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Chinese 1 Course Notes

by: Elise Gan

Chinese 1 Course Notes Chinese 0001

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Elise Gan

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Notes taken every class on mostly vocabulary and grammar.
Elementary Chinese 1
Mushi Li
75 ?




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This 27 page Bundle was uploaded by Elise Gan on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Chinese 0001 at Tufts University taught by Mushi Li in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 87 views. For similar materials see Elementary Chinese 1 in Chinese at Tufts University.

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Date Created: 01/28/16
September 09, 2015 Lesson 1 •   Chinese Characters o   can come from pictures o   may contain meaning and sound radicals •   Initials and Finals o   all words must have finals o   not all words will have an initial o   example finals: §   vowelsà a, e, i, o, u, ü §   compound endingsà ao, en, ie, in, ing, uo •   Tones o   4 tones §   first tone- high and flat •   ex: Mā §   second tone- goes up •   ex: Má §   third tone- goes down, then up (lowest tone) •   ex: Mǎ §   fourth tone- goes down •   ex: Mà •   Tone Marks o   if one vowel, the tone mark goes above the vowel o   if more than one vowel, the tone mark goes above the vowel w/ the widest mouth §   a > o > e > i > u > ü •   New words o   你ǐ (you) o   hǎ好 (good) o   nǐ h你好 (hello) §   [Third tone sandhi: when third tones are consecutive, change all but the last one into second tone] o   m吗 (interrogative particle, add to end of a question) o   w我 (I, me) o   hě很 (very) o   n呢 (used for elliptical question) o   nǐ 你呢? (How about you?) o   y也 (also, too) •   Make Conversation (hi, how are you, how about you, etc.) September 11, 2015 Lesson 1 (cont.) •   Numbers (1-10) o   一  (one) o   二  (two) o   s三  (three) o   四  (four) o   w五 (five) o   六iù(six) o   七ī (seven) o   八ā (eight) o   九iǔ(nine) o   s十í(ten) •   Counting o   sh十一yī (eleven), 十二í (twelve), sh十三sā(thirteen) o   èr二十hí (twenty), s三十 s(thirty), 四十 sh(forty) o   èr s二十一yī (twenty-one), è二十二hí (twenty-two) September 14, 2015 Lesson 1 (cont.) •   Conversation o   Nǐ jiào shénme你叫什么名字   (What is your name?) o   wǒ j我叫…   (My name is…) •   More New Words o   大à (big) o   xi小o(small) o   tài太…了   (too ___ ) §   太小了 (too small) Lesson 2 •   New Initials and Finals o   Initials: d, t, g, k, f o   Finals: ei, ou, an, ang, eng, iao, iou(iu) •   New Words o   bà爸爸   (father) o   mām妈妈 (mother) o   他ā(he) o   她ā(she) o   m们n (plural, used after I to make we, used after he to make they, etc.) o   má忙g (busy) o   不ù (not, no) ßplace before verb or adjective o   d都u (all, both) ßplace before verb or adjective o   也ě (also) ßplace before verb or adjective o   péng朋友u (friend) o   n男n(male) •   Make Sentences o   nǐ nán péngyǒu你男朋友好吗?? (How is your boyfriend?) o   wǒ nán péngyǒu我男朋友很好.   (My boyfriend is good.) o   nǐ nán péng你男朋友呢?? (How about your boyfriend?) o   wǒ nán péngyǒu y我男朋友也很好.   (My boyfriend is also good.) o   tāmen nán péngyǒ她们男朋友很好   (Their boyfriends are good.)   September 16, 2015 Lesson 2 (cont.) •   Practice Previous Vocab/Conversations •   Making Sentences o   subj很c(hěn)+adjective o   subject+ad吗e(ma)?+ o   subject+adverb+adjective §   ex: wǒ yě我也很好.hǎo (I am also good.) •   New Words o   gē哥哥 (older brother) o   d弟弟i (younger brother) o   kā咖啡i (coffee) o   喝ē (drink-verb) o   y要o(want-verb) o   kělè (coke/cola) o   xīngbākè (Starbucks) o   dèngkěn (Dunkin Donuts) o   chá (tea) o   shuǐ (water) •   New Sentence Structure o   subject+verb+object §   wǒ  hē我喝咖啡.i (I drink coffee.) §   the verb to drink is always followed by an object o   subject+adverb+verb+object §   wǒ yě hē我也喝咖啡. (I also drink coffee.) o   like before,吗adto make it a question •   Combine Vocab and Grammar to Make Sentences o   ex: My boyfriend drinks Starbucks. I drink Starbucks. We both drink Starbucks. o   ex: Does your dad want to drink tea? No, do you want to drink tea? No, I also don’t want to drink tea. o   ex: Is your mom very busy? Yes, she is very busy. She wants to drink water. September 18, 2015 Lesson 2 (cont.) •  不 bù o   use 4 tone if comes before a word with 1 , 2 , or 3 tone o   use 2 tone if comes before a word with 4 tone o   DO NOT use with a verb •  的 de o   use for possession §   ex: wǒ d我的咖啡fēi (my coffee) o   don’t have to use is for personal relationships §   ex: wǒ 我妈妈ā (my mom) •   Read Textbook Conversation (pg. 16) •   Go Over Sentence Structure (from 09/16) •   Parts of Characters o   y一 (one) o   n女 (female) o   b八 (eight) o   wǔ五  (five) o   力ì (power) o   mù木  (wood) o   mé门 (door) o   hu火  (fire) o   y也 (also) o   dīn钉 ßjust the right part (nail) o   m马 (horse) o   dā刀  (knife) o   yò又  (again, and) o   l六ù  (six) o   d大  (big) o   b不 (not) o   kǒ口 (mouth) o   n尼  (nun) o   t土  (earth) o   k可  (can, may) Lesson 3 •   New Initials and Finals o   Finals: ai, uai, ong o   Initials: zh, ch, sh, r §   written as zhi, chi, shi, ri (still sounds like zh, ch, sh, r) •   Half Third Tone rd st nd th o   when a word with 3rdone is followed by a word with 1 , 2 , or 4 , tone, only say the lowest part of the 3 tone o   if followed by a 3 tone, use the 3 tone sandhi rule September 21, 2015 Lesson 3 (cont.) •   Practice Initials (mostly r sound, and difference between zh, ch, sh) •   New Words o   t她 (she) o   s是ì (be, am, is, are) §   use in the subject+verb+object sentence structure §   cannot be used before an adjective o   lǎos老师 (teacher) o   zhōngg中国 (China) o   gu国 (country) o   ré人 (people) §   zhōnggu中国人én (Chinese) o   měigu美国 (United States) §   (more countries in the textbook) •   some countries’ Chinese names are based on sounds o   ex: jiānádà (Canada) •   US states’ names also based on sounds o   ex: Mǎsàzhūsāi zhōu (Massachusetts) o   n哪 (which) §   it’s a question word, which means you d吗n’t need to use ma §   ex: nǐ  shì 你是哪国人? rén? (Where are you from?) o   sh谁i (who) §   tā shì他是谁?i? (Who is he?) o   n那 (that, those) §   nà shì那是谁?i? (Who is that?) September 23, 2015 Lesson 3 (cont.) •   New Words o   n您n  (you-formal)   §   nín您好!     o   zh这 (this/these)   §   zhè这是hì (this is…)   o   nǎi奶奶i  (grandma-father’s side)   o   wài外婆 (grandma-mother’s side)   o   xībānyá (Spain) §   add yǔ to talk about language •   Xībānyá yǔ (Spanish language) o   yīsh医生g  (doctor)   •   Compa吗 谁 哪   o   m吗 :put it at the end of a declarative sentence to form a yes or no question   o   sh谁í,nǎ哪 : ask content questions (who, which) §   to form a question, follow the sentence order §   replace what you’re questioning with a question word •   ex: sheí shì zhōn谁是中国人?én?  (Who is Chinese?) o   looking  for  who,  so  answer  could  be:   wǒ péngyǒ我朋友   (my friend)   o   these question words cannot be used together Lesson 4 •   New Initials and Finals o   Initials: j, q, x, y o   Finals: ia, ian, iang, ui, un, üe, üan §   can’t write the ü with these new initials September 28, 2015 Lesson 4 (cont.) •   Initials and Finals (cont.) o   new initials (j, q, x, y) usually used with finals that start with u or i o   and u sounds after j, q, x, or y sound like the ü •   New Words o   rèn认识í (to know a person-not just by name) §   wǒ rèn我认识你nǐ (I know you) §   use the phrase in front of the person o   gāox高兴g (happy) §   g高o(tall) §   rènshí nǐ hěn认识你很高兴ng (Nice to meet you) o   xì姓g(surname) §   guì 贵姓ng(What’s your surname?)ßpolite •   g贵ì(expensive) •   can ad你 or ní您 in front •   never 贵din your answer to the question •   answer with wǒ 我姓…g… o   j叫ào(to be called/one’s name is…) §   is used to give people your first name and last name or just your first name, never just your last name o   qǐng 请问n (May I ask…) §   add to the beginning of any question to make it more polite §   q请n(please) o   xiānsh先生g (Mr.) §   put last name first •   e林先生 (Mr. Lin) o   jì记者ě (journalist/reporter) o   kě可以 (May I…) §   always put it before the verb § 可以+ Verb (ask permission) •   nǐ kěyǐ jiào wǒ lín你可以叫我林先生ng (You may call me Mr. Ling) §   不可以 (not permitted) § add m吗 at the end to make it a question o   yǔy语言 (language) o   wài外语 (foreign language) §   w外(foreign) o   hàn 汉语 (Chinese language) o   x学é (to learn, to study) o   xué学习 (to learn, to study) §   both are the 学习meis more formal学than o   xuésh学生g (student) o   xuéyu学院 (college, institute) September 30, 2015 Lesson 4 (cont.) •   New Words o   d的 (possessive/modifying particle) §   equivalent of ‘s in English §   examples •   wǒ de b我的爸爸 (My dad) •   Tufts de xuéshē的学生Tuft(Tufts student) §   can ad谁 sto make it a question •   ex: sheí de谁的爸爸?? (Whose dad?) o   shén什么 (what) §   ex: nǐ hē你喝什么?me (What do you drink?) •   Read Conversations in Textbook o   (watch on CD if possible) Lesson 5 •   New Initials and Finals o   Initials: z, c, s o   Finals: i, iong, ua, uan, uang, ün, -er o   October 2, 2015 Lesson 5 (cont.) •   New Words   o   xiè谢谢è (to thank you)   §   xièx谢谢你nǐ (thank you)   §   bùyòng不用谢è (you’re welcome) •   can drop th用 yòng o   duìb对不起 (I’m sorry/excuse me)ßNOT for sympathy o   méiguā没关系 (never mind/it doesn’t matter/it’s okay) o   zài再见àn (goodbye) §   再à(again) o   qǐ请g(please) §请 +verb •   qǐng 请坐ò (please sit) •   qǐng请进ìn(please enter) o   n女 (female)ßadjective §   add before profession §   ex: nǚ女老师osh(female teacher) •   Final –er o   pinyin –er sometimes doesn’t form a syllable by itself, but is attached to another fina(儿) §   z这儿r (here) §   那儿r (there) §   哪儿r (where)ßtypically question word •   Location o   z在i(to be-location/here, there/ in, on) §   nǐ z你在哪儿?r (where are you?) §   wǒ zài我在这儿r (I am here) §   wǒ zài zhèr wǒ  n我在这儿我男朋友ǒu (I’m here with my boyfriend) §   tā他那儿r (there with him) o   different sente在ces with §   sub在e+place §   sub不在ct+place §   sub在e+place吗? •   More New Words o   sùs宿舍 (dorm) o   cant餐厅g (dining hall) o   zhī知道o (to know-facts) o   xiǎ小姐iě (Miss/young lady) October 5, 2015 Lesson 5 (cont.) •   Read Textbook 5-1 and 5-2 •   New Words o   lí零g(zero) §   can also write O instead o   cé层g (floor/story) §   yī 一层ng (1 floor) §   how to ask which floo哪层 nǎ céng o   hà号 (room number) §   put after num号er: 005 §   to describe location, go from largest place to smallest •   ex: Olin, floor 3, room 305 o   l来i(to come, to arrive) o   wǎ晚 (late) §   wǒ lái 我来晚了e (I’m late) October 7, 2015 Chapter 6 •   New Words o   jīn今天ān  (today) o   zuót昨天  (yesterday) o   xiàn现在i  (now) §   time can be used before or after the subject but never at the end of the sentence o   shénme sh什么时候    (what time) §   question word, don’t add ma 吗 at the end of the question o   …zěnme ya怎么样  (how is…?) o   去ù (to go) § 去 +location § 去 +action § 去 +location+action o   yóuyǒ游泳  (to swim) o   jīn京剧ù (Beijing opera) o   yǒuy有意思  (interesting) o   míngt明天n  (tomorrow) o   y有u  (to have) §   méi没有u  (don’t have) •   only verb that does不’t use bù o   shí  时间 (time) o   dǎq打球    (play ball) §   use for sports that use the hands §   打ǎ  (play) §   球i  (ball) o   sh说ō (to speak, to say) o   b遍à  (for action-one more time) §   qǐng zàishu请再说一遍iàn  (please say that again) o   bàoq抱歉n  (sorry) §   more formal, not for sympathy o   kǒng恐怕  (I’m afraid that…) o   太à  (very, greatly) §太 +adjective了 le §不太 +adjective •   only ne了d for positive October 14, 2015 Chapter 7 •   New Way to Ask Questions o   A-not-A question structure §   S+ Ad不.  + Adj. •   e你忙不忙? (Are you busy?) •   (don’t吗u)e §   S+ Ad不.  + V + Object •   e  你学不学?(Do you study?) •   e你学不学英语? (Do you study English?) §   If the que都tior也hyou can only use quest吗ons with §   If the verb in the q有edon’t u不 use méiyǒ没有 •   New Words o   jiàos教授u  (professor) o   míngp名片n  (name card, business card) o   k  看(to watch, to look at, to visit) o   w  问 (ask) o   kāix开学    (school starts-term, semester) §   开ā  (to start) §   time goes before the verb §   Septe开学er o   yī一下à (a bit-used after a verb to indicate short/informal; soft tone) §   进一下 (come in-informal) §  一下 (take a look) § 问一下老师 (ask the teacher-informal) •   Describing Nouns o   attributes are placed before the word they modify (to make them more specific) §   语言学院的学生   • 语言学院  desc  学生s §   林娜的中国男朋友 • 林娜的中国男  descr  朋友 o   attributes expressing possession §   pronoun/的 + noun •   o的  with interpersonal relationships October 19, 2015 Chapter 7 (cont.) •   New Words o   míng名字 (name) o   zhōngw中文 (Chinese language) §   w文nfocuses on written §  语yǔfocuses on speaking o   wénx文学 (literature) o   zhuān专业 (major/specialty) o   měis美术 (fine arts) § měi美 (beautiful) o   系ì(department) o   jiès介绍o (to introduce) §   to introduce place or person •   Positio也 and都 o   subje也/都 + verb o   subje也/都 + adverb o   if b也tgoes befo都e o   in a negative s也ngoes befo不e o   in a negative s都不te= all are not 不都 = not all are October 21, 2015 Chapter 8 •   New Words o   b百i(hundred) §   must put a number in front §   ex: 二百零一 §   ex: 二百一十 §   must say零w/0 if in middle of the number o   几ǐ(how many-under 10) o   duō s多少o (how many-over 10) o   j加ā(plus, +) §   一加二是三 o   ji减n(minus, -) § 三减二是一 o   y有u (to have) o   jiě姐姐ie(older sister) o   mèi 妹妹i (younger sister) o   g狗u (dog) o   xi小o(small, little) o   h和 (and) §   only used for nouns o   kě可爱i (cute, adorable) •   Measure Words o   number + measure word (mw) + noun o   expresses: §   certain # of things or people §   this person or that thing §   how many people/things o   every noun has its own proper mw o   g个 (mw for general use) § 七个学院 (7 colleges) § 你有几个弟弟? (How many little brothers do you have?) o   zhā张g(mw for flat objects-photo, bed, card, table, etc.) o   kǒ口 (mw for talking about how many people in family) § 三口人 (3 family members) § 我的家有三口人 (My family has 3 family members) o   j家ā(home, family) o   li两ngvs. 二r §   both mean two §   used in counting §   used in combination with mw o   yí g一共g (altogether/in total) o   zhào p照片n(photo) o   z做( to do) §   做什么? §   今天你做什么? §   don’t have做tin answer   October 23, 2015 Chapter 8 (cont.) •   gōng 工作ò (job, work) o   zuò shénme gōng做什么工作? (ask about job) •   h还i(in addition, still) o   wǒ yǒu gège, hái 我有哥哥还有姐姐。e (I have a brother, in addition I have an older sister) o   goes before verb (necessary) •   compa也eand都 o   both adverbs (use before verb or adjective) o 也 -subject could be same subject or different subjects § 我。。。也。。。 or我。。。他也。。。 o 还 -subjects are the same § 我有。。。还有 •   dāng 当然n (of course) •   zh真n(so, very)   October 27, 2015 Chapter 8 (cont.) •   New Words o   大à (big, large) o   wài外语ǔ (foreign language) o   wài 外国ó (foreign country-nationality) o   xǐ h喜欢n (to like) §   喜欢 +time+location+v o   duō s多少o (how many, how much) §   d多ō(many, a lot) §   s少ǎo(few, less) •   must 很sein front o   y有u (possession/existence)         October 30, 2015 Chapter 9 •   New Words o   jù 聚会i (get together, party) o   cān 参加ā(to participate, to attend) o   gu过 (to spend time, to celebrate (one’s birthday)) o   k课 (class, lesson) §   Hàn y汉语课è (Chinese class) o   xīng星期ī (week) §   x星n(star) §  期q(cycle) §   xīng 星期一yī(Monday) §   xīng qī星期日/星期天n (Sunday) §   yí gè x一个星期qī (one week) §   xīng星期几 jǐ?(what day?) o   nián 年(year) §   qù 去年án(last year) § 二 0 一五年 (2015) •   read each number one at a time §   nǎ n哪年?? (which year?) §   èr 0 yī? 二 0 一几年? (which year-201X?) §   jǐ nián?/duō shǎ几年?/多少年? (how many years?) §   doesn’t need a measure word o   y月è(month) §   put 1-12 in front to signify January-December §   yí g一个月uè (one month) §   yí一月uè (January) o   日ì(date of the month) §   formal, written §   yí yu一月一日 rì (January 1) o   h号o(day of the month) §   oral, less formal §   jīn tiān今天几号?ào? (what is the date today?) §   shì yuè sān十月三十号hào (October 30) o   ti天n(day) §   doesn’t need a measure word •   Expressing date in Chinese o   20年510月 30号星期 5 November 2, 2015 Chapter 9 (cont.) •   New Words o   shàng上午ǔ (AM, morning, 7 am-before noon) o   xià下午ǔ (PM, afternoon, 1 pm-5:30 pm) o   zhōng中午ǔ(noon, 12 pm-1 pm) o   sh上n(last) o   下i(next) o   chū s出生ng(born) o   岁u(year of age) o   duō多大à (how old) §   nǐ 你几岁?uì?(how old are you? for asking children) o   s属ǔ(to be born in the year of- 1 of the 12 animals) o   g过ò(to spend time, to celebrate one’s birthday) o   zhù祝贺è(to congratulate) §   祝(to wish) o   kuà快乐lè(happy) §   zhù nǐ shen祝你生日快乐uài lè(I wish you a happy birthday) o   dàn 蛋糕o(cake) o   kǎo烤鸭ā(roast duck) o   吃h(to eat) §   hǎ好吃ch(tasty, delicious) o   shòu 寿面àn(birthday longevity noodles) o   m买i(to buy) o   hóng pú 红葡萄酒jiǔ (red wine) §   红ón(red) §   p葡萄ta(grapes) §  酒j(alcohol) o   p瓶n(a bottle of-measure word) o   s水u(water) o   piào 漂亮an(pretty, beautiful-only for visual beauty) o   再à(again) November 4, 2015 Chapter 9 (cont.) •   Sentence Structure o   Subject + Verb o   Subject + Adjective o   Subject + Noun §   age, date, time/day, money §   不是t in front of predicate to negate •   Time Phrases o   go at the beginning of sentence or (more commonly) after subject o   put bigger unit of time first o   的时候 (when, while, during) §   工作的时候,他喜欢喝咖啡 (While working, he likes to drink coffee) November 6, 2015 Chapter 10 •   New Words o   yīn 音乐è (music) §   yuè vs. le (music vs. happy) o   guāng 光盘n (CD) §   use 张W o   shāng c商场ng(shopping mall) o   s书ū(book) §看书 (read a book) §本  bén (MW) o   bén本子i (notebook) §   use 个W o   bào 报纸ǐ (newspaper) §   use 张W o   z纸ǐ(paper) §   use 张W o   tī听(to listen) o   cháng c常常ng (often) §   bù c不常ng(not often) §   use before location o   g跟n(with, to follow) §   to follow: •   跟我来 •   跟他去 §   with: •   跟朋友去游泳 •   跟妈妈做蛋糕 §常常 use befo跟e §   time 跟efore o   yǒu m有名g (famous) §没有名 (not famous) o   Liáng 梁祝ù(name of famous violin concierto) §   use << >> around titles November 9, 2015 Chapter 10 (cont.) •   Renminbi (RMB) – Money o   yu元n, j角ǎ, fē分 (written) o   ku块, má毛 , fē分 (oral) o   $1 = 六块三分 ( ) o   can 分roif clear in context o   using two: §   二(0.02) §   use 两 at beginning for anything else •   两块二毛二分 (2.22) o   must零usif non-consecutive numbers §一块零三 (1.03) §十块零三分 (10.03) •   two zeros=must clarify o   qián 钱 (money) §   can add at end when speaking • 四十五块钱 (45.00) o   ask about 多少钱ey-or几块钱 §   咖啡多少钱? o   can be used just as money §   我没有钱 (I have no money) o   ask how much for one §   多少钱一个? §  钱S+Number+MW •   New Words o   xiāng香蕉iā(banana) §   xi香n(good smell) o   píng 苹果ǒ (apple) §香蕉苹果 (apple with taste of banana) o   pú 葡萄o (grape) o   j斤n(weight MW~500g) o   xiān s先生ng (Mr., Sir, someone’s husband) o   shī师傅u (master) §   casual way to address people §   mentor in jobs that use hands-chef, taxi driver, etc. o   y要o(want) o   g贵ì(expensive) o   g给i(to give) §   can follow with给你ec(give you) §   can follow wi给钱 ob(give money) §   or 给你钱h: (give you money) o   zh找o(to give change) §   找十块 (give 10 change) o   sò送g(to give-as gift) §   送蛋糕 (give a cake) o   z做ò(to make-friend, to cook/make-food) §   做朋友 (make a friend) §做蛋糕 (bake cake) o   zén 怎么 (how to) §   怎么做? (how to do?) §   Ap中文怎么说? (how do you say “apple” in Chinese?) § 怎么样 for opinion-not same) o   róng容易ì (easy) November 16, 2015 Chapter 11 •   Time (point) o   di点n(o’clock) o   f分n(minute) §两点 (2:00) §   can add 钟hif no munites §   d分ounless only one sound • 两点十分 (2:10) § 两点零三 (2:03) o   zhōng 中午 (noon, 12-1) o   jǐ d几点?? (what time is it?) §   also jǐ diǎ几点几分?fēn? o   k刻 (quarter-15 minutes) § 两点一刻 (2:15) § 两点三刻 (2:45) §   no 2 quarters o   bà半 (half) §   can be used for 30 minutes but also for a half of something § 十点半 (10:30) § 半个苹果 (half of an apple) o   ch差 (to lack, less or minus) § 差十分三点 (2:50) • or三点差十分 §   use when less than 20 minutes to the next hour §   can差pubefore or after hour •   Time (duration) o  三分钟 (3 minutes) o  一小时 (1 hour) •   New Words o   shàng上课è (to go to class) o   h回í(to return=tom somewhere you are from) o   dà到 (to arrive) o   ji教o(to teach) § 教汉语 (teach Chinese) o   suì 岁数u (years of age) § 您多大岁数? (how old are you? respectful, for elders-over 70) o   h会ì(to have the knowledge of, can) o   nén能 (can, be able to-if circumstances allow, not that you don’t want to) § 能来上课 (can come to class) § 不能去打球 (cannot play basketball) o   yì di一点儿 (a little) §   add noun at end § 说一点儿汉语 (speak a little Chinese) §   noun may be dropped if clear in context §一  can be dropped if it’s not at the beginning of a sentence o   wǎn sh晚上g (evening, night) o   shuì睡觉ià(to sleep) o   qǐ ch起床ng(to get up) §   chu床(bed) •   measure 张ord: o   wá玩儿 (to have fun, to play, to relax/not do work) §我跟朋友玩儿 (I have fun with friends) o   dōng东西i (things, stuff) §买东西 (shopping) November 18, 2015 Chapter 11 (cont.) •   New Words o   x写ě(to write) o   hàn汉子ì (Chinese characters) o   wèn问题í (question) §问一个问题 (ask a question) §问 +Object 1 (person) + Object 2 (thing) •   works 教itoo o   yīng应该āi(should) •   Sentence Structure o   S+Verb 1+Verb 2 §   Verb 2 indicates action denoted by Verb 1 o 在 +Location+Verb+Object §   preposition phrase §  他们在这儿学习汉语 o 跟 +Person (mostly)+Verb+Object §   preposition phrase §   if跟boan在 in a sent跟nphrase used first o   Subject+Opt/Aux+Verb §   能, 会, 应该, 要, 可以 •   negat不v+Opt •   quest吗onor O不t Opt §能 -be able to (physically or under circumstances) §会 -know how to as a result of a skill §应该 -“should” §要 -want, desire, intent to •   bù xi不想g (do not want to) §可以 -ability, permission •  不可以 (not permitted) •  不能 (unable to) November 23, 2015 Chapter 12 •   New Words o   yī衣服u (clothes) o   j件à(MW-for clothes, tops) o   ch穿ān(to put on, to wear) o   yì一起ǐ (together) §  跟AB一起 V o 一个人 (alone) o   duàn 锻炼àn(to have physical exercise) o   t头u(head) o   t疼ng(painful, sore) o   shū舒服u (comfortable) o   sǎn嗓子zi(throat) o   quán 全身ēn(all over-the body) o   shē身体tǐ(body, health) o   yī 医院àn (hospital) o   kàn 看病ng(to see a doctor) §   病ì(ill-can be noun or verb) §我病了 (I’m sick) o   m每i(every) §每  + MW + Noun •  每个人 (every person) •  每斤苹果 (every apple) §   can indicate每t+ MW + noun都++ V + O) •  我每天都喝咖啡 (I drink coffee every day) §   nega不是 w/ •  我不是每天都喝咖啡 (I don’t drink coffee every day) §   can be used 每s+ MW + Noun 都 + V + O + Adj.) •  每个学生都很高兴 (Every student is happy) §   can be used as object-don’t leave at end of sentence •  每个学生我都喜欢 (I like every student) o   hái 还是ì (or) §  还是 B? November 30, 2015 Chapter 12 (cont.) •   New Words o   lé冷g(cold) o   xiǎ想g(to want, to think) § 不想 (don’t want to) § 我想 (I think) o   b吧 §   used at the end of a sentence expressing suggestions and to soften tone •  我学习汉语吧。 §   used in a question when quite sure of the answer, but need confirmation •   你是学生吗? §   used in answer after some debating or thinking •   好吧 •   Sentence Structure o   subject + predicate §   can be subject + subject 2 + predicate •   我现在头疼 •   我嗓子不舒服 o   time can go before or after the subject o   what to a好d to § 好 (okay) § 好啊! (more excited okay) § 好吧 (…okay) o  多/少 + V (点儿) + N §   used to give advice •   天气很冷,多穿点儿衣服 § usin多 in different places have different meanings •   喝很多水 (observation: drinks a lot of water) •   多喝水 (advice: should drink water more often) § (also 要seand应该 to give advice) December 2, 2015 Chapter 12 (cont.) •   New Words o   xiū休息i (to rest) o   gǎn m感冒 (to have a cold) § 他感冒了 (He has a cold) o   fā s发烧o (to have a fever) o   fā 发炎n (to become inflamed) o   sh水ǐ(water) o   yà药 (medicine) §   zhōng中药ào (Chinese medicine) §   xī西药ào (western medicine) o   zhù y住院n (to be hospitalized) o   guá 挂号o (to register-at a hospital) o   yǒu di有点儿 (somewhat, a bit) •   Word Usage o  有点儿 vs一点儿 §   一点儿 •   S + V一点儿 + N o   used to measure •   S + V有点儿 + V/Adj o   dissatisfying o   给 §   to give •  他给她钱 (He gives her money.) §   preposition-indicates receiver of action (goes before verb) •  我给她买蛋糕 (I buy a cake for her.) o   想 §   to think §   want to •  我很想去中国 (I really want to go to China.) o   要 §   to want •  我要咖啡 (I want coffee.) §   to want/to need •  他要买药 (He wants to buy medicine) o   negate 不想th •  他要住院 (He needs to go to the hospital) o   negate不用ith o   yuà愿意yì §   expresses willingness December 4, 2015 Chapter 13 •   New Words o   fán房子zi(house) o   chú 厨房ng(kitchen) §   间W o个 o   cè 厕所ǒ (bathroom) o   wò 卧室ì (bedroom) o   kè 客厅ng(living room) o   zh找o(to look for) o   租ū(to rent) §房租 (the rent-for house) o   套ào(MW-for things that come in a set) o   gū n姑娘ng(girl) o   sàn散步ù (to take a walk-leisure) o   diàn电影ǐng(movie) §电 (electricity) §电影院 (movie theater) o   gào告诉u (to tell) §告诉 + subject + something •   告诉你我名字。 o   得é(to have, to get-sickness) o   gōn公司si(company) •   Sentence Structures o   Adj的+) + Noun §   most adjectives with more 的hais neededracter, •   漂亮的衣服 §   some one character a的jectives, drop •   好人 §   exception: 很多/很少 do的’t need •   很多人 o   V的+ + N (phrase, not a sentence) §   S +的V+ N • 做的蛋糕 (the baked cake) §   V +的O + • 你做的蛋糕 (the cake you baked) §   S + V 的 O + December 7, 2015 Chapter 13 (cont.) •   New Words o   tīng 听说uō(to be told, heard) o   s事儿r (matter, thing, affair) §   not interchang东西ble with o   j件àn(MW) §一件事儿 o   diàn电话uà (telephone) §打电话 (to make a phone call) §给妈妈打电话 (call Mom) o   wéi/喂è(hello-when answering phone) o   w位i ( a polite MW for persons) §哪位? (who’s calling?) o   bāng 帮助u (to help) o   rà让g(ask someone to do something) §让  + subject + verb + object •   妈妈让我买东西。 (Mom told me to go shopping.) o   qing 请 (similar to) §   politely ask someone to do something •   我请妈妈做蛋糕。 (I ask Mom to bake cake.) §   to treat someone to something §   please o   chī吃饭àn (to eat a meal) §饭  (meal, cuisine) o   jīn经历lǐ(manager) o   dě等g(to wait) o   b办n (to do-take care of some sort of business) §   办事 o   了e(indicates that an action happened) §   affirmative: •   S + Time + V + O(unm了dified) + §   negative: •   S + Ti没e(有 ) + V + O §   interrogative: •   S + Time + V了吗 O?+ •   S + Time + 了没有 O? •   S + Time 没 + V + O? §   exceptions •   S + 了 + # + MW + O •   S + 了 + Modifier + O •   S跟+ + Somebod在 + Location +了V+ O   December 9, 2015 Chapter 13 (cont.) •   kě n可能g (maybe) o 可能 vs.会 (indicate possibility) o   to ask about p你会不会去上课?ty: §会去 (will go) §可能去 (maybe will go) •   note了 on o   indicates completion of action; can be used in past or future o   if past action了iis not used §   don’t 每seo常常th o   when recounting a series of activ了toncein past, only use •  不 vs没有 o 不 -negate a frequent/habitual action, mental activity, opt verbs, adjectives o 没有 –nega有e, neg了tesentence (can’t indicate future)


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