General Chemistry II: Video Notes
General Chemistry II: Video Notes CHEM 102
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This 7 page Bundle was uploaded by Joy Furigay on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Bundle belongs to CHEM 102 at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill taught by Dr. Jennifer Krumper in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see General Descriptive Chemistry II in Chemistry at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill.
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Date Created: 01/28/16
Gas Pressure Video Sunday, January 3, 2016 10:10 PM Pressure is the force applied to a given area. o P = Force / Area o Units are pascals (Pa) Typically use kPa Gases exert pressure on the objects they come in contact with. o Gas pressure is caused by the simultaneous collisions of gas molecules against either the walls of their container or an object they are in contact with. Atmospheric Pressure occurs when the molecules in the air collide with objects. o Barometers measure this. It is filled with mercury and has a vacuum, which is a volume of space containing no matter. Because there are no particles present in a vacuum, there is zero pressure in a vacuum. Air molecules create pressure at sea level from their collisions, which rise the mercury. The Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gas (Part 1) Video Sunday, January 10, 2016 11:57 PM Kinetic energy is the type of energy that any moving object has. o The faster something is moving, the more kinetic energy something has. A solid is made up of particles that are packed together very tightly. o They has less KE. A liquid flows more freely than a solid, but they are still connected together. Gases has a lot of KE because they are in constant motion and not connected together. Kinetic Molescular Theory of Gases o If a gas follows all these rules, it is called an ideal gas, but those are rare. o Gases consist of very small particles that are far apart relative to their size. o Gas particles are in constant, random motion. The moving particles constantly collide with each other and with the walls of the container. o Collisions between gas particles and container walls are elastic collisions. They bang into each other and collide apart. o There are no forces of attraction or repulsions between gas particles. o The average kinetic energy of gas particles depends on the temperature of the gas. The hotter it is, the faster it is. London Dispersion Forces Video Tuesday, January 12, 2016 3:50 PM First identified by Fritz London Intermolecular forces are the forces between the molecules. Intramolecular forces are the forces within the molecules. o Much greater than intermolecular forces. London dispersion forces are intermolecular and attractive forces and are found in all atoms and molecules. o Uneven electrons create a temporary dipole, which is a molecule with a charge They are going to increase as the contact area, pi bonding, and polarizability increases The more molecules you have, the greater the polarizability The 3D shape of proteins is due to these forces. o No noble gases in a liquid phase without these forces. o It is the connection between the electrons of two atoms o The more electrons, the more forces will be found The Rate of Reactions Video Thursday, January 14, 2016 11:42 PM If you want to speed up a reaction, increase the surface area. In a chemical reaction, the rate is the number of reactants that are concerted to products in a given time. o The higher the concentration or the more reactants, the more quickly they'll bond to each other and the faster they'll react o If the size is decreased or if the pressure is decreased, the more reactions o If it is in a gas in a closed container, the faster the reaction. o Environmental factors such as temperature and surface area affect the rate of reaction, also. Rate = Change in the reactants / Change in time = Change in products / Change in time With an increase in temperature and concentration, more collisions will occur and there will be enough KE to bond The Rate Law Video Friday, January 15, 2016 7:15 PM The rate law refers to the amount of reactants being consumed. o Rate = k (rate constant) [A]^m M tells us the reaction order Zeroth Order m = 0 Rate = k Rate is constant and identical First Order m = 1 Rate = k[A] The rate is doubled as the concentration is doubled Second Order m=2 Rate = k[A]^2 The rate is squared as the concentration is doubled o Determine this experimentally o Rate k[A]^m[B]^n Can proceed over different orders To find the order, graph the concentration vs time (Zeroth Order), then graph the natural log (First Order), and the inverse of the concentration vs. time (Second Order). Introduction to Integrated Rate Laws Wednesday, January 20, 2016 7:01 PM Integrated Rate Law is a mathematical expression that describes the change in concentration of a reactant with time. o Shows how things progress over time Zero Order is when the rate of change is independent of the concentration of the reactant o [A]t= kt + [A]0 y=mx+b o Rate = k First Order is when the rate is proportional to the concentration of a single reactant raised to the first power o Rate = k[A] o Ln[A] t kt + ln[A]0 o M = k Second Order is when the rate is proportional to either the concentration of a single reactant raised to the second power or two different reactants each raised to the first power o Rate = k[A]2 1 o [A]t = kt + [A]0 If you can get the straight line fit (y), then you can get the order from the slope Collision Theory Video Tuesday, January 26, 2016 3:14 PM According to the collision theory, molecules must collide to react, collisions must have the correct orientation, and collisions must have enough energy. o Without enough energy, the molecules will just bounce off of each other, but with enough energy, the molecules with vibrate enough to break the bond. Activation Energy is the minimum amount of energy required to initiate a chemical reaction. The transition state or activated complex is the transitional structure, which shows which bonds are being broken or made. When the change in energy is positive, it is an endothermic reaction.
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