh it, store it, and apply it▯ Sociocultural Approach▯ • Examines the way social and cultural environments inﬂuence behavior and mental processes▯ • Argues that understanding ones behavior requires knowing the cultural context in which be- havior occurs▯ ▯ Careers in Psychology▯ Practice / Applied (clinical practice 24% Private practice 22%)▯ Research▯ Teaching- Academic environments (34 %)▯ ▯ Areas of Specialization▯ • Physiological Psych / Behavioral Neuroscience▯ • Sensation and perception (physical systems with psychological processes allows us to expe- rience the world)▯ • Learning (Operant and classical conditioning) ▯ • Cognitive Psychology (Attention, consciousness, information processing, memory)▯ • Developmental psychology (how we develop across a life span)▯ • Motivation & Emotion (What motivates us)▯ • Psychology of Women and Gender▯ • Personality Psychology ( why are you the way you are)▯ Social Psychology▯ • • Industrial / Organizational Psychology ( in the ﬁelds of corporate America how do we motivate our employees)▯ • Clinical & counseling Psychology (psychotherapist who works with you)▯ • Health Psychology (body, mind and spirit connection)▯ • Community psychology- Mental health clinics▯ • School and Educational psychology ▯ • Environmental Psychology▯ Forensic Psychology- applies psychological concepts to the legal system (Jury selection)▯ • • Sports Psychology ( Increases sports performance)▯ • Cross-Cultural Psychology (How culture affects behavior, thought and emotion)▯ PSYC 101 Chapter 2: Psychology’s Scientiﬁc Method▯ ▯ Scientiﬁc Method▯ Science is a method▯ Its not what you study, but how you study it▯ 1. Observe some phenomenon that you are curios or skeptical about ▯ ▯ d n▯ ▯ a 2. Conceptualize the problem - that is express it in terms of operational deﬁnitions and hypotheses▯ Hypotheses is a educated guess▯ Theory is an hypotheses that is proven▯ 3. Collect Data- select a research method that will be appropriate to explore the issue or test the hypotheses ▯ Population is the entire group about which the investigator wishes to draw conclusion▯ Select an appropriate SAMPLE that is representative of the population of interest. It is the subset of the population chosen by the investigator ▯ Random sample: a sample that gives every member of the population and equal chance of being selected▯ Test through empirical research: Gaining knowledge through the observation of events. the collection of data and logical reasoning.▯ Descriptive research: Observing and recording behavior. The following are all examples of descriptive research:▯ • Observation ▯ • Laboratory▯ • Naturalistic ▯ Surveys and Interviews▯ • • Standardized Tests▯ • Case study ▯ 4. Analyze the data▯ • Based on the data collected and how it was collected the data is analyzed.▯ • Most research in psychology is analyzed using statistical procedures▯ 5. Draw Conclusions ▯ • Based on the analysis results, the researcher develops explanations for the ﬁndings.▯ • Do the ﬁndings conﬁrm the hypotheses▯ If not, change the hypotheses etc▯ • ▯ The scientiﬁc method uses:▯ • Objective▯ • Systematic and▯ • Testable research information known as DATA▯ Correlational Research ▯ • Positive Correlations▯ factors vary in same direction▯ • • ↑ and ↑ … or … ↓ and ↓▯ • Negative Correlations▯ • factors vary in opposite direction▯ ↑ and ↓ … or … ↑ and ↓▯ • Experimental Research▯ • Experimental Group▯ • Independent variable is manipulated▯ • Control Group▯ • Treated equally, except no manipulation of independent variable▯ Validity▯ • External Validity▯ • Representative of real world issues?▯ • Do results generalize the real world?▯ • Internal Validity▯ Are dependent variables changes the result of independent variable manipulation?▯ • • Bias? Logical Erros?▯ Applying Different Research Methods to Same Phenomenon▯ Example:▯ Possible Research Methods▯ • Observation▯ • Survey and Interview▯ • Case Studies▯ • Co Relational Research▯ • Experimental Research ▯ Research Sample▯ Population▯ • • Entire group about whom conclusion drawn▯ • Sample▯ • Portion of population actually observed▯ • Representative Sample▯ • Characteristics similar to population ▯ • Opposite of “biased” sample▯ • Random Sample▯ • Equal choice of being selected ▯ Research Settings▯ “Artificial” world- laboratory setting▯ • Controlled setting- the researcher controls the situation▯ Real World- natural setting▯ • Naturalistic observation- occurs in a real world setting▯ Analyzing and Interpreting Data▯ Statistics▯ Mathematical methods used to report data▯ • Descriptive Statistics ▯ • Describe and summarize data▯ Inferential Statistics▯ • Draw conclusions about data▯ Descriptive Statistics▯ Measures of Central Tendency▯ • Mean- the average from the sample▯ • Median- the middle score in the sample▯ • Mode- the most common score in the sample▯ Research Ethics▯ Research participants have rights ▯ • • Institutional Review Board (IRB)▯ • APA Guidelines▯ • Informed consent▯ • Confidentiality▯ • Debriefing▯ • Deception - placebo vs. active ingredient▯ Animal Research in Psychology▯ • Used to gain a better understanding and solutions to human problems▯ • Animal research has benefited humans ▯ • Used by 5% of researchers ▯ • Rats and mice used 90% of time▯ • Standards of care in animal research ▯ • Housing, feeding, psychological and physical well being▯ Reality TV - Ethical Issues▯ • Informed consent?▯ • Deception?▯ • Psychological and/or physical risk?▯ • Is the behavior real?▯ • Testimonial?▯ Propaganda techniques?▯ • A Wise Consumer… Is skeptical yet open-minded!▯ Cautions▯ • Exercise caution in applying group trends to individuals experience▯ • Avoid over generalizing results▯ • Look for converging evidence▯ • Questions causal inferences ▯ • Consider the source PSYC 101 Ch. 3: Biological Foundations of Behavior▯ ▯ Brain and Behavior▯ • Scientiﬁc Evidence: the brain is most intimately link to psychological life:▯ • Emotions: Happy, sad▯ • Memory▯ • Cognition: ability to think, problem solve, ability to make decisions, pay attention▯ • Behavior: how we behave, ability to walk, run…Violence etc.▯ ▯ Determinant of Death▯ • The importance of the brain is dramatized by the concept of “brain death”▯ • When is a person legally dead?▯ • Absence of breath? Heartbeat?▯ • Today, the heart and lungs could be strong and the doctor declares the person dead:▯ • Brain Death: parts of the brain involved in thinking, feeling, acting are no longer alive- psychological life is gone▯ ▯ Th Brain▯ • Commands the central Nervous System (CNS)▯ • Weighs about 3 pounds▯ • Is slightly larger than a grapefruit ▯ • Has a crinkled outer layer (Shelled walnut)▯ • Inner consistency: undercook custard or ripe avocado▯ • Continues to develop through mid 20’s▯ ▯ Nervous System (NS) ▯ • is our bodies electrochemical communication system▯ • NS is made of billions of neurons (never cells)▯ • These are the basic building blocks of the nervous system- the basic units▯ • Neurons are continuously at work processing information▯ ▯ Neurons (Nerve Cells)▯ • Nearly all the neurons we posses during life are developed before birth▯ • Whereas, the neuronal networks are not formed until after the birth and throughout the developmental processes▯ ▯ Characteristics of the NS▯ • Complexity: the brain is composed of billions of nerve cells▯ • Integration: the brain coordinates and integrates information from many sources▯ • Adaptability (plasticity): can adapt to change▯ • Electrochemical transmission: powered by both Chemical and Electrical messages▯ ▯ Nervous System: Pathways▯ • Pathways are specialized to either receive or send information to or from the brain▯ Afferent Nerves: have to do with the nerve cells that work with the senses. ▯ • Sensory neurons receive information from the body and carries the information to the spinal cordon and brain▯ Efferent Neurons: motor neurons carry information from the brain to the body (muscles) and controls brain output▯ Neuronal Networks: Integrate the sensory input and motor output▯ ▯ Nervous System: Divided into two parts▯ 1. Central Nervous System (CNS)▯ • Brain and spinal cord (99% of all neurons)▯ 2. Peripheral Nervous system▯ • Caries messages to and from the CNS (afferent and efferent pathways) and the organs, glands, and muscles of the body▯ ▯ Peripheral Nervous system▯ Two major Divisions:▯ Somatic Nervous system- Carries sensory information to the CNS to: ▯ • Muscular Activity▯ Autonomic Nervous System- Carries messages to and from the CNS to the body’s organ and glands (monitors breathing, heart rate, digestion)▯ Divided into two parts:▯ 1. Sympathetic Nervous System: arouses the body: Fight or Flight▯ • Dilates the pupils▯ • Dilates the cerebral vessels▯ Decreases salivary gland activity▯ • • Stimulates sweat gland activity▯ • Stimulates digestive tract activity▯ • Relaxes the bladder▯ 2. Parasympathetic Nervous System: Calms▯ • Constricts the pupils▯ • Constricts the cerebral vessels▯ • Stimulates secretion of saliva▯ • Slows the heartbeat▯ • Decreases sweat gland activity▯ • Contracts the bladder▯ ▯ Nervous System- Nerve Cells: Neurons▯ Neurons:▯ • Information Processing▯ • About 100 Billion▯ • Mirror neurons (in primates)▯ Glial Cells: provide support and nutrition▯ ▯ Neurons: Structure - processes information▯ • Cell body: contains the cell nucleus▯ • Dendrites: receive information and channels it toward the cell body▯ • Axon: carries information away from the cells, it acts on the next cell▯ • On each axon there is a layer of fat▯ Myelin sheath: layer of fat that encases most axons▯ • • Insulates and helps messages travel faster over longer distances▯ • Multiple sclerosis▯ ▯ Neural Impulse▯ • Messages are carried down an axon as a series of single electrical clicks▯ • Variations in the rate and timing of clicks differentiates the messages▯ ▯ Synapses and Neurotransmitters▯ Synapses / Synaptic Gap▯ • Space or gap between the sending axons terminal buttons and the receiving dendrite or cell body▯ Synaptic Transmission▯ • Electrical impulse is converted into a chemical signal▯ • axon vesicle releases neurotransmitter into gap▯ Neurotransmitters▯ • Carry information across the synaptic gap to the next neuron▯ • Acteylcholoine▯ Muscle actions, learning, memory▯ • • Alzheimer’s diseases, Low Ach levels▯ • GABA▯ • anxiety: Low GABA levels▯ • Norepinephrine▯ • stress and mania: too much norepinephrine levels▯ • depression: low norepinephrine levels▯ • regulates sleep state in conduction with Ach▯ • Dopamine▯ • voluntary movement▯ • stimulant drugs: activate dopamine receptors▯ • Parkinson’s disease: low levels of dopamine▯ • schizophrenia: high levels of dopamine▯ • Serotonin▯ • regulation of sleep, mood, attention, learning▯ • depression: decrease in serotonin levels▯ • Prozac: increase in serotonin levels▯ Endorphins ▯ • • natural opiates: reward/pleasure centers▯ • mediate feelings of pleasure and pain (runners high)▯ • Oxytocin▯ • both a hormone and a neurotransmitter▯ • related to onset of lactation in new mothers▯ • related to attachment / emotional bonds▯ Note: Drugs can interfere with neurotransmitters▯ • mimics or enhances NT effects▯ blocks effects on NT▯ • ▯ Neural Networks▯ • interconnected pathways of nerve cells▯ • integrate sensory input and motor output▯ • takes years to develop▯ • a given piece of information embedded in multiple connections between neurons▯ ▯ Brain Organization▯ Hindbrain▯ • Located where spinal cord enters the base of the skull▯ Three major divisions▯ 1. Medulla- control breathing, regulates reﬂexes and standing upright▯ 2. Pons- sleep & arousal▯ 3. Cerebellum: complex motor coordination, balance / muscle coordination ▯ Midbrain▯ • located between the hindbrain and forebrain ▯ • relays information between the brain and eyes and ears▯ • Brainstem: most ancient part of the brain▯ • Basic survival functions: alertness▯ Forebrain▯ • Limbic system▯ • Memory, perception and emotion▯ Amygdala ▯ • • discrimination of objected needed for survival ▯ • emotional awareness and expression▯ • Hippocampus: formation and recall of memories ▯ • Thalamus ▯ • sensory relay station between upper and lower brain▯ • Basal Ganglia: coordination of voluntary movements▯ • Hypothalamus: regulation of the body▯ • eating, drinking, sexual behaviors▯ • regulate body’s internal state▯ • emotion, stress, reward▯ ▯ Cerebral Cortex- the brain has two hemispheres ▯ Each hemisphere is divided into four regions or lobes:▯ • Occipital (vision)▯ • Temporal(hearing, language processing, memory)▯ • Frontal (intelligence, personality, voluntary muscles)▯ Parietal (spatial location, attention, motor control)▯ • The two Hemispheres of the Cortex:▯ Left hemisphere▯ • verbal processing, speech, grammar▯ • Broca’s area▯ • Wemicke’s area▯ Right hemisphere▯ • spatial perception, visual recognition, emotion▯ ▯ Endoctrine System▯ set of glands that regulate the body by releasing hormones into the blood stream▯ • hormones: chemical messages manufactured by the glands▯ • relatively slow communication system▯ • interconnected with the nervous system ▯ • pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal glands, pancreas, ovaries, testes▯ ▯ Brain Damage and Plasticity▯ Recovery from brain damage depends on:▯ • age of the individual ▯ • extent of the damage PSYC 101 Chapter 4: Sensation and Perception▯ ▯ Sensation: the process of receiving stimulus energies from the external environment through the ﬁve senses▯ Perception: The brain’s process of organizing and interpreting sensory information to give the information meaning ▯ Transduction: process whereby physical energy is converted into electrochemical energy.▯ ▯ - Relays information through the nervous system to the brain▯ Sensory and Perception is a uniﬁed information processing system that is virtually inseparable ▯ ▯ Sensation▯ Sensory receptors are:▯ • specialized cells that selectively detect and transmit sensory information ot the brain. Cells send signals via distinct neural pathways that are call Afferent pathways▯ • Synaesthesia : describes an experience in which one sense (like sight) induces an experience in another sense (like hearing) e.g., a person might see music or taste color▯ ▯ Phantom Limb Pain▯ • Although an arm or leg is no longer there, pain is felt where the leg or arm was.▯ • The leg contains the sensory receptors sites which are no longer there. BUT the areas of the brain and nervous system that received information from those receptor sites are still there causing confusion▯ ▯ Sensation▯ Photoreception (vision): detection of light▯ Mechanorecpetor (touch): detection of pressure, vibration, and movement ▯ Chemorecption ( smell and taste): detection of chemical stimuli/reception▯ Hearing: detection of air waves into ﬂuid▯ ▯ Factors Affecting Perception▯ Attention: the process of focusing awareness on a narrowed or speciﬁc aspect of the environment ▯ Selective attention: focusing on a speciﬁc aspect of the environment while ignoring others▯ • Cocktail party effect (automatic selection) ( you concentrate on one voice among many ▯ ▯ in a crowd. Stroop Effect: Failure of selection▯ Novelty, size, color, movement, emotions inﬂuence our attention▯ • Emotion induced blindness: When we encounter an emotionally- charged stimuli. We fail ▯ • to recognize a stimulus that is presented immediately after it.▯ • Inattentional blindness: we fail to detect unexpected events when our attention in ▯ ▯ engaged by a task.▯ ▯ Ex. Focused on task of ﬁnding a seat and do not detect a friend waving to us▯ ▯ Extrasensory Perception▯ • Perceive thoughts or events in the absence of concrete sensory input - parapsychology ▯ • Problematic (doubtful) for science▯ • What type of energy encodes the information?▯ • By what receptors is the information received?▯ • Total lack of supportive research evidence▯ • Stories / Experiences that seem to support ESP not rigorous ▯ Structure of the Eye▯ Visual System▯ Light: a form of electromagnetic radiation, described in terms of wavelengths ▯ ▯ Visual Systems - Eye structure ▯ Sclera: White outer part of the eye. It shapes and protects the eye▯ Iris: Colored parts of the eye. It is a muscle that contracts and relaxes▯ Pupil: The opening in the center of the iris. It controls the amount of light entering the eye▯ Cornea: Clear, curved membrane in front of the eye covering the pupil and iris. It focuses the light on the retina▯ Lens: located behind the pupil and iris. it ﬁne tunes the focus by ﬂexing the curvature ▯ ▯ Structure of the Eye: Retina▯ Retina: a light sensitive surface in back of the eye that houses light receptor cells - rods and cones. ▯ Rods: Receptors in the retina sensitive to light but not to color. Low light and peripheral ▯▯ vision.▯ ▯ -Sensitive to even dim light, but not color▯ ▯ - Function well in low illumination ▯ ▯ - Humans have = 120 million rods▯ Cones: receptor cells that detect color - requires large amounts of light for color to be detected▯ ▯ - Respond to color▯ ▯ - operate best under high illumination▯ ▯ humans have = 6 million cones▯ The rods and cones convert light into electrical energy▯ Fovea▯ • Densely populated with cones▯ • Vital to many visual tasks▯ • Optic nerves leaves from the retina at the blind spot▯ • Blind spot contains neither rods nor cones▯ • where optic nerve leaves the eyeball▯ ▯ Visual Processing ▯ pathway of visual info▯ optic nerve, optic chiasm, visual content▯ optic chiasm: optic nerve ﬁbers divide▯ left visual ﬁeld, right hemisphere▯ right visual ﬁeld, left hemisphere▯ Primary visual cortex▯ occipital lobe▯ ▯ Color Vision: Theories▯ What we perceive is produced by 3 types of receptors in the retina:▯ ▯ -green, red, and blue cones▯ Color Blindness: one or more cone types is inoperative ▯ ▯ Properties of Sound▯ Wavelength: Distance between peaks▯ • Determines frequency▯ • Perceived as pitch▯ • Some wave lengths cannot be perceived ▯ Amplitude: height of wave▯ • Perceived as loudness▯ Mixture of Wavelengths; Complex sounds▯ • Perceived as timbre/tone saturation▯ ▯ Structure of the Ear▯ • Outer ear localizes sound▯ • Middle ear vibrates in response to sound waves▯ • Has 3 bones: hammer, stirup, anvole▯ • The purpose of the 3 bones are to take the stimulus energy coming in the form of sound waves in the form of air and converts it to sound waves in ﬂuid by vibration ▯ Cochlea is ﬂuid ﬁlled▯ sound waves that travel in ﬂuid of cochlea ▯ ▯ Auditory Processing ▯ Pathways of Auditory Information▯ • Cochlea -> auditory nerves -> brain stem -> temporal lobe▯ Most information crosses to other hemisphere▯ • ▯ Skin sense - 20 sq. ft (largest organ on human body)▯ Skin senses are managed by touch▯ • Touch: is a mechanical energy or pressure against the skin▯ • Temperature-thermo: receptors under the skin detect increase or decrease in temperature▯ Pain-mechanical pressure (Anhidrosis): ▯ ▯ Other Senses▯ • Chemical - taste and smell▯ • Taste▯ • Receptors on tongue: papillae (round bumps on the tongue) that contain taste buds that are receptors for taste▯ • Sweet, sour, bitter, salty▯ • Cultural inﬂuence: umami-a savory ﬂavor present in many seafood and soy sauce, anchovies, parmesan cheese, etc▯ • Smell (olfactory sense): we need the sees of smell to determine what we eat (rotten food)▯ • olfactory epithelium: at the top of the naval cavity, where the receptor cells are▯ • temporal lobe and limbic system▯ • Kinesthetic▯ • movement, posture, orientation▯ • muscle ﬁbers and joints▯ • Vestibular▯ • balance and acceleration ▯ semicircular canals▯ • ▯ Sensation, Perception, and Health and Wellness▯ • Protecting ones vision and hearing ▯ • diet ▯ • medical examinations ▯ avoiding chronic exposure▯ • • Treating our senses to the great outdoors PSYC 101 Chapter 5: States of Consciousness ▯ ▯ The Nature of Consciousness ▯ What is consciousness?▯ awareness of external events, and self and thought, internal sensations▯ which occur under conditions of arousal ▯ Arousal: ways that awareness is regulated: alert v. relaxed/drowsy ▯ ▯ Levels of Awareness▯ Higher-Level Consciousness: most alert state▯ • Controlled processes ▯ • actively focus efforts toward a goal▯ • requires attention ▯ Lower-Level Consciousness▯ Dialing well-known phone number, expert typist ▯ • Automatic processes▯ • require little attention/conscious effort ▯ • do not interfere with other ongoing activities ▯ • Daydreaming: wandering thoughts▯ fantasy, imagination, rumination ▯ • • potentially useful (reminding. problem solving)▯ Altered States of Consciousness ▯ • drug states▯ • Sleep, fatigue, illness, trauma, sensory depravation ▯ • meditation, hypnosis▯ • mental disorders▯ Subconscious Awareness▯ can occur in an awake state as well as in a sleep state ▯ • Incubation: subconscious process that leads to solution of problem after consciously and carefully thinking bout the problem ▯ • Parallel processing: simultaneous distribution of info across different neuronal pathways ▯ Sleep and Dreams▯ low levels of consciousness of outside world▯ No Awareness▯ unconscious (censored) thought - Freud ▯ non-conscious process- anesthesia, being knocked out ▯ ▯ Biological Rhythms ▯ Biological Rhythms: Periodic / Daily behavioral or physiological ﬂuctuations ▯ controlled by biological clocks ▯ annual or seasonal▯ 24 hour cycles: circadian rhythms ▯ ex.sleep/wake, hormones, light/dark, body temperature, blood sugar/pressure▯ ▯ Biological Clocks▯ Desynchronizing: (throwing off) the Clock ▯ • jet lag▯ • shift-workers change their shifts ▯ • insomnia▯ Resetting the Clock▯ • spend time in the bright lift during the day▯ • Melatonin advances the clock ▯ ▯ Why Do We Need Sleep? ▯ All animals need sleep▯ Adaptive Evolutionary Function ▯ • Safety-need to protect themselves at night▯ • Sleep is a way to conserve energy ▯ Restorative Function ▯ Sleep restores, replenishes, rebuilds the brain and body▯ • Brain Plasticity▯ • enhances synaptic connections▯ • consolidation of memories▯ • Lost sleep can result in lost memories ▯ ▯ Sleep Deprivation ▯ Chronic sleep deprivation results in:▯ • decreased alertness and cognitive performance▯ • inability to sustain attention ▯ • less complex brain activity▯ • adverse effects on decision making ▯ ▯ Stages of Sleep▯ EEG- measure electrical activity in the brain, it identiﬁes stages of wakefulness and sleep ▯ Wakefulness beta waves (alert)▯ Alpha waves (relaxed)▯ ▯ Light Sleep: Stages 1-2▯ Stage 1▯ • theta waves▯ • slower frequency ▯ Stage 2▯ • theta waves▯ • sudden increase in wave frequency ▯ • sleep spindles▯ Deep Sleep: Stages 3-4▯ Stage 3▯ • Less than (< 50%) Delta waves▯ • slowest frequency▯ Stage 4▯ • More than (> 50%) delta waves▯ • difﬁcult to wake sleepers▯ ▯ REM Sleep▯ Rapid-Eye-Movement Sleep ▯ • rapid eye movement ▯ • dreaming ▯ ▯ Sleep Cycles▯ • About 45 minutes after entering Stage 1 sleeper reaches stage 4▯ • Early in the night, stage 3 & 4 consumes about 90 minutes and REM are short ▯ • REM periods get longer and deep sleep patterns get shorter throughout the course of the night▯ • Typical night includes▯ ▯ 60% - Stage 1 & 2 Sleep▯ ▯ 20% - Stage 3 & 4 Sleep▯ ▯ 20% - REM sleep▯ • Infants spend almost 8 hours of their sleep time in REM. Older Adults about 1 hour.▯ ▯ During Sleep the Brain carries out complex processes ▯ Reticular Formation▯ • critical role in sleep and arousal▯ Neurotransmitters (NT)▯ • serotonin, norepinephrine, and acetylcholine ▯ • levels vary across sleep stages: Low during sleep and rise near wakefulness▯ ▯ Sleep and Disease▯ • stroke and asthma attacks are more common at night▯ • infectious diseases induce sleep▯ • sleep problems are common in those with mental disorders▯ ▯ Sleep Disorders ▯ • Insomnia: inability to fall or stay asleep▯ • Sleep walking, talking, and eating ▯ • Nightmares: frightening dream that awakenes sleeper form REM▯ • Night Terrors: horrifying fear state occurs in NON REM▯ • Sleep Apnea: sleeper stops breathing for 1/2 minute +▯ • Narcolepsy: sudden overpowering urge to sleep▯ • Sudden and immediate slip into REM from wake state without warning ▯ ▯ Theories of Dreaming ▯ Historical and Religious Signiﬁcance- recordings as early as 5000 BC▯ Key to the unconscious recorded on clay tables. Referenced in bible▯ ▯ Theories of Dreams▯ Freud’s Psychodynamic: mental processes that occur without a person being aware of them- the unconscious ▯ ▯ manifest content- symbols in a dream▯ ▯ latent content- hidden meaning held in the unconscious ▯ Cognitive Theory: dreams are essentially subconscious cognitive processes involving information processing and memory ▯ Activation-Synthesis Theory: brain makes “sense” out of random brain activity ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Psychoactive Drugs▯ Act on nervous system:▯ • To alter consciousness▯ • To modify perceptions▯ • To change moods▯ Effects on Users:▯ • Unsafe sexual behavior (STDs, unplanned pregnancy)▯ • Direct and Indirect health effects▯ School, work, and relationship problems▯ • • Psychological problems (depression)▯ Continued Use can lead to:▯ Dependence- the strong desire to repeat drug use▯ Tolerance - a greater amount is needed to get the same effect▯ Addiction- a pattern of behavior characterized by an overwhelming need to use and secure the drug▯ • Physical dependence: an unpleasant withdrawal without the drug▯ • Psychological dependence: (I need it for emotional and psychological well-being)▯ Depressants: Drugs that slow down mental and physical activity▯ • Alcohol▯ • Barbiturates▯ • Tranquilizers- reduce anxiety▯ Opiates- create feeling of euphoria ▯ • Stimulants: Drugs that increase CNS (central nervous system) activity ▯ • caffeine ▯ • nicotine▯ • amphetamines▯ • cocaine ▯ • MDMA (Ecstasy)▯ Hallucinogens: Drugs that modify perceptual experiences ▯ • Marijuana - mild hallucinogenic effect▯ • LSD- produces striking perceptual changes even in low doses ▯ ▯ Meditation ▯ Meditation: a peaceful state of mind, not occupied by worry▯ Mindfulness meditation is used to treat a variety of conditions (e.g., depression, chronic pain). PSYC 101 Chapter 6: Learning Types of Learning Learning: a systematic, relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs through experience Classical Conditioning: association between a stimuli and a response Operant Conditioning: association between a response and a consequence Observational learning Classical Conditioning: Terminology -Helps to explain involuntary behavior Unconditioned stimulus (UCS): a stimulus that brings about a response without any prior learning Ex. Meat Unconditioned response (UCR): unlearned response to the unconditioned stimulus (UCS) Ex. Dog salivating Neutral Stimulus (NS) ex. The sound of Pavlov’s bell prior to pairing with the meat Conditioned stimulus (CS): a neutral stimulus that, when associated with the unconditioned stimulus (UCS), elicits a conditioned response Ex. The sound of bell Conditioned response (CR): the learned response of the Conditioned stimulus (C S) EX. Dog salivating Classical Conditioning: Pavlov (slide 8) - Unlearned/Reflexive UCS – meat powder UCR – Dog salivates - NS: the sound of Pavlov’s bell (prior to pairing with the meat powder) - Learned CS- sound of Pavlov’s bell CR- dog salivates Classical Conditioning -Generalization: tendency of a new stimulus to elicit a similar response - Little albert and the white rat - Rat-CS—Gong—US—Albert cries - Rat-CS –Albert cries—CR -Discrimination: learning to respond to certain stimuli and not to other -discrimination generally is learned by presenting other CS’s without the UCS -Extinction: weakening of the conditioned response (CR) in the absence of the unconditioned stimulus -ex. Pavlov rang the bell but did not present food, and the dog stopped salivating Classical Conditioning: Applications -Phobias -watson and Rayer (1920)-Little Albert -White rat (CS) paired with loud nose (UCS) -Counter Conditioning -associate CS with new, incompatible CR -CS paired with new UCS -aversive conditioning -placebo effect -immune and endocrine responses -taste aversion -advertising -drug habituation Operant Conditioning Operant conditioning: association between a response and a consequence -better at explaining voluntary behaviors -the consequences of a behavior change the probability of that behaviors occurrence -reward is contingent on behavior Thorndike’s Law of Effect: consequence strengthens or weakes a S –R connection B.F. Skinner: shaping (reward approximations of the desired behavior) The mechanism of learning are the same for all species Shaping: the process of rewarding approximation of desired behavior Reinforcement Principles Both positive and negative reinforcement increases/strengthens behavior Positive Reinforcement: behavior is followed by a rewarding consequence -Rewarding stimulus is “added” Negative Reinforcement: frequency of a response increases because the behavior is followed by the removal of an unpleasant stimulus which is rewarding -aversive (unpleasant) stimulus is “removed” Generalization -stimulus “sets the occasion” for the response -responding occurs to similar stimuli Discrimination -stimuli signal when behavior will or will not be reinforced Extinction and Spontaneous Recovery -behavior decreases when reinforcement stops Partial Reinforcement: fixed, variable, ratio, interval Fixed Ratio (FR): reinforcement follows a set of # of behaviors Variable Ratio (VR): reinforcement follows an unpredictable # of behaviors (e.g. average) Fixed Interval: reinforcement follows behavior that occurs after a set amount of time has elapsed Variable Interval: reinforcement follows behavior that occurs after and unpredictable amount of time has elapsed Punishment Punishment: opposite of reinforcement Punishment decreases/weakens behavior Positive punishment- spanking - Behavior followed by aversive consequences - Aversive (unpleasant) stimulus is “added” Negative punishment-punishment by removal -More acceptable- no physical aggression - behavior is punished by the removal of something pleasurable or desired - rewarding stimulus is “removed” -ex. Grounding, time out, fines, removal of privileges Observational Learning- Albert Bandura- Social Cognitive Theory Observational Learning: learning that occurs when a person observes and imitates behavior (modeling) Four processes: - Attention - Retention - Motor reproduction - Reinforcement PSYC 101 Chapter 7: Memory The Nature of Memory -Memory is reconstructed rather than reproduced -Memory: retention of information or experience over time -occurs through 3 processes or phases -Encoding: getting info in -Storage: represent and retain it -Retrieval: recall it at a later time Encoding: Sensory Input -automatic vs. effortful encoding takes effort Role of attention: selective, divided, sustained Encoding: Levels of Processing -encoding can be influenced by the levels of processing -levels of processing refer to a continuum from shallow to intermediate to deep -shallow processing M O M (letters) -intermediate processing MOM (label) -deep processing M O M (we give meaning to the word) Encoding: Elaboration -Elaboration: connections we make to the stimulus. We link new info into what we already know -Elaboration can enhance memory—it adds something “distinctive -Number of mental connections - use vivid/concrete examples - self-referencing effect- autobiographical Encoding: Imagery Imagery: the most powerful way to make memory distinctive -memory wizards: people with unique visual imaginations. They can remember extraordinary amounts of information -Dual-code hypothesis: Paivio argues that memory is stored in two ways) : 1. Verbal code- a word or label 2. Image Code- highly detailed and distinctive -image codes are stored as both -superior to verbal codes alone -memories for pictures is better than memory for words because pictures or images are stored as both image codes and verbal codes Memory Storage Memory storage: encompasses how information is retained overtime and how it is represented Richard Atkinson-Richard Shiffrin Theory (1968): memory storage involves 3 separate systems: -sensory memory: fraction of a second to several seconds -short-term memory (STM): up to 30 seconds ex. Student ID or Phone number -long-term memory (LTM): up to a lifetime Echoic: auditory memory Iconic: visual/image memory Storage: Short-Term Memory To improve short-term memory: -chunking: grouping items into a unit- taking large amounts of info and breaking it down into manageable units -Rehearsal: conscious repetition of information -prolongs STM duration indefinitely if there Is no interruption Storage: Long-Term Memory Long term memory: relatively permanent type of memory that stores huge amounts of information for a long time with “unlimited” capacity Explicit long-term memory (declarative): conscious recollection of specific facts and events that can be verbally communicated -episodic memory: autobiographical memories -semantic memory: knowledge about the world Implicit long-term memory (non-declarative): affected by a past experience without consciously recalling it -procedural memory -classical conditioning -priming Memory: Location -storage is diffuse -circuits of neurons -neurotransmitter involvement -long-term potentiation Memory: Brain Structure Explicit Memory: hippocampus, frontal lobes, amygdala Implicit Memory: cerebellum, temporal lobes, hippocampus Memory: Retrieval Retrieval: memory process that occurs when info retained in memory comes out of storage -types of tasks: -recall: we retrieve previously learned info (essay) -recognition: multiple choice -encoding specificity principles states that: -information present at encoding tends to be effective as a retrieval cue -context-dependent memory—if the context between encoding and retrieval fail, then the memory can fail Retrieval: Special Cases -Autobiographical memories (more about meaning then facts) 1. life time periods consist of the recollections of one’s life experiences and have 3 levles: -The reminiscence bump 2. General events 3. event-specific information -Emotional memories -flashbulb memories (9/11 attacks) -traumatic events -repressed memories: motivated forgetting -first forgotten and later recovered -Freudian defense mechanism Eyewitness Testimony: Distortion, Bias, Inaccuracy Forgetting: Memory Failure -Ebbinghaus-1 psychologist to conduct scientific research on forgetting -Encoding failure: info was never encoded -Retrieval failure/interference theory: other info gets in the way -Decay theory: don’t use it – lose it -Tip of the tongue phenomena: we are confident we know something but cant quite pull it out of memory -effortful retrieval of known information -can retrieve some information but not all -Prospective memory: remembering to do something in the future -content-remembering what to do -timing: remembering when to do it -absentmindedness -Amnesia -Anterograde amnesia: inability to store new information and events -Retrograde amnesia: inability to retrieve past information and events Memory and Health and Wellness Roles of autobiographical memories: -learn from our experiences -develop sense of identity -bond with others Memory and Aging -indicator of brain functioning -activity inoculates against mental decline -both physical and mental activity are important - PSYC 101 Chapter 6: Learning Types of Learning Learning: a systematic, relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs through experience Classical Conditioning: association between a stimuli and a response Operant Conditioning: association between a response and a consequence Observational learning Classical Conditioning: Terminology -Helps to explain involuntary behavior Unconditioned stimulus (UCS): a stimulus that brings about a response without any prior learning Ex. Meat Unconditioned response (UCR): unlearned response to the unconditioned stimulus (UCS) Ex. Dog salivating Neutral Stimulus (NS) ex. The sound of Pavlov’s bell prior to pairing with the meat Conditioned stimulus (CS): a neutral stimulus that, when associated with the unconditioned stimulus (UCS), elicits a conditioned response Ex. The sound of bell Conditioned response (CR): the learned response of the Conditioned stimulus (C S) EX. Dog salivating Classical Conditioning: Pavlov (slide 8) - Unlearned/Reflexive UCS – meat powder UCR – Dog salivates - NS: the sound of Pavlov’s bell (prior to pairing with the meat powder) - Learned CS- sound of Pavlov’s bell CR- dog salivates Classical Conditioning -Generalization: tendency of a new stimulus to elicit a similar response - Little albert and the white rat - Rat-CS—Gong—US—Albert cries - Rat-CS –Albert cries—CR -Discrimination: learning to respond to certain stimuli and not to other -discrimination generally is learned by presenting other CS’s without the UCS -Extinction: weakening of the conditioned response (CR) in the absence of the unconditioned stimulus -ex. Pavlov rang the bell but did not present food, and the dog stopped salivating Classical Conditioning: Applications -Phobias -watson and Rayer (1920)-Little Albert -White rat (CS) paired with loud nose (UCS) -Counter Conditioning -associate CS with new, incompatible CR -CS paired with new UCS -aversive conditioning -placebo effect -immune and endocrine responses -taste aversion -advertising -drug habituation Operant Conditioning Operant conditioning: association between a response and a consequence -better at explaining voluntary behaviors -the consequences of a behavior change the probability of that behaviors occurrence -reward is contingent on behavior Thorndike’s Law of Effect: consequence strengthens or weakes a S –R connection B.F. Skinner: shaping (reward approximations of the desired behavior) The mechanism of learning are the same for all species Shaping: the process of rewarding approximation of desired behavior Reinforcement Principles Both positive and negative reinforcement increases/strengthens behavior Positive Reinforcement: behavior is followed by a rewarding consequence -Rewarding stimulus is “added” Negative Reinforcement: frequency of a response increases because the behavior is followed by the removal of an unpleasant stimulus which is rewarding -aversive (unpleasant) stimulus is “removed” Generalization -stimulus “sets the occasion” for the response -responding occurs to similar stimuli Discrimination -stimuli signal when behavior will or will not be reinforced Extinction and Spontaneous Recovery -behavior decreases when reinforcement stops Partial Reinforcement: fixed, variable, ratio, interval Fixed Ratio (FR): reinforcement follows a set of # of behaviors Variable Ratio (VR): reinforcement follows an unpredictable # of behaviors (e.g. average) Fixed Interval: reinforcement follows behavior that occurs after a set amount of time has elapsed Variable Interval: reinforcement follows behavior that occurs after and unpredictable amount of time has elapsed Punishment Punishment: opposite of reinforcement Punishment decreases/weakens behavior Positive punishment- spanking - Behavior followed by aversive consequences - Aversive (unpleasant) stimulus is “added” Negative punishment-punishment by removal -More acceptable- no physical aggression - behavior is punished by the removal of something pleasurable or desired - rewarding stimulus is “removed” -ex. Grounding, time out, fines, removal of privileges Observational Learning- Albert Bandura- Social Cognitive Theory Observational Learning: learning that occurs when a person observes and imitates behavior (modeling) Four processes: - Attention - Retention - Motor reproduction - Reinforcement PSYC 101 Chapter 9: Human Development▯ ▯ Development: a pattern of movement, continuity and change that begins at conception and continuous throughout the lifespan▯ • There are 3 main processes▯ • Physical Processes - biological changes▯ • Cognitive Processes - thought, intelligence, languages▯ • Socioemotional Processes - relationships, emotions ▯ ▯ Nature and Nurture▯ Nature: is biological inheritance ▯ Nurture: is to environmental experiences▯ Developer: individuals take active roles in own development. You take the ingredients and make them into the person you are.▯ ▯ Resilient Children▯ Early experiences (ﬁxed) versus Later experiences (Malleable (Adaptable) throughout the lifespan) ▯ Resilience: a person’s ability to recover from or adapt to difﬁcult times— to thrive ▯ Resilient children become capable adults▯ ▯ Prenatal Development▯ Germinal Period (weeks 1-2)▯ Begins with:▯ Conception single sperm (male) penetrates egg (female) which leads to Fertilization - zygote after 1 week and many cell divisions . the zygote is made up of 100-150 cells. At the end of 2 weeks the mass of cells attach to the uterine wall▯ Germinal Period - conception until zygote attaches to the uterine wall▯ Embryonic Period - 3 to 8 weeks after conception (Embryo)▯ ▯ Prenatal Overview▯ • Conception▯ • Germinal period Zygote▯ • Embryonic (3-8 week) Embryo▯ • Fetal Period (2-9 months) Fetus▯ ▯ Embryonic Period (weeks 3-8)▯ • Beginning of organs (spinal cord)▯ • 8th week: Heart beats, arms/legs become differentiated, face starts to form , intestinal tract appears▯ • Over 1 inch long and 1/30th of a ounce▯ Fetal Period (months 2-9) ▯ • At 2 months the size of kidney beans, 4 months, fetus is 5 inches long and 4-7 ounces. At 6 months, 1.5 pounds. Eye and eyelids form. Irregular▯ ▯ Teratogens: any agent that causes birth defects. Chemical substances ingested by the mother such as:▯ • Nicotine▯ • Alcohol (fetal alcohol syndrome)▯ • Cocaine, heroin▯ • Drugs (Thalidomide)▯ • STIs: Gonorrhea during delivery, syphilis and HIV in the womb▯ • Illnesses (Rubella, German Measles, HIV)▯ ▯ Effects of Teratogens depend on..▯ • Timing of exposure▯ genetic characteristics can buffer or worsen the effects of teratogens and most importantly..▯ • • The postnatal environment can inﬂuence the ultimate effects of prenatal insults▯ ▯ Physical -Infancy▯ Dramatic growth ﬁrst year:▯ • sit▯ • stand▯ • climb▯ • crawl▯ • walk▯ ▯ Physical Development▯ Newborns are equipped with Reﬂexes that are genetically wired behaviors that are crucial for survival: Suck, swallow▯ • Some persist throughout life▯ ▯ ex.coughing, blinking, yawning▯ • Disappear with neurological development: grasping ▯ ▯ Brain Development - After Birth▯ • Myelination continues after birth▯ • Dramatic increase in synaptic connections▯ • Brain imaging techniques illuminate developmental changes in the brain ▯ ▯ Understanding Adolescence ▯ Transition from childhood to early adulthood ▯ • • Starts at age 10-12 generally▯ • End at age 188-20▯ ▯ Adolescence Physical Development▯ Puberty▯ • Rapid skeletal and sexual maturation ▯ • Puberty begins at beginning of adolescence ▯ Testosterone (androgen) — boys▯ • Genital development, height, voice changes▯ Estrodiol (Estrogen) — girls ▯ • Breast, uterine, and skeletal development ▯ ▯ Physical Changes — Adulthood▯ Early Adulthood▯ • Most reach the peak of physical development▯ Middle Adulthood▯ • Most lose height, many gain weight▯ • Menopause for women (late 40s early 50s)▯ Late Adulthood▯ • Accumulated wear and tear▯ Less ability to repair and regenerate ▯ • ▯ Cognitive Development▯ Jean Piaget (1896-1980) proposed a widely inﬂuential theory of cognitive development where children actively construct their cognitive world, their knowledge using..▯ Schemas: concepts or frameworks that organize information▯ Assimilation: the process of incorporating new info into existing schemas▯ Accommodation: the process of adjusting or restructuring existing schemas to new information ▯ Accommodation is restructuring as Assimilation is to incorporating new info into existing • schemas▯ ▯ Piaget’s Theory▯ Sensorimotor stage (birth - 2 years)▯ • Children coordinate sensations with movements. Like seeing / hearing with physical actions▯ • Object permanence▯ Preoperational Stage (2-7 years)▯ • Can identify symbols without mental manipulation. Language explodes▯ • Egocentrism ▯ Concrete Operational Stage (7-11 years)▯ • Operational thinking (e.g., conservation)▯ • Classiﬁcation skills ▯ • Logical thinking in concrete contexts▯ Formal Operational Stage (11-15 years)▯ • Lasts through adulthood ▯ • Abstract and idealistic thought ▯ Hypothetical-deductive reasoning ▯ • Adolescent egocentrism ▯ • the belief that others are preoccupied with the adolescent as he or she is ▯ • sense of uniqueness▯ • sense of invincibility -> risky behavior ▯ Early Adulthood▯ • Idealism gives way to realistic pragmatism▯ • Reﬂection on worldview▯ Middle Adulthood▯ Crystalized intelligence (vocabulary) peaks▯ • • Fluid intelligence (inductive reasoning) peaks ▯ • Numerical ability and perceptual speed decline▯ Late Adulthood ▯ • Speed of processing generally declines ▯ • Memory retrieval skills decline▯ • Wisdom increases in some individuals ▯ • Strategy training and physical activity can improve cognitive function ▯ ▯ Evaluating Piaget’s Theory▯ • Some cognitive abilities emerge earlier than Piaget thought▯ • Piaget overestimated formal operations▯ • Culture and education also inﬂuence development▯ ▯ Temperament ▯ Temperament: an individuals behavioral style or characteristics way or responding ▯ Three clusters of:▯ • Easy: Positive mood, regular routines in infancy, easily adapts to new experiences▯ • Slow to Warm: Low activity level, somewhat negative, inﬂexible, low intensity mood▯ • Difﬁcult: reacts negatively, cries frequently, irregular daily routines, slow to accept new experiences ▯ ▯ Infant Attachment ▯ Harlow Study: Infant rhesus monkey ▯ • Is it nourishment or contact that matters?▯ • Chose between two surrogate “mothers” ▯ ▯ -Cold wire mother versus warm cloth mother▯ ▯ -Infants preferred cloth mother across situations▯ • Contact comfort is critical to attachment ▯ Infant attachment: the close emotional bond between an infant and its caregiver▯ ▯ -may provide important foundation for subsequent development ▯ Mary Ainsworth-Strange Situation▯ ▯ -Caregivers leave infant alone with stranger, then return.. secure attachment or insecure ▯ ▯ attachment?▯ ▯ -Criticism: cultural variations ▯ ▯ Socioemotional Development▯ Erik Erikson (1902-1994) ▯ • saw psychosocial development as 8 turning points each with 2 possible outcomes▯ • presents a developmental view of peoples lives in 8 stages▯ • each stage consists of a developmental task that conform the individual with a crisis ▯ • each crisis is a turning point of increased vulnerability and enhanced potential ▯ • the more successfully a person resolves eau crisis, the more psychologically healthy the individual will be ▯ • Each stage has a positive and negative outcome▯ • personal competence or weakness ▯ • The theory emphasizes life long development ▯ • Personality develops primarily as a result of resolving conﬂicts in each stage ▯ ▯ Erikson’s Theory▯ First 4 stages: Childhood▯ 1. Trust Vs. Mistrust (Infancy)▯ 2. Autonomy VS. Shame and Doubt (Toddlerhood)▯ 3. Initiative VS. Guilt (Early Childhood)▯ 4. Industry VS Inferiority (Middle and late childhood) ▯ ▯ Trust VS Mistrust▯ A sense of trust requires a feeling of physical comfort and minimal amount of fear about the future. Infants basic needs are met by responsive, sensitive caregivers ▯ ▯ Autonomy VS Shame and Doubt ▯ After gaining trust in their caregivers, infants start to discover that they have a will of their own. They assert their sense of autonomy (independence). They realize their will. If infants are restrained too much or punished to harshly, they are likely to develop a sense of shame and doubt.▯ ▯ As preschool children encounter a widening social world, they are challenged more and need to develop more purposeful behavior to cope with these challenges.Children are now asked to assume more responsibility, Uncomfortable guilt feelings may arise, thought, if the children are irresponsible and are made to feel too anxious▯ ▯ Industry VS Inferiority ▯ At no other time are children more enthusiastic than at the end of early childhoods period of expansive imagination. As children move into the elementary school years, they direct their energy toward mastering knowledge and intellectual skills. The danger at this stage involves feeling incompetent and unproductive.▯ ▯ Erikson: Pyschosocial Development▯ • Identity VS Identity Confusion ▯ ▯ Marcia’s 4 Identity Statuses ▯ • explidentity diffusion ▯nt ▯ • identity foreclosure▯ • identity moratorium ▯ • identity achievement ▯ ▯ Adult Development and Aging ▯ • Emerging Adulthood ▯ • Extended adolescence ▯ • Five Key features:▯ • identity exploration ▯ • instability ▯ • self-focus▯ • feeling “in between”▯ • age of possibilities ▯ Last 4 Stages of Eriksons Theory:▯ 5. Identity VS Role confusion (Adolescence)▯ 6. Intimacy VS Isolation (Early Adulthood)▯ 7. Generativity VS Stagnation (Middle Adulthood)▯ 8. Integrity VS Despair (Late Adulthood)▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Identity VS Role Confusion ▯ Individuals are faced with ﬁnding out who they are, what they are all about, and where they are going in life. An impotent dimension is the exploration of alternative solution to roles, Career exploration is important.▯ ▯ Intimacy VS Isolation ▯ Individuals face the developmental task of forming intimate relationships with others. Erikson described intimacy as ﬁnding oneself in another person.▯ ▯ Generativity VS Stagnation▯ A chief concern is to assist the younger generation in developing and leading useful lives▯ ▯ Integrity VS Despair▯ Individuals look back and evaluate what they have done with their lives. The retrospective glances can be either positive (integrity) or negative (despair).▯ ▯ Parenting ▯ • Erikson stage 7: generativity v. stagnation ▯ • wellness through contribution to next generation ▯ • contribution through rearing children ▯ • career success ▯agement with children correlated with marital satisfaction, life satisfaction, ▯ Winding Down▯ • Erikson stage 8: Integrity v. Despair ▯ • wellness through reminiscence ▯ • seeking meaning through life review ▯ • confronting own pending death ▯ • importance of meaning: past and present ▯ • more selective about social network▯ • consider Bucket list▯ ▯ Parenting Styles▯ Authoritarian ▯ parents are controlling and punitive/restrictive▯ correlated with lack of initiative, poor communication skills, social incompetence ▯ Authoritative ▯ parents encourage independence with limits on behavior ▯ correlated with social competence, social responsibility and self reliance ▯ Neglectful: lack of parental involvement ▯ parents are generally uninvolved: rarely know where child is or what child is doing▯ correlated with less social incompetence and poor self-control▯ Permissive/Indulgent▯ parents are involved, but place few limits▯ correlated with poor social competence, lack of respect for others, poor self control▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Moral Development ▯ Kohlberg (1927-1987)▯ Presented moral dilemmas and analyzed responses ▯ • Pre-conventional▯ behavior guided by punishments (avoid) and obtain (rewards)▯ Conventional▯ Standards learned from parents and society▯ Post-conventional▯ contracts, rights, and abstract principles ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Parenting strategies associated with morality in children..▯ • warm and supportive rather than harsh▯ • reasoning with child when disciplining ▯ • help child learn to take others perspective▯ • involved child in decision making▯ • model moral behavior and thinking PSYC 101 Chapter 10: Motivation Motivation -An internal state of force that: -activates and gives direction -keeps us focused on a goal -drives/moves people to meet the goal -It energized, directs, and sustains behavior Biology of Hunger -Gastric signals: signs of hunger that originate in the stomach -the stomach contracts indicating hunger -the full stomach releases hormone cholecystokinin (CCK)- the “off signal” -CCK signals the brain satiety -Blood chemistry -glucose drops: sugar receptors in brain and liver signal start eating center of brain. You feel hungry -Insulin (hormone) -Leptin decreases food intake and increases metabolism Hunger and the Brain There are certain regions that are hunger centers -Hypothalamus Lateral hypothalamus: initiation of hunger and eating Ventromedial hypothalamus: when activated results in, cessation of hunger and restricts eating Neurotransmitters -Leptin: inhibits the production of a neurotransmitter in the hypothalamus that induces eating -Serotonin: partly responsible for the satiating effect of CCK Obesity and Eating Behavior Biology of overeating Obesity Is widespread Genetics: there are a # of fat cells that are genetically given to us Set point: the weight maintained with no effort to gain or lose weight Fat (adipose) cells Psychological Factors -in the past the focus was on : emotional state and external food cues -current research if focusing: time and place cues—learned associations -sugar and fat content Disordered Eating Anorexia Nervosa: relentless pursuit of thinness through starvation -more common among females -Main characteristics: - Less than 85% of normal weight - unsupported fear of gaining weight - distorted body image - amenorrhea -Medical dangers and mortality Bulimia Nervosa: binge and purge—laxatives, vomiting, enemas -more common among females -preoccupied with food -fearful, depressed, anxious, shame -medical dangers Causes of Anorexia and Bulimia -Sociocultural -media images -family interactions -Biological -genetics -serotonin regulations -neurological effects of dieting, binging, purging\ Binge Eating Disorder: recurrent episodes of compulsively eating large amounts of food -despite not being hungry, eat quickly to point of discomfort -8% of the obese have BED -causes include biological factors (genetics, dopamine, stress) Maslow’s Hierarchy of Human Needs -sequence of needs -basic needs must be met before higher needs can be satisfied -self-actualization: motivation to develop to our fullest potential Intrinsic v. Extrinsic Motivation Intrinsic Motivation: internal factors -orgasmic needs + enjoy ability - key to achievement -self determination, curiosity, challenge -meaning Extrinsic Motivation: eternal factors -incentives (rewards, punishment PSYC 101 Chapter 11: Gender, Sex, and Sexuality Defining Sex Properties that determine male or female: - 23 pair of chromosomes: XY or XX -gonads (ovaries, testes) -internal reproductive structure -external genitalia -secondary sex characteristics (at puberty) Defining Gender Gender: social and psychological aspects of being male or female Gender Identity: -masculinity (instrumentality) -femininity (expressiveness) -androgyny (both) Sexual Development -Embryonic development of gonads and genitalia -SRY gene -> testes -> androgens -> male physiology -female is “default” condition -Gender differences in regards to the brain -size of brain parts -function of brain parts -corresponding cognitive function -which part of brain involved in particular behaviors Disorders of Sexual Development (DSD) - congenitally atypical chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomical development -questions
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